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Charles Wesley

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Mar. 9 - Aug. 30, 1736: Georgia

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March 9 - August 30, 1736

TUESDAY, March 9th , 1736, about three in the afternoon, I first set foot on St. Simon's island, and immediately my spirit revived. No sooner did I enter upon my ministry, than God gave me, like Saul, another heart. So true in that [remark] of Bishop Hall: "The calling of God never leaves a man unchanged; neither did God ever employ any one in His service, whom He did not enable to the work He set him; especially those whom He raises up to the supply of His place, and the representation of Himself." The people, with Mr. Oglethorpe, all arrived the day before.

The first who saluted me on my landing was honest Mr. Ingham, with his usual heartiness. Never did I more rejoice at the sight of him; especially when he told me the treatment he had met with, for vindicating the Lord's day: such as every Minister of Christ must meet with. The people seemed overjoyed to see me: Mr. Oglethorpe in particular received me very kindly.

I spent the afternoon in the conference with my parishioners. (With what trembling ought I to call them mine !) At seven we had evening prayers, in the open air, at which Mr. Oglethorpe was present. The lesson gave me the fullest direction, and greatest encouragement: "Continue instant in prayer, and watch in the same with thanksgiving; with praying also for us, that God would open unto us a door of utterance, to speak the mystery of Christ; that I may make it manifest, as I ought to speak. Walk in wisdom toward them that are without, redeeming the time. Let your speech be always with grace, seasoned with salt, that ye may know how ye ought to answer every man." "Say to Archippus, Take heed to the ministry which thou hast received of the Lord, that thou fulfil it." (Col. iv. 2—6, 17.) At nine I returned, and lay in the boat.

Wed., March l0th. Between five and six in the morning I read short prayers to a few at the fire, before Mr. Oglethorpe's tent, in a hard shower of rain. Mr. Oglethorpe had set up a tent for the women, near his own. Toward noon I found an opportunity of talking at the tent-door with Mrs. W. I laboured to guard her against the cares of the world, and to give herself to God in the Christian sacrifice; but to no purpose. God was pleased not to add weight to my words; therefore they could make no impression.

After dinner I began talking with M. Germain, about baptizing her child by immersion. She was much averse to it, though she owned it a strong, healthy child. I then spoke to her husband, who was soon satisfied, and brought his wife to be so too.

In the evening I endeavoured to reconcile M.W. to M. H., who, I assured her, bore her no ill-will. She replied, "You must not tell me that. M.H. is a very subtle woman. I understand her perfectly. There is a great man in the case; therefore I cannot speak; only that she is exceeding jealous of me" Company stopped her saying more.

Thur., March 11th. At ten this morning I began the full service, to about a dozen women, whom I had got together; intending to continue it, and only to read a few prayers to the men before they went to work. I also, expounded the second lesson with some boldness, as I had a few times before.

After prayers I met M. H.'s maid, in a great passion of tears, at being struck by her mistress. She seemed resolved to make away with herself, to escape her Egyptian bondage. With much difficulty I prevailed upon her to return, and carried her back to her mistress. Upon my asking M. H. to forgive her, she refused me with the utmost roughness, rage, and almost reviling.

Mr. Tacknet, whom I talked with next, made me full amends. He was in an excellent temper; resolved to strive, not with his wife, but himself, in putting off the old man, and putting on the new.

In the evening I heard the first harsh word from Mr. Oglethorpe, when I asked for something for a poor woman. The next day I was surprised by a rougher answer, in a matter that deserved still greater encouragement. I know not how to account for his increasing coldness.

My encouragement was the same in speaking with M. W., whom I found all storm and tempest. The meek, the teachable M. W. (that was in the ship) was now so wilful, so untractable, so fierce, that I could not bear to stay near her. I did not mend myself by stumbling again upon Mr. Oglethorpe, who was with the men under arms, in expectation of an enemy. I stayed as long as I could, however, "Unsafe within the wind Of such commotion:" but at last the hurricane of his passion drove me away.

