Descriptive Gazetteer Entry for DURHAM

DURHAM, a city and a district in the county of Durham, and a diocese in the NE of England. The city stands on the river Wear, and on the Northeastern railway, 15 miles S by E of Newcastle-on-Tyne, and 258 miles by road, but 287 by railway, NNW of London. Railways, either going direct from itself, or deflecting at short distances from it, give it communication with Wolsingham, Barnard-castle, Darlington, Hartlepool, Sunderland, Newcastle, and places beyond.

History.—Durham was the Dunholme of the Saxons, signifying "the hill with the girdle of water;" changed, by the Normans, into Durême; and corrupted, by the moderns, into Durham. The city had an ecclesiastical origin. The monks of Lindisfarne, with Bishop Aldune at their head, were its founders. They had been expelled, by the Danes, from their original settlement: they had wandered, from place to place, between the neighbourhood of Berwick and the centre of Yorkshire, carrying with them the mortal remains of St. Cuthbert, the apostle of Northumbria; they had taken seat, for a time, at Chester-le-Street, and at Ripon; and about the year 995, they were again on their wanderings, returning to Chester-le-Street, when they supposed themselves to receive a Divine intimation to take permanent post on the site of the future city of Durham. Sir Walter Scott, narrating the posthumous history of St. Cuthbert, says, -

After many wanderings past,
He chose his lordly seat at last,
Where his cathedral, huge and vast,
Looks down upon the Wear.

A church, founded by the monks, to receive the mortal remains of St. Cuthbert, and to serve as the cathedral of a diocese, was the nucleus of the city. But a strong castle also was built by one of the bishops, probably before the time of the Norman conquest, and was rebuilt and extended by two subsequent bishops; a strong wall also was built around the shoulders of the eminence which formed the original city's site, enclosing a space of elliptical outline, and terminating abruptly on the north at the castle; and these gave the place a military character, suited to the turbulence of the early times, and made it a sharer in some of the great shocks of conflict which so frequently occurred. The town, as well by the natural strength of its site as by the artificial structure of its fortifications, had very considerable military capabilities; and it often, more or less, became the scene of warfare. It was besiged by Duncan of Scotland, in 1040. It was sacked, in punishment of Comyn's death, by William the Conqueror, in 1069. It was sacked again, in punishment of Walcher's murder, by Bishop Odo. Its suburbs were wasted, in 1312, by Bruce. It was visited by Edward III. in 1327, and again in 1333, after the battle of Halidon Hill. The Scots besieged it in 1346, and then sustained an utter defeat; and their king, David Bruce, was taken prisoner, with the loss of 15, 000 men, at a place about a mile to the west, where a magnificent cross was afterwards erected by Ralph, Lord Neville, to commemorate their overthrow. The city was captured by the insurgents under the Earl of Northumberland in 1569. It was seized by the Scots in 1640, and held by them till the following year. It was occupied by Cromwell after the defeat of the Scots in 1650; and then 3, 000 prisoners were put into the cathedral. The city was visited also by King John, in 1213; by Henry III., in 1244; by Edward I., twice; by Edward II., in 1322; by Edward IV., once; by Henry VI., in 1424, when his cousin Jane was married to James II. of Scotland, -and again in 1448, when he made an offering at St. Cuthbert's shrine; by Margaret, the daughter of Henry VII., in 1503; by James I., in 1603 and 1617; and by Charles I., in 1633 and 1639. The city likewise was made a mint town by Stephen; and it suffered devastation by the plague in 1416, 1589, and 1597. Many notable men are on the roll of its natives;-among others, Archbishop Sherwood, who died in 1249; Bishop Horn; John Hall, a poet and translator; Hegge, a divine; G. Smith, born in 1603, and editor of "Bede;" Lamb, the writer on chess; Grey, the author of "Memoria Technica;" the distinguished Granville Sharp, who died in 1813; the first Lord Auckland, who died in 1814; Surtees, the antiquary, who died in 1834; Morton, the dramatist, who died in 1838; Sir A. Carlisle, the surgeon, who died in 1840; and Sir R. K. Porter, the oriental traveller, who died in 1842. The city gives the title of earl to the family of Lambton.

