Picture of Thomas Pennant

Thomas Pennant

places mentioned

Luton to Hatfield

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Luton Ho , the seat of that1 nobleman, lies near the London road; about three miles from the town. I lament my inability to record his taste and magnificence; but alas! the useful talent,2 Principibus placuisse viris , has been unfortunately denied to me. I must therefore relate the antient story of the favored spot. In the twentieth of Edward I. it was possessed by Robert ,3 who took the addition of de Hoo , from the place; which signifies a high situation. His grandson, Thomas , was created Lord Hoo and Hastings , by Henry VI. in 1447. He, if no mistake is made in the account, settled two parts of the tithes on the abbey of St. Alban's , for the use of strangers. Lord Hoo left only daughters. From one, who married Sir Geofry Bullen , was descended Queen Elisabeth . I do not discover the time in which the tower in Luton Park was built. It is an antient structure, of flint and Tottenhoe stone intermixed.

ABOUT two miles to the north-east of Luton Hoo , is the village of Sommeris , where, as Leland informs us, Lord Wenlock had begun sumptuously a house, but never finished it: that the gatehouse of brick was very fair and large. The gateway and part of a tower are yet to be seen. In the last are fourteen or fifteen brick steps; and there was originally a hole, or rather pipe, which conveyed the lowest whisper from bottom to top. Part of this, and of the other building, was pulled down by Sir John Napier , about forty years ago. Leland also acquaints us, that these estates of Lord Wenlock passed, by marriage of an heir general4 of his, to a relation of Thomas Scot , alias Rotherham , archbishop of York from 1480 to 1500: a prelate remarkable for nepotism, and the preferment of his kindred by marriage, and other ways.5 This family assumed the name of Rotherham , and flourished here for some centuries. John was sheriff of the county in the seventeenth of Edward IV. and others, in after-times, enjoyed the same honor.6 Luton Hoe and this place became the property of the Napiers ; from them they passed to Mr. Hearn , who sold them to the Earl of Bute .

FROM Luton I pursued my journey southward: entered


and near the twenty-sixth mile-stone, passed through the village of Hardin , or Harpedon , and by its chapel, dependent on Whethamsted . This manor belonged, in 1292, to Robert Hoo , and continued in his line till the death of Thomas Lord Hoo and Hastings , about the latter end of the reign of Henry VI.; when it devolved to his three daughters.7 The manor was sold soon after their marriages to Matthew Cressy , in the time of Edward IV. It continued in his line till the reign of Queen Elizabeth , when, by the marriage of a female descendant, it fell to the Bardolfs. Richard Bardolf sold it to Sir John Witherong , created baronet in 1662; and it is now possessed by John Bennet , Esquire.

ABOUT four miles from this village, passed through St. Peter's street, in St. Alban's , and turning towards the east, after a ride of about five miles, reach the small town of Hatfield , prettily seated on a gentle ascent. Its Saxon name was Haethfeld , from its situation on a heath. The important synod, held during the heptarchy, at the instance of Theodore , consecrated archbishop of Canterbury in 668, in which the most interesting tenets of Christianity were declared and confirmed,8 is generally supposed to have been held at a place of the same name in Yorkshire. Hatfield was part of the revenues of the Saxon princes, till it was bestowed by Edgar on the monastery of Ely . At the time of the Conquest, it was found to be in the possession of that great house; in which it continued, till that abbey was converted into a bishopric, in the reign of Henry I. It then became one of the residences of the prelates; for they had not fewer than ten palaces belonging to the see;9 and from that circumstance was called Bishop's Hatfield , to distinguish it from other places of the same name. It probably fell into decay during the long wars between the houses of York and Lancaster ; for I find it was rebuilt and ornamented by Bishop Morton , in the reign of Henry VII.10 Among the shameful alienations made from the bishopric of Ely , by Queen Elizabeth (by virtue of the imprudent statute, which gave her power of exchanges over all) must be included the manor of Hatfield . The palace had at times been an occasional royal residence, notwithstanding it was the property of the church. William , second son of Edward III. was born herein 1335, and was called, from that circumstance, William of Hatfield . Queen Elizabeth resided here many years before she came to the crown;11 and, on the death of her predecessor, removed from hence, on the 23d of November , to take possession of the throne. This place did not continue long a part of the royal demesne. James I. in the fifth year of his reign, exchanged it for Theobalds , with his minister, Sir Robert Cecil , afterwards Earl of Salisbury ; who built, on the site of the palace, the magnificent house now standing; and inclosed two large parks, one for red, the other for fallow deer. At the bottom of the first was a vineyard, in being when Charles I. was conveyed there a prisoner to the army.12