Sun., March 14th. We had prayers under a great tree. In the Epistle I was plainly shown what I ought to be, and what to expect. "Giving no offence in anything, that the ministry be not blamed: but in all things approving ourselves as the Ministers of God, in much patience, in afflictions, in necessities, in distresses, in strives, in imprisonments, in tumults, in labours, in watchings, in fastings; by purity by knowledge, by longsuffering, by kindness, by the Holy Ghost, by love unfailing, by the word of truth, by the power of God, by the armour of righteousness on the right hand and on the left, by honour and dishonour, by evil report and good report: as deceivers, and yet true; as unknown, and yet well known; as dying, and, behold, we live; as chastened, and not killed; as sorrowful, yet always rejoicing; as poor, yet making many rich; as having nothing, and yet possessing all things." (2 Cor. vi. 8-10.)

I preached with boldness, on singleness of intention, to about twenty people, among whom was Mr. Oglethorpe. Soon after, as he was in M. H.'s hut, a bullet (through the carelessness of one of the people, who were exercising today) flew through the wall, close by him. M. Germain now retracted her consent for having her child baptized: however, M. Colwell's I did baptize by true immersion, before a numerous congregation.

At night I found myself exceedingly faint, but had no better bed to go to than the ground; on which I slept very comfortably, before a great fire, and woke up the next morning perfectly well.

Tues., March 16th. I was wholly spent in writing letters for Mr. Oglethorpe. I would not spend six days more in the same manner for all Georgia.

Wed., March 17th. I found an opportunity to tell M.W. the reason why I had not talked to her lately which was, my despair of doing her any good. She acknowledged herself entirely changed, but could never tell me the cause. I immediately guessed it, and mentioned my conjecture. She confessed the truth of it. My soul was filled with pity; and I prayed God the sin of others might not ruin her.

Thur., March 18th. Today Mr. Oglethorpe set out with the Indians, to hunt the buffalo upon the main, and to see the utmost limits of what they claimed. In the afternoon M. W. discovered to me the whole mystery of iniquity.

I went to my myrtle-walk, where, as I was repeating, "I will thank thee, for thou hast heard me, and art become my salvation," a gun was fired from the other side of the hushes. Providence had that moment turned me from that end of the walk, which the shot flew through; but I heard them pass close by me.

Sun., March 21st. Mr. Oglethorpe had ordered, more often than once, that no man should shoot on a Sunday. Germain had been committed to the guard-room for it in the morning, but was, upon his submission, released. In the midst of the sermon a gun was fired. Davison, the constable, ran out, and found it was the Doctor; told him it was contrary to orders, and he was obliged to desire him to come to the officer. Upon this the Doctor flew into a great passion, and said, "What, do you not know that I am not to be looked upon as a common fellow ?" Not knowing what to do, the constable went, and returned, after consulting with Hermsdorf, with two centinels, and brought him to the guard-room. Hereupon M. H. charged and fired a gun; and then ran thither, like a mad woman, crying she had shot, and would be confined too. The constable and Hermsdorf persuaded her to go away. She cursed and swore in the utmost transport of passion, threatening to kill the first man that should come near her. Alas, my brother! what has become of thy hopeful convert?

In the afternoon, while I was talking in the street with poor Catherine, her mistress came up to us, and fell upon me with the utmost bitterness and scurrility; saying she would blow me up, and my brother, whom she once thought honest, but was now undeceived: that I was the cause of her husband's confinement; but she would be revenged, and expose my hypocrisy, my prayers four times a day, by beat of drum, and abundance more, which I cannot write, and thought no woman, though taken from Drurylane, could have spoken. I only said, I pitied her, but defied all she or the devil could do; for she could not hurt me. I was strangely preserved from passion, and at parting told her that, I hoped she would soon come to a better mind.

In the evening hour of retirement I resigned myself to God, in my brother's prayer for conformity to a suffering Savior.