Site and Aspect.—Durham is seated on a rocky eminence, almost encircled by the Wear; and, as to its shape, has been fancifully compared to a crab, -the market place representing the body, and the streets the claws. The approach to it, from any side, is pleasing; the general exterior appearance of it is unique and striking; the public edifices, prominent in the view, exhibit an unexpected degree of magnificence; and the general aspect, taken in connexion with the historical associations, has induced some warm imaginations, in defiance of all the real local features, to accept the place as a reproduction of the ancient capital of the Holy-Land. "He that hath seene the situation of this cittye, " says an old writer, "hath seene the map of Zion, and may save a visit to Jerusalem., " Certain streets called the Baileys, and the castle and the cathedral, stand within the remains of the ancient walls; and the objects here appear, in the exterior view, to rise one above another, till they culminate in the cathedral, which rises on the city's head like the mitre round the brow of its prelate. Below the city walls, on the one side, a slope descends to the river, adorned with gardens and woods; while, on the other, an acclivity ascends, rocky, steep, and high. Only an isthmus of not more than 200 paces in width prevents the ancient city from being completely insulated by the Wear: and even this may, not improbably, have once been crossed by a sluice or moat. Elvet township, with two streets, and many good houses, is separated from the east side of the peninsula only by the river; Framwell-gate township, consisting principally of a single street running northward from one of the bridges, sends off another suburb called Crossgate; and St. Nicholas parish, including a section of old town, with the principal shops, and extending itself along a street called Claypath up to St. Giles' parish, where a prolongation of ½ a mile takes place under the name of St. Giles'-gate, is separated by the river from the north side of the peninsula. Beautiful promenades or public walks, called the Banks, occur on both sides of the river, beyond the slope and the acclivity. "These celebrated walks, " says Warner, "accompany the bending of the stream, and command several interesting peeps at the city, and its august ornaments- the castle and cathedral. The banks, rocky and abrupt, on one hand, and sloping gently to the river on the other, darkened by a solemn depth of shade, sequestered and retired, in the immediate neighbourhood of a busy scene of society, afford a retreat of the most beautiful and agreeable nature. The variety of the scenes which they open also is remarkable, -deep glades and solemn dells, scarred rock and verdant lawn, sylvan glades and proud castellated edifices. From the elegant new bridge, the last mentioned feature is seen to great effect; the castle and cathedral blend their battlements and turrets together, and rise with inconceivable majesty from the sacred groves which clothe their rocky foundations. The combination here of trees and buildings, water and rock, home sylvan scenery and fine distance, is at once beautiful and grand." But the view from the churchyard of St. Giles-which lies very high, and commands unobstructed prospect to the south, with the battlements and towers of the castle prominent in the picture-is pre-eminently good.

Fair on the half-seen stream the sunbeams dance,
Grey towers of Durham; begirt by winding Wear,
Well yet I love thy mixed and passive pile,
Half church of God, half castle, 'gainst the Scot:
How fair between the Gothic turrets glance
Broad lights, and shadows fall on front and flank,
Where tower and buttress rise in martial rank,
And girdle in the massive donjon keep,
And from their circuit peals o'er bush and bank
The matin bell with summons long and deep
And echo answers still with long-resounding sweep,

Public Buildings.—The castle, on Palace-green, now occupied by the university, is principally Norman, but includes restorations and additions of various periods till the present time. The keep or tower of it crowns an artificial mound; is mainly ancient, of Norman character, but possesses features, in the form of the windows and in the summit of the buttresses, which are of 1ater date than Norman; forms an irregnlar octagon, of 63½ feet in the widest diameter, and 61 feet in the narrowest; and was, for some time, a mere shell, but has been restored to form college rooms. Its original elevation seems to have formed four storeys, exclusive of vaults; its angles are supported by buttresses; its summit had, all round, a parapet and an embattled breastwork, which were taken down in 1789; and its principal entrance was on the west side. A great hall, in the castle, was constructed about the middle of the 12th century, but went to decay; a still grander hall, recorded to have been 360 feet long, was afterwards constructed by Bishop Hatfield; and a later hall, formed out of that one, and still existing, measures 180 feet in length, 50 in width, and 36 in height; was the scene of an entertainment in 1827 to the Duke of Wellington, and contains numerous portraits of prelates and others. A gateway and tower, flanked on each side with a strong wall, were built on the side of Palace-green, by Bishop Tunstall; a large hall and other apartments were constructed by Bishop Cosin; a strong north gateway, adjoining the east side of the keep, defended by gate and portcullis, and eventually used as the county jail, was built by Bishop Langley; and other erections, reconstructions, or alterations, much modifying -the original castle group, have been done by various other parties till the present day. The exchequer, on the west side of Palace-green, and used by the bishops for their court of chancery, is a strong square edifice, erected about the year 1450 by Bishop Neville. The bishop's library, adjoining the exchequer, was built by Bishop Cosin. The law courts to the south of the library, once used for the assizes and the sessions, were partly raised by the same bishop, and partly built in 1791 or other years. The Palace-green is an open area on the northern part of the same rocky eminence as the cathedral; has the castle on its north side; and communicates, by an avenue, with the public walks on the banks of the river. Both the groupings of the edifices in it and the blendings of these with outward views, add much to the effect of the architectural features.