THE building is of brick, and of vast extent, in form of an half H. In the center is an extensive portico of nine arches: over the middlemost rises a lofty tower, on the front of which is the date 1611, and three ranges of columns of the Tuscan, Doric , and Composite orders. Between the second are the arms of the family, in stone.13

IN the chapel is a small antient organ; a fine window of stained glass, in twelve copartments; and a gallery, on the front of which are painted the twelve apostles.

SINCE the publication of the foregoing sheets, the grounds have been improved with great judgment, according to the present taste. The house has undergone a complete repair, consistent with the original style, under the conduct of Mr. Donowell the architect. The pictures have been repaired by Mr. Tomkins , and disposed from the former dispersed state into the several apartments; and the splendor of this noble family is reviving with all the magnificence of the Cecils .

THE roof of the hall is supported from the sides with lions, each holding a shield of family arms; the gallery by grotesque figures: a bad taste not having been quite extinct at the period in which this house was built. On the cieling are copartments with profiles of the Caesars . Over the fire place is a painting of a great clumsy grey horse, given by Queen Elizabeth to Sir Robert Cecil ; a sign that our breed was at that time far from excellent.

ON the posts of the grand stair-case are figures of lions, and naked boys with musical instruments.

IN the breakfast room is a portrait of Robert Dudley Earl of Leicester , the unmerited favorite of Queen Elizabeth . His hair and beard are represented grey, his gown black, his vest white and gold; on his head a bonnet, and by him his white rod as steward of the queen's household.

SIR Simon Bennet of Bechampton , in the county of Bucks , knight. His dress is that of a magistrate in a robe furred, and ornamented with a gold chain: he has on a ruff, and high hat. He died in 1631; was uncle to Simon Bennet , who was his heir, and whose daughter Frances married James , fourth Earl of Salisbury . The date on this picture is aet. 70. 1611.

HIS lady in a great ruff, red dress furred; gold chain, jewels on her breast, and with a feathered fan set in silver.

A HEAD of Francis de Coligni , Lord of Dandelot . Short hair and short divided beard, with gilt armour. He wag' youngest son of the first Gaspar de Coligni , Marshal of France , by Louise de Montmorenci . He was brother to the famous admiral who perished in the massacre of Paris . He served during the wars of Italy and Picardie in the reign of Henry II. and was made colonel-general of the infantry in 1555. By his intercourse with the protestants in Germany he adopted their opinions. He acted under his brother when besieged at St. Quintin ; and afterwards assisted at the taking of Calais . In 1558, he was closely questioned by the king respecting his religion, but having too high a spirit to conceal his sentiments, he was committed to prison: on his release he joined the Huguenots , and died in 1569, aged 48, not without suspicion of being poisoned; leaving behind the character of a great soldier, of great genius, activity and enterprize.

THE subtle Gondamar appears here a three quarters piece. A thin figure with a spirited look; dressed in black, with a high hat. The most versatile man of his time; out-drank a king of Denmark ; was gallant among the ladies; a speaker of false Latin to King James , that the princely pedagogue might have the pleasure of correcting him; and finally, was hardy enough to assure the Earl of Bristol , our ambassador at Madrid , that he was an Englishman in his heart; adroitly deceived all, and most effectually made our monarch his dupe. He died in 1625 at Bommel in Guelderland ; sent, as was supposed, to propose the surrender of the Palatinate, and conciliate matters; and bring on a peace between his master and our pacific court.

Ambrose Dudley Earl of Warwick , eldest surviving son of Dudley Duke of Northumberland . Condemned with his father, but restored in blood: took to a military life; was appointed by Queen Elizabeth Master of the Ordnance, Earl of Warwick , and elected Knight of the Garter; and had the more substantial favor of a grant of the castle, manor, and borough of Warwick , forfeited by his father. He died in the year 1589, and lies beneath an elegant tomb in Warwick church.