Faint and weary with the day's fatigue, I found my want of true holiness, and begged God to give me comfort from his word. I then read, in the evening lesson, "But thou, O man of God, flee these things; and follow after righteousness, godliness, faith, love, patience, meekness. Fight the good fight of faith, lay hold on eternal life, whereunto thou art called, and hast professed a good profession before many witnesses." (1 Tim. vt. 11, 12.) Before prayers I took a walk with Mr. Ingham, who was surprised I should not think innocence a sufficient protection. I had not indeed acquainted him with what M. W. had told me. At night I was forced to exchange my usual bed, the ground, for a chest, being almost speechless through a violent cold.

Tues., March 23rd. In reading Hebrews xi., I felt my faith revive; and I was confident God would either turn aside the trial, or strengthen me to bear it. In the afternoon Mr. Davison informed me that, the Doctor had sent his wife a word to arm herself from the case of instruments, and forcibly make her escape; to speak to Mr. Oglethorpe first, and even to stab any that should oppose her. M. Perkins told me, she had heard M. H. say," Mr. Oglethorpe dares not punish me." I was encouraged by the lesson: "God hath not given us the spirit of fear; but of power, and of love, and of a sound mind. Be not thou therefore ashamed of the testimony of our Lord, nor of me his prisoner: but be thou partaker of the afflictions of the Gospel according to the power of God." "Whereunto I am an appointed Preacher. For which cause I also suffer these things: nevertheless I am not ashamed: for I know whom I have believed, and am persuaded that he is able to keep that which I have committed unto him against that day." (2 Tim. i. 7, 8, 11, 12.)

Wed., March 24th. I was enabled to pray earnestly for my enemies, particularly Mr. Oglethorpe, whom I now looked upon as the chief of them. Then I gave myself up entirely to God's disposal, desiring I might not now want power to pray, when I most of all needed it. Mr. Ingham then came, and read the thirty-seventh psalm: a glorious exhortation to patience, and confidence in God, from the different estate of the good and wicked. After breakfast I again betook myself to intercession, particularly for M. W., that Satan, in the shape of that other bad woman, might not stand at her right hand. Doubting whether I should not interpose for the prisoners, I consulted the oracle, and met Jer. xliv. 16, 17: "As for the word which thou hast spoken to us in the name of the Lord, we will not hearken unto it: but we will certainly do whatsoever thing goeth forth out of our own mouth." This determined me not to meddle with them at all.

At eleven, I met M. Perkins, who told me of the infamy M. H. had brought on Mr. Oglethorpe, and the utter discouragement it would be to the people, if she was supported. Farther she informed me that M. W. had began to repent of having engaged so far with her, confessing she had done it through cowardice, as thinking Mr. Oglethorpe would bear her out against all the world.

Soon after I talked with M. W., and with the last degree of astonishment heard her accuse herself. Horror of horrors! Never did I feel such excess of pity. I gave myself up to prayer for her. Mr. Ingham soon joined me. All the prayers expressed a full confidence in God: when notice was given to us of Mr. Oglethorpe's landing. M.H., Mr. Ingham, and myself were sent for. We found him in his tent, with the people round it; Mr. and M.H. within. After a short hearing, the officers were reprimanded, and the prisoners dismissed. At going out M. H. modestly told me, she had something more to say against me, but would take another time. I only answered," You know, Madam, it is impossible for me to fear you." When they were gone, Mr. Oglethorpe said he was convinced, and glad I had had no hand in all this. I told him I had something to impart, of the last importance, when he was at leisure. He took no notice, but read his letters; and I walked away with Mr. Ingham, who was utterly astonished. The issue is just what I expected.

I was struck with those words in the evening lesson: "Thou therefore, my son, be strong in the grace that is in Christ Jesus." "Endure hardness, as a good soldier of Jesus Christ." "Remember that Jesus Christ was raised from the dead according to my Gospel: wherein I suffer trouble, as an evil-doer, even unto bonds; but the word of God is not bound. Therefore I endure all things for the elect's sakes, that they may also obtain the salvation which is in Christ Jesus with eternal glory. It is a faithful saying: For if we be dead with him, we shall also live with him: if we suffer, we shall also reign with him." (2 Tim. ii. 1, 3, 8-12.) After reading I could not forbear adding, "I need say nothing. God will shortly apply this."