An elegant bridge, across the Wear, commanding one of the finest views of the city, has three arches, and was built in 1772-7, after designs by George Nicholson, in lieu of an ancient bridge, which was destroyed by a great flood in 1771. Elvet bridge has eight arches; was built by Bishop Pudsey, and repaired by Bishop Fox; and formerly had, either on it or adjoining it, two chapels dedicated to St. James and St. Andrew. Framwell-gate bridge was built, about 1120, by Bishop Flambard; is a noble and substantial structure for its time; and has two elliptical arches, of 90 feet in span, and so flat as to describe the quarter section of a circle. The Guildhall was built, in 1555 by Bishop Tunstall, -and rebuilt, in 1849-50, by P. Hardwicke; and contains portraits of Charles I. and Bishop Lord Crewe. The pant, or conduit, is a recent fountain in room of an ancient one, surmounted by a statue of Neptune; and receives its supply of water from an enclosed spring, about ½ a mile distant, granted for the use of the city, in 1450, by Thomas Billmgham of Crookhall. A beautiful ancient cross stood adjacent to the ancient pant, but was destroyed in 1781, to give place to a piazza, or corn-market; and the piazza, in its turn, was recently removed, and a new covered market was erected. The house of correction, county court-house, and new jail, situated in Elvet township, were built in 1809 and following years, at a cost of £140, 000. New assize courts were constructed in 1869, at a cost of about £5, 000. The music-hall, previously the theatre, was destroyed by fire in 1869. A masonic hall was built in 1869. A statue of the late Marquis of Londonderry was erected in 1861.

The Cathedral.—The original cathedral was consecrated by Bishop Aldune, in 999, and completed, by Bishop Edmund, in 1041. The present cathedral was founded by Bishop William of Calais, in presence of Malcolm, King of Scotland, in 1093; was extended and decorated, by various bishops from 1099 till 1437; under-went changes, at several periods, till the present century; and has been undergoing considerable restoration during the last few years. It was originally dedicated to St. Cuthbert, and continued to be so till the Reformation, but was then dedicated to Christ and St. Mary. It consists of a west chapel, or galilee, of five alleys and three bays; a nave of eight bays, with aisles; a transept, with three bays in each wing, and with six chantries forming an eastern aisle; a choir of five bays, with aisles; a chapel of the nine altars, of seven bays, forming a transeptal east front; and three towers, -two of them western, the other central. There are also a north-east porch, forming the principal entrance to the nave; a cloister, on the south side of the nave; a parlour, a chapter-house, and a deanery hall, on the east side of the cloister; a prior's chapel, with a crypt, south-east of the deanery hall; and a refectory and a dormitory, on respectively the south side and the west side of the cloister. The dimensions of the galilee are 80 feet from north to south, and 50 from east to west; of the nave, 235½ long, 81 feet wide, and 69½ fee t high; of the transept, 171¾ feet long; of the choir, 1791/3 feet long, 771/6 feet wide, and 76 feet high; of the chapel of nine altars, 129½ feet long, and 341/6 feet wide; of the entire church, exclusive of the galilee, 4135/6 feet long; of the western towers, 143 feet high; of the central tower, 34 feet wide and 2162/3 feet high; of the cloister, 146 feet long and 144 feet wide; of the chapter-house, 77 feet long, 34½ feet wide, and 35 high; of the refectory, 49 feet long and 30 wide; of the dormitory, 193½ feet long and 38 wide. The pile is built of the red stone of the neighbourhood; it shows better, in the exterior view, especially at a little distance, than most of the other cathedrals of England; and it presents fine studies of the Norman architecture, together with the gradual changes in the English style on to the beginning of the 15th century.