LORD Burleigh and his son Robert , afterwards Earl of Salisbury , are in one piece, half-lengths; each with a blue ribbon and white rod. The father in a bonnet; the son respectfully bare-headed. This picture must have been drawn after the death of Burleigh , for the son had neither the ribbon or the white rod till long after the death of his father. Here is besides a half-length of the latter, in black, with the George pendent to a chain; a bonnet and white rod: also a third in his robes with a white beard, and the motto, Cor unum, via una , truly expressive of the integrity of his character.

A PORTRAIT of the famous Jaqueline Dutchess of Hainault , only daughter of William Duke of Hainault , in her advanced life: a very ugly old woman, in black ermine, and a cap worked with lions, alluding to the arms of her country of Hainault , which are, or, a lion rampant sable. This lady passed through a variety of adventures: was first married to John of France , Dauphin of Vienne , and son of Charles VI. She afterwards espoused John Duke of Brabant , cousin-german to Philip the good Duke of Burgundy . After living ten months with John , she eloped, and was conveyed into England by Sir —— Robsart knight, where she married (her husband still alive), the good Humphry Duke of Glocester . She after that raised forces to maintain her dominions for this favoured husband, who was obliged to desert her on the Pope, Martin V. disannulling this adulterous connection. She then gave her hand to Francis Lord of Borselle and Count of Ostrevant , Knight of the Golden Fleece; on which Philip Duke of Burgundy arrested him, end in the end Jaqueline was obliged to ransom him by the cession of her estates to this good duke, her cousin-german. Soon after which she died of grief, in 1436. On the portrait is this inscription:

Vrow Jacobea van Beiren gravana van Holland. Starf . 1436.

A PORTRAIT of Queen Elizabeth , richly dressed. On the table is a great sword, as if she was sitting ready to confer the honor of knighthood: a spotted ermine, with a crown on its head and collar round its neck, is represented running up the arm of her highness. This little beast is an emblem14 of chastity, and placed here in compliment to the virgin queen.

THE next portrait is on wood, of a princess of high rank, celebrated for her piety and great austerity. The love of her people, or the love of power, might determine the spirited Elizabeth to shun the nuptial bed. Margaret Countess of Richmond , with equal mental purity, did not pique herself (virtuous as she was) on any such romantic ideas. The pious prelate Fisher , to whom she entrusted her conscience, gravely tells us, she accepted her first husband, Edward Earl of Richmond , at the instance of St. Nicholas , patron of virgins, who appeared to her in a dream. We are not told at whose recommendation she took Sir Henry Stafford , and Thomas Earl of Derby ; for she liked the state matrimonial so well, as afterwards to accept the, hands of both. She signalized herself during life by her piety, charity, humility, and chastity. The first appeared in her rigorous attendance on the duties of the church, and her admittance into the fraternity of five religious houses. The second, in her noble foundations of Christ College , and that of St. Johns in Cambridge , besides a number of other great deeds of charity. The third, in her declaration, that, "if the princes of Christendom would undertake a crusade, she would chearfully be the laundress to the army:" and then for her chastity! In her last husband's days she obtained a licence from him to live chaste, and after his death made the marvellous self-denying vow in the presence of Bishop Fisher , the year after her grand climacteric, in words and form below given;15 for this reason she is usually painted in the habit of a nun, and is here represented veiled.

IN this room is the very curious picture on board, representing some of the amusements of the court of Henry VIII., who frequently relaxed his savage disposition in little progresses about the neighborhood of his capital. This appears to have been in the spring of the year 1533; for Halle says,16 that "this seasone the kynge kepte his progresse about London , because of the quene;" which means on account of Queen Anna Bullen's being then pregnant. Accordingly we see Henry , with his royal consort,17 in the condition described, at a country wedding, fair, or wake, at some place in Surrey , within sight of the Tower of London . In the back ground is an open room, in a temporary building, with the table spread. At the entrance appears a man, seemingly Henry's favorite, Charles Brandon , Duke of Suffolk , inviting them in.

THERE are great numbers of other figures; many of which appear to have been portraits. In one group, is a lady with a gold chain, between two men with white beards. The utmost festivity is exhibited. There are four fidlers, and a number of dancers. Behind the king, is his 'squire, carrying the dagger and buckler; and near Henry are a boy and a girl.