Glory be to God for my confidence hitherto! O what am I if left to myself! but I can do and suffer all things through Christ strengthening me.

Thur., March 25th. At five I heard the second drum beat for prayer, which I had desired Mr. Ingham to read, being much weakened by my fever. But considering I ought to appear at this time especially, I rose and heard those animating words: "If any man serve me, let him follow me; and where I am, there shall also my servant be: if any man serve me, him will my Father honour. Now is my soul troubled; and what shall I say ? Father, save me from this hour: but for this cause came I unto this hour. Father, glorify thy name." (John xii. 26-28.)

At half-hour past seven Mr. Oglethorpe called me out of my hut. I looked up to God, and went. He charged me with mutiny and sedition; with stirring up the people to desert the colony. Accordingly he said they had had a meeting last night, and sent a message to him this morning, desiring leave to go; that their speaker had informed against them, and me the spring of all; that men constantly came to prayers, therefore I must have instigated them; that he should not scruple shooting half-a-dozen of them at once; but that he had, out of kindness, first spoken to me. My answer was, "I desire, Sir, you would have no regard to my brothers, my friends, or the love you had for me, if anything of this is made out against me. I know nothing of their meeting or designs. Of those you have mentioned, not one comes constantly to prayers, or sacrament. I never incited any one to leave the colony. I desire to answer my accuser face to face." He told me, my accuser was Mr. Lawley, whom he would bring, if I would wait here. I added," Mr. Lawley is a man who has declared he knows no reason for keeping fair with any man, but a design to get all he can by him: but there was nothing to be got by the poor Persons." I asked whether he himself was not assured that there were enough men in Frederica, to say or swear anything against any man that should be in disgrace: whether; if he himself was removed, or succeeded ill, the whole stream of the people would not be turned against him; and even this Lawley, who was of all others the most violent in condemning the prisoners, and justifying the officers. I observed, this was the old cry, "Away with the Christians to the lions ;" mentioned H. and his wife's scandalizing my brother and me, and vowing revenge against us both, threatening me yesterday even in his presence. I asked what redress or satisfaction was due to my character; what good I could do in my present parish, if cut off by their calumnies from ever seeing one half of it. I ended with assuring him, I had and should still make it my business to promote peace among all. I felt no disturbance while speaking, but lifted up my heart to God, and found him present with me. While Mr. Oglethorpe was fetching Lawley, I thought of our Lord's words, "Ye shall be brought before Governors and Kings for my sake. But when they deliver you up, take no thought how or what ye shall speak: for it shall be given you in that same hour what ye shall speak ;" (Matt. x. 18, 19 ;) and applied to Him for help, and words to make my defence. Before Mr. Oglethorpe returned I called in upon Mr. Ingham, and desired him to pray for me: then walked, and, musing on the event, opened the book on Acts xv. 31— 83: "Which when they had read, they rejoiced for the consolation; and exhorted the brethren with many words, and confirmed them. And after they had tarried there a space, they were let go in peace." Mr. Ingham coming, I related all that had passed. On sight of Mr. Oglethorpe and Lawley, he retired.

Mr. Oglethorpe observed, the place was too public. I offered to carry him to my usual walk in the woods. On our way God put it into my heart to say, "Show only the least disinclination to find me guilty, and you shall see what a turn it will give to the accusation." He took the hint, and instead of calling upon Lawley to make good his charge, began with the quarrel in general; but did not show himself angry with me, or desirous to find me to blame. Lawley, who appeared full of guilt and fear, upon this dropped his accusation, or shrunk it into my "forcing the people to 'prayers." I replied, that the people themselves would acquit me of that; and as to the officers' quarrel, I appealed to the officers for the truth of my assertion, that I had had no hand at all in it; professed my desire and resolution of promoting peace and obedience: and as to the people, I was persuaded their desire of leaving the colony arose from mistake, not malice. Here Mr. Oglethorpe spoke of reconciling matters; bade Lawley told the petitioners, he would not so much ask who they were, if they were but quiet for the future. " I hope," added he, "they will be so; and Mr. Wesley here hopes so too." "Yes, Sir," says Lawley, "I really believe it of Mr. Wesley, and had always a very great respect for him." I turned, and said to Mr. Oglethorpe, "Did not I tell you it would be so" He replied to Lawley, "Yes; you had always a very great respect for Mr. Wesley. You told me he was a stirrer up of sedition, and at the bottom of all this disturbance." With this gentle reproof he dismissed him; and I thanked him for having first spoken to me of what I was accused of, begging he would always do so. This he promised, and then I walked with him to M. H.'s door. She came out again to see me with him. He then left me, "and I was delivered out of the mouth of the lion."