The galilee occupies the same relative position as St. Joseph's chapel at Glastonbury; was used for the reception of female penitents, and for preaching to women; took the name of galilee on account of women being supposed to occupy at Durham the same sort of relation which the ancient Galileans occupied to the purest Jews: was first built, in 1154, by Bishop Pusar; and has Norman arches under a band of reticulated work in the base tier, early English windows in the outer aisle, and central windows and battlement of the commencing part of the 15th century above the base tier. The nave, with the exception of the roof, was finished, early in the 12th century, by Bishop Flambard; its roof, with stone groining, was constructed upward of a century later, by Prior Melsonby; its principal compartments are divided by four piers 23 feet in circumference, -its other compartments, by pillars variously round, shafted, chevroned, reticulated, and fluted; its two westernmost bays are one-arched, -its other bays, two-arched; its triforium consists of double round-headed arches, resting on columns, and included in a large arch; and its clerestory consists of triple round-headed arches, the central one of larger span than the side ones. A font, in the south aisle, is adorned with incidents from the life of St. Cuthbert, and occupies the place of a sculptured and canopied one, set up in 1621 by Dean Hunt, and recently removed. The transept is of the same age as the nave; and the east aisle of it had chantries to Saints Nicholas and Giles, to St. Gregory, to St. Benedict, to Our Lady of Houghal, now used as the vestry, to St. Mary of Bolton, and Saints Faith and Thomas. The north transept has a very grand decorated six-light window; and on the east side is a square arcaded turret, -on the west side, a much larger turret, square below, octagonal and arcaded above. The south transept has a perpendicular window, with an arcade of round arches above it; and on the two sides are incomplete arcaded turrets. The choir shows characters from the earliest architectural period of the cathedral to the latest; the sides of it have each four pillars, -two clustered and two circular, with spiral channels; the aisles have decorated four-light windows; the south side of the triforium has very small, two-light windows under semi-circular truncated arches; the south side of the clerestory consists of single round-headed windows; the north side of the clerestory consists of three-light windows; and the bay forming the presbytery has a triforium of three-pointed arches with tooth-moulding under a pointed arch, and a clerestory of two highly ornate shafted lancets. The stalls were given, in the latter part of the 17th century, by Bishop Cosin, and are debased English; the throne is identical with a magnificent tomb of Bishop Hatfield, who flourished from 1343 to 1382; the pulpit was built by that bishop, and is of hexagonal form, with figures of apostles; the reredos was constructed at the expense of John Lord Neville, occupied the whole of the year 1380 in erection, consists of Caen stone, shows ten separate piers with intermediate tiers of canopied niches, and is finished off with five elaborately airy pinnacles; and the feretory or shrine of St. Cuthbert, is described by one who saw it, as having been "exalted with the most curious workmanship, of fine and costly green marble all limned and gilt with-gold. " The chapel of nine altars was built, in the first half of the 13th century, by Bishop Poore; is reached, from the aisles of the choir, by a descent of eight steps; took its name from nine altars in it to respectively Michael, Aidan and Helen, Peter and Paul, Martin and Edmund, Cuthbert and Bede, Oswald and Lawrence, Thomas of Canterbury and Catherine, John and Margaret, Andrew and Mary Magdalene; has walls arcaded with trefoiled arches; has also an inner arcade which adds to the depth of the windows, and whose every alternate column consists of black marble; and was undergoing a restoration in 1862, the marble portion of which alone was computed to cost £1, 000. The western towers have each four transitional arcades, alternately of round-headed and pointed arches; but the upper parts of them, or spires, belonged to the 13th century, and were removed in 1657; and the present battlements on them are modern. The central tower was begun by Bishop Poore, and finished in the 14th century. It rose to a battlemented parapet in two stories, divided by a rich band, -the lower one with lofty transomed, canopied, two-light windows, -the upper one with smaller canopied two-light windows, -the angles with double buttresses, crocketted pediments, and niched statuary; and it was restored in 1859-61, when the old work of it was preserved as much as possible, new buttresses were made to it, twenty-seven of its old statues which had been removed were replaced, and thirteen new ones added.

The cloister was begun in 1368, and finished about 1400; its windows have intersecting tracery; its east aisle retains the stone stalls where the daily almsmen sat; and its roof is of Irish oak, and flat but pannelled. The chapter-house was built in 1133-40, by Bishop Rufus; has an apsidal form; and was cut in two, in 1799, by Wyatt. The deanery was built in 1416-46, by Prior Wessington; but has, under its chapel, an early English crypt. The refectory was built by Prior Forcer, but has a Norman crypt under it; and was converted into a library, in 1680, by Dean Sudbury. The dormitory, under which were the song-school and the treasury, was built in 1398-1400.-The chief monuments in the cathedral are, in the galilee, the venerable Bede; in the nave, Bishop Langley, Ralph Lord Neville, Lady Neville, a son and daughter of Lord and Lady Neville, Bishop Neville, Prior Burnaby, and Dr. Britton; in the transept, Bishop Barrington; in the choir, Bishop Hatfield and Bishop Skirlaw; and in the chapel of nine altars, Bishop Van Mildert.-The shrine of St. Cuthbert, in the cathedral, was once the richest in the kingdom; and the offerings at it, from 1378 till 1513, are computed to have amounted to £66, 000. Nothing now remains to indicate its splendour but a hollowness in the stone-flooring adjacent to it, produced by the foot-pressure of the numerous pilgrims who visited it. The relics of St. Cuthbert are said to have been preserved at it till the Reformation; but were then buried beneath the floor at the place where they had been kept; and a large blue stone, in the centre of the floor, now indicates the spot where they were buried. An altar, set up in 1635, consisted of black branched marble, rested on six columns of touchstone, and was adorned with two double-gilt candlesticks. Several rich copes are recorded to have been used in the ancient services; one of embroidered crimson satin, embossed with silver, and figured with cherubim; another of black ground, wrought with gold, and figured with simulacra of various hues; one given by Queen Philippa, after the battle of Neville's Cross; and one figured with the head of Goliath in the hand of David, given by Charles I. Three copes of the 14th century, parts of the alleged vestments of St. Cuthbert, and an ivory comb and stole cross, are still preserved. The library contains also a Bible given by Bishop Pusar, a treatise on the Psalter given by Walter de Calais, the roll of Bede's history, and a number of other interesting manuscripts. -The deanery was formerly the prior's lodgings of a Benedictine priory, established by Bishop Carilepho, and dissolved at the Reformation. A kitchen still at it was the kitchen of the priory; is regarded as a master-piece of masonry; has an octangular form; measures 36 2/3 feet in diameter; and has a vaulted roof, with unique and curious groining.