OTHER figures are a man on foot, with a buckler on his back: a yeoman of the guard, in red, with a rose and crown on his breast: a person very much resembling Cranmer , who, at this period, was in high favor, appears with another, walking on each side of a young lady: five figures on horseback; the first with a hawk on his hand, and a portmanteau before him; the second, on a bay horse, followed by a lady on horseback; after her, a cavalier, with another lady behind him.

A BEAUTIFUL painting of a Madonna and the Child by Rubens , concludes the list of pictures in this room.

IN the drawing-room are heads of that gloomy pair, Queen Mary and Philip II.

A PORTRAIT of Charles Gerard , Baron Gerard of Brandon , created Earl ef Macclesfield in 1679; he died January 7th, 1694. He is dressed in black, in a sitting attitude, with his head on his breast; a close coif on his head, a turnover on his neck, and with grey hair and beard. He was a brave and successful commander on the side of Charles in the civil wars; yet, notwithstanding his zeal for the royal cause, he was one of the persons who thought it his duty to present the Duke of York , in the King's Bench, as a Popish recusant: in which he thought he did his country equal service, as when he bled in the field in support of regal authority. It is thus, that sometimes Tories are taken for Whigs, or Whigs for Tories, when they censure the deed of their party disgraceful to morality, or adopt a measure urged by the opposite, which they may think essential to the interests of the community. An honest man cannot be a partizan.

THE Duc de Guise , called Le Balafre , or the slashed, from a scar on his left cheek, occasioned by a wound he received in the battle of Thierri against the Huguenots . He is dressed in black with a blue ribbon; his beard peaked. He was a prince of great military talents; and by his success, the most popular leader of the league; by his insolence and his turbulent disposition, he became dangerous to the state. He was grown too potent to be taken off by the ordinary means of justice. It was determined, by his king Henry III. that he should be assassinated. No notice from his friends could prevent him from rushing on his fate. The beautiful Noirmoutier went to him at Blois for that purpose, and passed the last night in his arms. He fell the next day by the poinards of a select party of the guards, on December 23d, 1588, at the age of 38. His brother the cardinal was killed the next day; and both their bodies reduced to ashes, least the tragical sight should excite the people, by whom Guise was idolized, to rise into open rebellion.18

JANE, the mother of lord treasurer Burleieh , and daughter and heir of William Heckington , of Bourn , in the county of Lincoln . She died March 10th 1587, far advanced in years, and was buried at Stamford . She is sitting, dressed in black, with a stick in her hand, and represented blind and very decrepid. This portrait has hitherto been mistaken for the wife of the treasurer.19

AS a contrast, in the same room, is a head by Lely , of the profligate, rapacious Dutchess of Cleveland , the well known mistress of Charles II. To stamp the utmost infamy on her, no more need be added, than that she contributed to the ruin of the virtuous Clarendon , who, with a generous pride, scorning to stoop to so worthless a character, incurred her insatiable revenge.

A BEAUTIFUL picture, by Kneller , of a dowager countess of Salisbury , sitting in her weeds in an easy attitude, pensive, with her arms across. This lady was Frances , daughter to Simon Bennet , esq. and relict to James fourth Earl of Salisbury . She died in 1713.

A MOST charming picture, by Vandyck, of Algernon Earl of Northumberland, of Ann , his first wife, daughter of William second Earl of Salisbury , and of one of their daughters, a child in white. Both Earl and Countess are in black: he standing, lady sitting. His abilities as a seaman are well known. He took the side of liberty at the beginning of the civil wars, but soon grew weary of counsels which he foresaw tended to the subversion of the state. After the unsuccessful treaty of Uxbridge , in which he acted as first commissioner for the parlement, he had the charge of the king's children till they effected their escape. After the murder of the king, he retired to Petworth , till the Restoration, which he was active in promoting; he received several honorary acknowledgements, when he returned again into retirement, and died in 1668, aged 66.

A LORD Cranburn , in yellow hair, dressed in black: a fine three quarters piece.

CATHERINE, daughter of the first Earl of Salisbury , and wife to Henry Earl of Cumberland ; light full hair, a kerchief over her neck; dressed in black, with coloured ribbons.