Churches.—The livings in the city, or connected with it are St. Giles, St. Mary-le-Bow, St. Mary-the-Less, St. Nicholas, St. Oswald, St. Margaret, Belmont, and St. Cuthbert. St. Mary-1e-Bow and St. Mary-the-Less are rectories, and all the others are vicarages, in the diocese of Durham. Value of St. Giles, £180;* of St. Mary-le-Bow, £280; of St. Mary-the-Less, £119; of St. Nicholas, £240; of St. Oswald, £402;* of St. Margaret, not reported;* of Belmont, £150;* of St. Cuthbert, £300. Patron of St. Giles, and St. Nicholas, the Marchioness of Londonderry; of St. Mary-le-Bow, the Archdeacon of Northumberland; of St. Mary-the-Less, the Lord Chancellor; of St. Oswald, St. Margaret, and St. Cuthbert, the Dean and Chapter of Durham; of Belmont, alternately the Crown and the Bishop.-St. Giles' church was built in 1112, but has a tower of 1414; is long, narrow, and lofty, and without aisles; has six irregular windows on the south side, and two on the north side; and contains a recumbent wooden effigies, of about the end of the 16th century. St. Mary-le-Bow church, on the east side of the North Bailey, occupies a spot alleged to have been that on which the remains of St. Cuthbert were lodged when first brought to Durham; was preceded by a Saxon edifice, originally constructed of boughs or wicker; was itself built in 1685; and is a neat symmetrical structnre without aisles. St. Mary-the-Less church, in the South Bailey, contains a sculpture of Christ, of about the year 1200, and a coped tomb of a prior. St-Nicholas' church, on the south side of the market-place, . was originally built by Bishop Flambard; consisted of nave and aisles, with south-western square tower; contained the seats for the city corporation, and various city companies; and was rebuilt in an ornamental manner, in 1858. St. Oswald's church, in New Elvet, dates partly from 1196, and partly from 1411; consists of nave, chancel, and aisles; and has stall-work in the chancel, and a curiously-vaulted wooden roof. St. Margaret's church, in Crossgate, presents no remarkable feature. St. Cuthbert's church was built in 1863, at a cost of about £3, 000; is in the early pointed style, with some French forms and features; consists of nave, south aisle, and apsidal chancel, with north-western tower; and presents an appearance rather eccentric than beautiful. There are chapels for Independents, Quakers, Wesleyans, Primitive Methodists, New Connexion Methodists, and Roman Catholics.

Schools and Charities.—A university was established at Durham in the time of the commonwealth, but dissolved at the Restoration. Another university was founded at it, in 1833, by Bishop van Mildert, and received a royal charter in 1837. It occupies the castle, with the exception of apartments for the occasional use of the bishop; has a fine Norman chapel there as its church; and includes lodgings for twenty of the most distinguished students. It was endowed, on a liberal scale, with funds from various sources of the cathedral establishment; possesses 25 fellowships and 20 scholarships; is managed by a staff of professors, tutors, lecturers, and other officers, under the control of the dean and' chapter; and has the power of granting degrees in the several faculties. The Roman Catholic college of St. Aloysius, at Ushaw near the city, was built in 1806; is in the collegiate Gothic style, after designs by Pugin; measures, over all, about 250 feet by 240; comprises a principal front and two projecting wings, with a hall of 52 feet by 23 in the end of one wing, and a handsome chapel of 62 feet by 25 in the end of the other; and contains accommodation for professors and other officials, and for 90 students. The grammar-school, formerly in the cathedral-yard but now at the top of South-street, dates from the time of Henry VIII., and has attached to it six scholarships and six exhibitions. The blue-coat school, in Clay-path, is a spacious building of 1812, and has been supported by subscription, sometimes to the amount of upwards of £400 a year. Bishop Langley's school has £37; Bishop Cosin's alms-houses have £70; and Smith's charity for a work factory and the poor has £464. The endowed charities amount altogether to £908. A dispensary was established by subscription in 1785; this gave place, in 1792, to a commodious infirmary; and that was recently superseded by a noble county hospital.

Trade.—The trade of Durham has fluctuated, and seems never to have been proportionate to the advantages of the city's situation. The manufacture of carpets, paper, and leather, is carried on; the manufacture of hats and worsted-stuffs has ceased; the manufacture of mustard was formerly notable, and is still conducted on a small scale; and a trade in coal, arising from the city's vicinity to the great northern coal-field, may be regarded as the staple trade. A weekly market is held on Saturday; and fairs are held on 29, 30, and 31 March, on Whit-Tuesday, and on the Fridays before 13 May, 15 Sept., and 23 Nov. The city has a head-post office, ‡ a railway station with telegraph, two banking offices, and five chief inns; and publishes two weekly newspapers Races are run, at Elvet, at Easter.

The Borough.—Durham was first chartered by Bishop Percy, with sanction of Pope Alexander III.; and it has sent two members to parliament since the time of Charles II. Its municipal and parliamentary limits are conterminate; and include the parishes of St. Mary-le-Bow, St. Mary-the-Less, and St. Nicholas, the extra-parochial places of Castle Precincts, Durham College, and Magdalene Place, and parts of the parishes of St. Giles and St. Oswald. The borough is divided into three wards, and is governed by a mayor, 6 aldermen, and 18 councillors. The parliamentary constituency, in 1868, was 1, 149. The city is also the seat of assizes for the county, and of quarter sessions; is likewise a polling-place, and the place of election, for the northern division of the county; and is also the head of an excise collection. Real property, in 1860, of St. Mary-le-Bow, £5, 571; of St. Mary-the-Less, £859; of St. Nicholas, £13, 505; of College district, £18, 551; of St. Giles, £26, 660. Pop. in 1861, of St. Mary-le-Bow, 300; of St. Mary-the-Less, 106; of St. Nicholas, 2, 606; of Castle Precincts, 24; of Durham College, 62; of Magdalene Place, 18; of the borough part of St. Oswald, 8, 209; of the borough part of St. Giles, 2, 763. Pop. of the entire borough, in 1841, 14, 151; in 1861, 14, 088. Houses, 2, 007.

The District.—Durham district comprises two poor-law unions, -the union of Lanchester, containing the sub-districts of Lanchester and Tanfield, and the union of Durham, containing the sub-districts of St. Nicholas and St. Oswald. Lanchester sub-district contains the parish of Muggleswick, the township of Hedley-Hope in Brancepeth parish, and the townships of Billingside, Medomsley, Ebchester, Benfieldside, Healeyfield, Considecum-Knitsley, Ivestone, Greencroft, Holmside, Lanchester and Hamlets, Burnop and Hamsteels, Langley, Esh, Butsfield, and Cornsay, and the chapelry of Satley, in Lanchester parish. Tanfield sub-district contains the chapelry of Tanfield in Chester-le-Street parish, and the townships of Collierley and Kyo in Lanchester parish. St. Nicholas sub-district contains the parishes of St. Mary-le-Bow, St. Mary-the-Less, St. Nicholas, and St. Giles, the extra-parochial places of Castle-Precincts, Durham College, Magdalene Place, Whitwell-House, and Sherburn Hospital, the township of Shincliffe in St. Oswald parish, the townships of Sherburn, Pittington, and Shadforth, in Pittington parish, and the townships of Cassop, Quarrington, and Coxhoe in Kelloe parish. St. Oswald sub-district contains the parish of Kimblesworth, the township of Hett in Merrington parish, the townships of Brancepeth, Stockley, Willington, Tudhoe, and Brandon and Byshottles in Brancepeth parish, and the townships of Sunderland-Bridge, Broom, Crossgate, Framwellgate, and Elvet in St. Oswald parish. Acres of the district, 98, 368. Poor-rates in 1862, £13, 408. Pop. in 1851, 55, 951; in 1861, 70, 274. Houses, 12, 641. Marriages in 1860, 511; births, 2, 832, -of which 164 were illegitimate; deaths, 1, 427, -of which 635 were at ages under 5 years, and 29 at ages above 85. Marriages in the ten years 1851-60, 4, 805; births, 25, 583; deaths, 14, 245. The places of worship in 1851 were 29 of the Church of England, with 7, 641 sittings; 1 of Independents, with 450 s.; 2 of Baptists, with 150 s.; 2 of Quakers, with 375 s.; 30 of Wesleyan Methodists, with 5, 948 s.; 3 of New Connexion Methodists, with 347 s.; 19 of Primitive Methodists, with 2, 833 s.; and 5 of Roman Catholics, with 1, 094 s. The schools were 38 public day schools, with 3, 817 scholars; 47 private day schools, with 1,865 s.; 62 Sunday schools, with 5, 702 s.; and 3 evening schools for adults, with 58 s. The Lanchester workhouse is in Lanchester township; and the Durham workhouse is in Crossgate.