LORD Burleigh , by Zucchero , a three quarters. He is in his robes, a bonnet, and has a white beard.

A FULL-LENGTH on board, of Mary Queen of Scots, in a rich close cap, a long black mantle edged with white, reaching to the ground, and greatly distended, body black, sleeves striped, a small gold crucifix, a cross and rosary; beads of gold richly wrought, and set in rubies. The inscription,

MARIA D. G. Scotiae piissima regina Franciae dotaria. Anno
                aetatis regnique 36.
Anglicae captivitatis IO. S. H. 1573.

This very much resembles one I have seen in Scotland ; the inscriptions the same, only the dates on the latter are 36 and 1578, which is right, for she was born in 1542.

HER cruel rival, Queen Elizabeth , by Zucchero . A portrait extremely worth notice; not only because it is the handsomest we have seen of her, but as it points out her turn to allegory and apt devices. Her gown is close bodied; on her head is a coronet and rich egret, and a vast distended gauze veil: her face is young, her hair yellow, falling in two long tresses; on her neck, a pearl necklace: on her arms bracelets. The lining of her robe is worked with eyes and ears, and on her sleeve a serpent is embroidered with pearls and rubies, holding a great ruby in its mouth: all to imply vigilance and wisdom. In one hand is a rainbow, with the flattering motto. Non sine sole IRIS.

ROBERT, first Earl of Salisbury , in his robes, with his wand as Lord High Treasurer: short grey hair.

HENRY VIII. painted thinner than I ever saw, with a hooked nose; in a bonnet and feather, rich jacket, black cloak furred: the George pendent from a rich chain; his hand on his sword. A three quarters piece.

WILLIAM, second Earl of Salisbury , in black, with long hair, a star on his cloak, and a dog by him. He was captain of the band of gentlemen pensioners to Charles I. privy-counsellor and ambassador extraordinary to the court of France . He was one of those characters who preferred his own safety, to all other considerations. He had been in two reigns so supple a courtier, as to overact every thing he was required to do; no stretch of power was ever proposed, which he did not advance and execute with the utmost tyranny; but oh the first appearance of danger he deserted his royal master, fled to the parlement, and subscribed an engagement to be true to his new party, to whom he passively adhered: and on the usurpation, condescended to be a member in Cromwell's parlement. He ended his inglorious life in 1668, aged 78. This portrait and that of his son Charles , Viscount Cranbourn , who died in his father's life-time, are both by Lely .20

HENRY VI. onboard, in a close black cap; blue body, black sleeves ermine, rich chain: a meagre, meek, devout figure with his hands clasped. There is another picture of this prince at Kensington , from which Vertue made a print.

WILLIAM Herbert , third Earl of Pembroke , in a black dress, sitting: has a blue ribbon and purple hose.

RICHARD III. represented with three rings; one of which he is taking off or putting on his little finger. His countenance discredits the relation of his having been a handsome man.


HENRY VIII. in a gold vest, by Mabuse .

FAIR Rosamond , and her bowl: fictitious as to the painting.

THE head of Laura , in a furred robe with red sleeves, reading La Belle Laure , the celebrated object of love with the virtuous and elegant Petrarch , for the space of twenty one years before, and twenty six after her death; for he first saw her on April 6th 1327. She devoted herself to religion, and persuaded him to do the same. Laura died in the convent of the Cordeliers , in Avignon, April 6th, 1348: he in 1374, in Italy , his native country, to which he had retired, after the loss of the object of his affection. Her age was probably about 40, his 70; both of them became the subject of the finest pens for centuries after their death. Francis I. celebrates her memory in a beautiful epitaph. The tender and amorous Earl of Surrey made them the subjects of two sonnets he modestly yields the palm to Petrarch , but denies the superiority of beauty in Laura , in preference to his mistress, the fair Geraldine . The inscription on this picture is,

Laura fui; viridem Raphael fecit, atque Petrarcha .

ELIZABETH of York , in a rich crimson gold and ermine dress, with a red rose in her hand. She was eldest daughter to Edward IV. born at Westminster, February llth, 1466, promised in marriage to the Dauphin , son of Lewis IX. wooed by Richard III. red with the murder of her two innocent brothers, and, at length, married to that ungracious prince Henry VII. Happy only by that alliance, in giving peace to this kingdom, long visited with the scourge of civil war. She died on her birth day in 1502, and was interred with great pomp in Westminster abbey.