The Diocese.—The bishopric of Durham, as we formerly saw, sprang remotely from that of Lindisfarne, and was founded about the year 995. The bishops long possessed extraordinary dignity, and wielded nearly all the authority in their diocese which the king did in other parts of England. They were Counts-Palatine of Durhamshire, and Earls of Sadberge. They created barons, appointed judges, convoked parliaments, levied taxes, and coined money. All tenures of land were held under them as lords-paramount; all estates losing title, and all moors or wastes to which no title could be made, became theirs; the admiral jurisdiction over the neighbouring seas was theirs; the courts of justice were held in their name; and the right of granting pardons, of instituting markets, and of giving charters was part of their prerogative. These extraordinary powers were curtailed in the time of Henry VII., and abrogated in that of William IV. Some of the most notable of the bishops were Flambard and Poore, already noticed in connexion with the cathedral; Rufus, who was Lord Chancellor; Pusar, who purchased the earldom of Northumberland; Bek, who fought at the battle of Falkirk; Bury, who founded the University library at Oxford; Hatfield, who fought at the siege of Calais; Fordham, who was Lord Privy Seal; Skirlawe, who was Lord Keeper; Langley, who was Lord Chancellor; Bainbridge and Wolsey, who became cardinals; Foxe, the founder of Corpus Christi college; Ruthal, the avaricious; Pilkington, the morose; Neale, the ambitions; Morton, the venerable; Cosin, the learned; Lord Crewe, the benevolent; Talbot, satirised by Wharton for his martial habit; Butler, styled the saint-like; and Van Mildert, the munificent.

The cathedral establishment includes the bishop, the dean, six canons, three archdeacons, twenty-two honorary canons, six minor canons, and a chancellor. The income of the bishop is £8, 000; of the dean, £3, 000; of each of four of the canons, £1, 000; of two of the arch-deacons, £210 and £213. The bishop's residence is Auckland Castle. The income of the chapter is £57, 801. -The diocese comprehends all Durhamshire, all Northumberland, and the parish of Alston; and is divided into four archdeaconries. Pop. in 1861, 858, 095. -Many of the livings have recently been raised in status, and some divided; but all shall be named here as they stood in 1862.

The archdeaconry of Durham comprises the deaneries of Chester, Darlington, Easington, and Stockton. The deanery of Chester contains the rectories of Boldon, Edmond-byers, Gateshead, Gateshead-Fell, Ryton, Washington, Whickham, Whitburn, Winlaton, and Kimbleworth; the vicarage of St. Oswald-Durham; and the p. curacies of Chester-le-Street, Birtley, Eighton - Banks, Lamesley, Lumley, Pelton, Tanfield, St. Margaret-Durham, Hunstanworth, Trinity-Gateshead, St. Edmunds-Gateshead, Jarrow, Heworth, Windy-nook, Lanchester, Benfieldside, Castleside, Collierley, Consett, Ebchester, Esh, Leadgate, Medomsley, Satley, Monkwearmouth, All Saints-Monk-wearmouth, Southwick, South Shields, Westoe, Holy Trinity-South Shields, St. Stephen-South Shields, Stella, Usworth, Witton-Gilbert, and Sacriston. The deanery of Darlington contains the rectories of Brancepeth, Haughton-le-Skerne, Middleton-in-Teesdale, Winston, and Wolsingham; the vicarages of Aycliffe, Cockfield, Staindrop, Coniscliffe, Gainford, Heighington, and Merrington; and the p. curacies of Auckland-St. Andrew, Byers-Green, Coundon, Escomb, Etherley, Evenwood, Fir-Tree, Lynesach-with-Softley, Hunwick, Hamsterley, Shildon, St. Helen, Witton-le-Wear, Crook, Willington, Ingleton . St. John, Darlington-St. Cuthbert, Darlington-St. John, Darlington-Trinity, Barnard-Castle, Denton, Whorlton, Sadberge, Ferryhill, Egglestone, Forest, Harwood, East-gate, Frosterley, Rookhope, Heatherycleugh, Weardale-St. John, Stotfield - Burn, Whitworth, and Tow-Law. The deanery of Easington contains the rectories of Durham-St. Mary-le-Bow, Durham-St. Mary-the-Less, Easington, Hetton-1e-Hole, Houghton-le-Spring, Painshaw, Rainton, Sunderland, and Bishops-Wearmouth; the vi-carages of Dalton-le-Dale, Kelloe, Monk-Hesleten, Pit-tington, and Seaham; and the p. curacies of Castle-Eden, Wingate-Grange, Seaham-Harbour, Durham-St. Giles, Durham-St. Nicholas, Belmont, Croxdale, Shotton, South Hetton, Haswell, Herrington, Newbottle, South Hylton, Thornley, Shadforth, New Seaham, Trimdon, Ford, Hendon, Ryhope, Deptford-St. Andrew, and Deptford-St. Thomas. The deanery of Stockton contains the rectories of Low Dinsdale, Egglescliffe, Elton, Elwick-Hall, Hurworth, Long Newton, Middleton, Redmarshall, Sedgfield, and Staynton-le-Street; the vicarages of Billingham, Bishopton, Greatham, Grindon, Hart, Bishops-Middleham, Norton, Sockburn, Stockton-on-Tees, and Stranton; and the p. curacies of Haverton-Hill, Wolviston, Hart-Trinity, West Hartlepool, Stockton-Trinity, and Seaton-Carew.

The archdeaconry of Lindisfarne comprises the deaneries of Alnwick,Bambrough, Morpeth, Norham, and Rothbury. The deanery of Alnwick contains the rectory of Howick; the vicarages of Edlingham, Embleton, Felton, Lesbury, Long Houghton, Shilbottle, and Warkworth; and the p. curacies of Alnwick, Bolton, Rennington, Rock, Framlington, Long Framlingham, South Charlton, Acklington, and Chevington. The deanery of Bambrough contains the rectory of Ilderton; the vicarages of Chatton, Chillingham, Eglingham, Ellingham, Kirknewton, and Wooler; and the p. curacies of Bambrough, Bednell, Lucker, Belford, and Doddington. The deanery of Morpeth contains the rectories of Bothal, Sheepwash, Meldon, Morpeth, and Whalton; the vicarages of Bolam, Hartburn, Long Horsley, Mitford, and Woodhorn; and the p. curacies of Heyburn, Nether-Whitton, Cambe, Ulgham, Widdrington, Horton, New-biggen, and Widdington. The deanery of Norham contains the rectory of Ford; the vicarages of Berwick-upon-Tweed, Branxton, and Norham; and the p. curacies of Ancroft, Scremerston, Cornhill, Carham, -Holy-Island, Kyloe, Lowick, and Tweedmouth. The deanery of Rothbury contains the rectories of Elsdon, Ingram, and Rothbury; the vicarages of Alnham, Allenton, and Whittingham; and the p. curacies of Hallystone, Byrness, and Horsley.

The archdeaconry of Northumberland comprises the deaneries of Bellingham, Corbridge, Hexham, and New-castle-upon-Tyne. The deanery of Bellingham contains the rectories of Bellingham, Falstone, Graystead, Simonburn, Thorneyburn, and Wark; the vicarages of Chollerton, Corsenside, Kirk-Harle, and Kirk-Whelpington; and the p. curacies of Birtley, Humshaugh, and Thockrington. The deanery of Corbridge contains the vicarages of Bywell-St. Andrew, Bywell-St. Peter, Corbridge, Heddon-on-the-Wall, and Stamfordham; and the p. curacies of Whittonstall, Halton, Ovingham, Mickley, Shotley, Slaly, Ryal, and Matfen. The deanery of Hexham contains the rectories of Kirkhaugh, Knaresdale, and Whitfield; the vicarages of Allendale, Haltwhistle, and Warden; and the p. curacies of Allenhead, Allendale-St. Peter, Nine-Banks, West Allen, Beltingham, Greenhead, Featherstone, Hexham, Kirkheath, Lambley, St. John-Lee, Newborough, and Haydon-Bridge. The deanery of Newcastle-upon-Tyne contains the vicarages of Bedlington, Earsdon, Long Benton, Newburn, Newcastle, Ponteland, Stannington, and Tynemouth; the p. curacies of Cambois, Choppington, Cramlington, Seghill, Dinnington, Seaton-Delaval, Walker, Sugleyfield, Newcastle-All Saints, Newcastle-Christ-Church, Newcastle-St. Andrew, Newcastle-St. John, Newcastle-St. Paul, Newcastle-St. Thomas, Newcastle-St. Anne, Newcastle-St. Peter, Byker, Gosforth, Jesmond, Benwell, High Elswick, Cullercoates, Low Town, Percy, Tynemouth-St. Saviour, Tynemouth-Trinity, Wallsend, Howden-Pans, and Willington; and the donative of Blyth.


(John Marius Wilson, Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales (1870-72))

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Feature Description: "a city and a district"   (ADL Feature Type: "cities")
Administrative units: Durham CP       Durham PLU/RegD       County Durham AncC
Place: Durham

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