IN the room called my Lord's apartment, is the head of a Duc de Guise , with short brown hair and turnover, pale brown and red jacket; black cloak; a narrow blue ribbon. I believe him to have been Charles , son of Le Balafre . After the death of his father, he was imprisoned in the castle of Tours , from which he escaped, and made several fruitless attempts to resist the power of Henry IV. Struck with the virtues of that great prince, he returned, by the mediation of Sully , to his allegiance, and served the king with distinguished zeal, courage, and success. He died in the year 1640, aged 69.

HERE is the head of another Due de Guise. A thin, pale, long-faced figure, in a black dress; a bonnet with jewels, and a blue ribbon. Perhaps another Henry , second son to the former, who succeeded to the title.21

A HEAD of the enthusiastic assassin Ravaillac , is among these illustrious personages. His dress is black; on his head is a bonnet; his face is deformed by several stains of black, and other colours.

A HEAD of our great physician, doctor Sydenham , as noted for his charity and liberality, as his extraordinary skill in his profession. Among his other great merits, was his introducing the cool regimen in the small pox. Thousands have fallen a sacrifice to the neglect of it by his successors,22 till in our days it has been happily revived, to the preservation of thousands.

THOMAS, eldest son of the treasurer Burleigh , created Earl of Exeter by James I. in 1604. He was a nobleman of great merit, and shone equally in the field and in the tilt yard; distinguished himself in the wars of the Low Countries, and with his brother, Sir Robert , was a volunteer on board the fleet which destroyed the Spanish armada. His pious foundations were also very considerable. He died in February 1622, aged 80. His dress is a black cloak furred; a bonnet. In his hand is a glove. He has a white rod, and by his white beard, (which is divided) appears to have been advanced in life, at the time he was painted. I do not know his pretensions to the wand.

CATHERINE Cornaro Queen of Cyprus . I have given an account of this illustrious female in p. 502.

JAMES, the late and sixth Earl of Salisbury, , a head in crayons. He is in his robes, with full grey wig.

A VERY fine Madonna, after Corregio: and another, by Guido.

AN antique of Alexander's head. On the back of the helmet, is the face of Socrates . This was found in the park. It is set, and has round it a Saxon inscription. Possibly it might have been converted into an amulet, and used as such by an ignorant and superstitious people. In one of the apartments is a statue, in brass, of James I.

IN the coffee-room is a painting of Hatfield , before it underwent any alteration.

IN King James's dining-room, is a full-length of that lunatic hero, Charles XII. in his blue cloaths and boots.

HIS illustrious rival, Peter the Great: a full-length, in armour, with a rich robe over it; at a distance a view of a fleet.

LADY Sondes in grey, sitting; by old Stone . She was wife of Sir Gregory Sondes , of Leescourt , in the county of Kent , afterwards created Earl of Feversham .

PRESENT Earl of Salisbury in his robes, by Romney , and his lady in yellow by Reynolds , the latter is engraved.

A VERY good portrait of Charles I. in a grey jacket and boots, with the blue ribbon tied under his arm, instead of being pendent, a mode begun in his reign. This is said to have been the dress in which he set out for Spain , on his romantic courtship.

MARGARET Countess of Salisbury , wife to James the third Earl. A half-length in blue, with flowers in her hand; by Lely .

MARY Queen of Scots , full-length.

CHRISTOPHER de Harlay , count Beaumont , ambassador from Henry IV. to Queen Elizabeth in her last year, and the first of her successor. He was a nobleman of great personal merit, and an able negotiator. He is painted as a tall thin man, in a dark jacket with white sleeves, and a great ruff, aet . 34, 1605, the year in which he concluded his embassy. He died governor of Orleans in 1615.

THE gallery is a hundred and sixty-two feet long, with two great wooden chimney pieces on the sides, and the same at each end. Here is preserved a small and very anticnt organ.

THE library is fifty eight feet and a half by twenty six. Over a vast marble chimney-piece is a portrait, in mosaic, of the first Earl of Salisbury , with grey hair, aet . 48. The room is hung with the original gilt leather.

IN the winter dining-room, (for this vast house hath both its winter and summer apartments), is a three quarters piece of Thomas , sixth Earl of Thanet , in his robes, and a great full-bottom black wig; and another portrait, by Lely , of his lady, in blue with a red mantle, and dark hair. They were connected to this family by the marriage of their daughter Anne with James , fifth Earl of Salisbury .

JAMES third Earl of Salisbury , a full-length, in his robes of the garter; a full-bottom wig, with hat and feather on a table. He was called to the council board in 1679, elected knight of the garter in 1680; measures merely of policy to deceive the people into a notion of a change of measures. Other popular leaders received marks of favor from the court, but to no sort of effect, for the earl not only voted for the exclusion bill, but even seconded the violent Shaftesbury's motion for the king's divorcing his queen, and taking another from a protestant house. He died in 1683.

His lady Margaret Manners , daughter of John Earl of Rutland ; a full-length, in brown, with a blue mantle.

A BEAUTIFUL picture of a Lady Latimer , in brown, with a blue mantle: with her hands clasped, reading; by Lely . She was daughter and co-heiress of Simon Bennet , of Bechampton co. Bucks , esquire; wife of Edward Osborne , Lord Latimer , eldest son of Thomas , Earl of Danby , and sister of Frances , wife of James , fourth Earl of Salisbury .

A LADY in a loose dress and green mantle: a three-quarters piece, sitting. This I believe to be the beautiful Lady Ranelagh , daughter of James , third Earl of Salisbury , and second wife to Richard Jones , Earl of Ranelagh . She was first married to the elder brother of the last Lord Stawel , who piqued himself on having the finest woman, horse, and house in England . He had begun the last, but died before it was half finished. Lady Ranelagh is among the beauties at Hampton Court . In the decline of her beauty, she never would be seen but by candle light.

I MISSED in this visit, a picture very worthy of preservation, a head of John Frobenius, by Holbein . He is dressed in a black gown, lined with fur. Frobenius was a native of Franconia ; but settled at Basil in Switzerland , of which city he became a citizen. He was a man of considerable learning, and the finest printer of his time. Erasmus resided a long time with him, attracted by his personal merit and his admirable skill in his profession; for to him we are indebted for the most beautiful edition of the works of his illustrious friend. Frobenius died in 1527, and was honored by the same hand with two epitaphs, one in Greek , the other in Latin .

NEITHER did I find the picture inscribed Frederic P. la gra, de Dieu comte Palatyn de Ryk . Small, and in an ermined cap, in his hands two covered dishes, with a napkin over them. I believe this prince to have been Frederic IV. father of the unfortunate palatine, king of Bohemia .

I FORGOT to mention in their places, in the first rooms; a holy family, by Leonardi di Vinci ; a naked child lying at full length, contemplating a scull; and a Jupiter and Leda ; all by the same great master; also a good painting of a young woman, with a melancholy look, sitting, and leaning on one hand, behind her is an old woman with a letter.

A FLIGHT into Egypt , very good; and another painting, both by Bassan .

THE church of Hatfield is dedicated to St. Ethelreda , the virgin wife; first, of Tonbert , prince of the South Girvii , and afterwards of prince Egfrid , son of Oswy , king of Northumberland , as I might prove by several credible witnesses.23

IN the Salisbury chancel, built by the first earl, is the monument of the great founder, who is represented in white marble, in his robes, recumbent on a black slab, beautifully executed. This is supported at each corner by a cardinal virtue, with the attributes of each, poorly done. Beneath is a skeleton, in white marble, lying on a mat of the same colored marble, admirably counterfeited.

A STRANGE figure, sprawling on one side with a great bird, naked arms, and well-cut drapery, in stone, commemorates William Gurle, cur wardorum et libaconum . He died April 16th 1617, aet . 78.

A MURAL monument of Sir John Brocket , of Brocket Hall , in this parish, who died in 1598. By the death of Sir James Brocket , this antient and respectable family became extinct in the male line.

HERE is a large monument with two ladies one over the other, lying on their sides. One is dame Elizabeth , wife of the aforesaid Sir John Brocket ; she was widow to Gabriel Fowler , esquire, and daughter of Roger Moore , esquire, by Agnes Hussey , relict of three husbands, Moore, Curson , and chief baron Saunders .24 The other figure is of this Agnes , who died in 1588. This memorial was erected by Richard Fowler , son to Lady Brocket, by her first husband.

A MONUMENT of Sir, James Mead , baronet, of Brecket Hall, which descended to him by the marriage of his gaandfather Thomas Read , esquire, with Mary , fifth daughter of Sir Thomas Brocket . This is mural, with a bust of him and his wife, who left daughters, coheirs.

1 John Earl of Bute , who died in 1792. ED.

2 The editor, not having had an opportunity of visiting Luton Ho , takes the liberty of borrowing the following account of it from Mr. Lytons's Magna Britannia .

The principal rooms, particularly the library, which is one hundred and forty-six feet in length, the drawing-room, and the saloon are on a magnificent scale. The collection of pictures is very large and valuable, chiefly of the Italian and Flemish schools. Among the portraits are, Margaret Queen of Scots , with her second husband Archibald Douglas; the first Earl of Pembroke ; the Earl of Strafford ; General Ireton ; Mr. Pym ; Mrs. Lane , who assisted Charles II. on his escape after the battle of Worcester ; Lord Chancellor Jefferys; Ben Jonson ; Dr. Samuel Johnson , Dr. Armstrong, and the late Earl of Bute , by Sir Joshua Reynolds . The chapel is fitted up with very rich gothic carving in wood, said to have been originally executed for Sir Thomas Pope at Tettenhanger in 1548, but brought to Luton by Sir Robert Napier. ED.

3 Chauncy, 352.

4 Leland , vi. 63.

5 Goodwin Praes. Angl. 70.

6 Fuller's British Worthies , 123, 124.

7 Chauncy, 525.

8 Beda , lib. iv. c. 17. p. 160. Beda had been an eleve of this venerable archbishop.

9 Bentham's Ely , 163.

10 Bentham's Ely , 181.

11 See the curious account of the practices of the lord admiral on her at this place, in 1548, in Burghley's State Papers , 99, 100.

12 Herbert's Memoirs, 30.

13 Among Kip's Views is one of this house, engraven from a drawing by Thomas Sadler , Esquire.

14 Gwilim's Heraldry, 14.

15 "In the presence of my Lord God Jesu Christ , and his blessed mother, ye glorious Virgin St. Mary , and of all ye whole company of heaven, and of yu also my ghostly father. I Margaret of Richmond , with full purpose and good deliberation for ye weale of my sinfull saul, with all my hearte promise from henceforth ye chastyty of my bodye, that is, never to use my bodye having actual knowledge of manne after the common usage in matremony, the wch thing I had before purposed in my lord my husband's days, then being my ghostly father ye byshop of Rochester , Mr. Richard Fitzjames , and now eft-sence I fully confirm it, as far as in me lyeth: beseeching my Lord God that he will this poore wylle accept to ye remedy of my wretched lyfe, and relief of my sinful soule, and that he will give me his grace to perform the same; and also for my more meryte, and quyetness of my soule in doubtful things perteyning to the same, I avowe to you, my Lord of Rochester , to whom I am, and have been sense ye first time I see you admitted, verely determined as to my cheife trusty counsellour, to owne my obedience in all things, concerning the weale and profyte of my soule."


17 I think the king and queen are masked.

18 See in Davila , book ix a full and curious account of the whole transaction.

19 This mistake was corrected by T. C. Brooke , Esquire.

20 Of the latter, there is a fine whole length, in a Vandyck dress, at Petworth: his sister Anne married Algernon Percy , Earl of Northumberland , the owner thereof.

21 The portraits of foreigners, in the houses of our antient nobility, are well worth notice, as they are generally originals, presented on embassies and other negotiations. I am told the French give any money for them when sold.

22 I had the small pox when I was a child, it was in the heat of summer. I lay in a red bed in a room exposed to the western sun; and was half smothered with bed cloaths. My fever increased by a great fire, and by the exclusion of all air, my disorder, which was an excellent kind, had a good chance of becoming putrid. I recollect very well, that the very air about me was infected, and I abhorred my own atmosphere.

23 Bentham's hist. Ely , 49, to whom I refer for the evidences.

24 An extraordinary person, see Granger III. 367 octavo.

Thomas Pennant, The Journey from Chester to London (London: Wilkie and Robinson, 1811)

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