I went to my hut, where I found Mr. Ingham. He told me this was but the beginning of sorrows. "Not as I will, but as Thou wilt." About noon, in the midst of a violent storm of thunder and lightning, I read the eighteenth Psalm, and found it gloriously suited to my circumstances. I never felt the Scriptures as now. Now I need them, I find them all written for my instruction and comfort. At the same time I feel great joy in the expectation of our Saviour thus coming to judgment, when the secrets of all hearts shall be revealed, and God shall make my innocency as clear as the light, and my just dealing as the noon-day.

At three I walked with Mr. Ingham, and read him the history of this amazing day. We rejoiced together in the protection of God, and through comfort of the Scriptures.

The evening lesson was full of encouragement. "This know also, that in the last days perilous times shall come. For men shall be -false accussers, incontinent, fierce, despisers of those that are good, traitors, heady, high-minded, but they shall proceed no further : for their folly shall be made manifest unto all men. But thou hast fully known my doctrine, manner of life, what persecutions I endured; but out of them all the Lord delivered me. Yea, and all that will live godly in Christ Jesus shall suffer persecution.

But evil men and seducers shall wax worse and worse, deceiving, and being deceived. All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness." (2 Tim.iii. 1-4, 9-13, 16.) Blessed be God, I begin to find it so !

Meeting with Mr. Hird, I persuaded him to use all his interest with the people, to lay aside all thoughts of leaving the colony. He told me he had assured Mr. Oglethorpe that this was always my language toward him and the rest; but was answered short, with, "You must not tell me that; I know better."

After spending an hour at the camp, in singing such Psalms as suited the occasion, I went to bed in the hut, which was thoroughly wet with the day's rain.

Fri., March 26th. "My soul is always in my hand; therefore will I not forget thy law." This morning, early, Mr. Oglethorpe called me out to tell me of Mrs. Lawley's miscarriage, by being denied access to the Doctor for bleeding. He seemed very angry, and to charge me with it; saying he should be the tyrant if he passed by such intolerable injuries. I answered, I knew nothing of the matter, and it was hard it should be imputed to me; that from the first Hermsdorf told the Doctor he might visit whom of his patients he pleased; but the Doctor would not. I denied my having the least hand in the whole business as Hermsdorf himself had declared. He said, "Hermsdorf himself assured me, what he did, he did by your advice." I answered, "You must mistake his imperfect English; for many have heard him say the contradictory of this. Yet I must be charged with all the mischief." "How else can it be," said he, "that there should be no love, no meekness, no true religion among the people, but instead of that, mere formal prayers." "As to that, I can answer for them, that they have no more of the form of godliness than the power. I have seldom above six at the public service." "But what would an unbeliever say to your raising these disorders?" "Why, if I had raised them, he might say there was nothing in religion; but what would that signify to those who had experienced it? They would not say so." He told me the people were full of dread and confusion; that it was much easier to govern a thousand than sixty men; for in so small a number, every one's passion was considerable; that he does not leave them before they were settled, & I asked him, "Would you have me forbear conferring at all with my parishioners?" To this I could get no answer, and went on: "The reason why I did not interpose for or against the Doctor was his having, at the beginning, charged me with his confinement. I talked less with my parishioners these five days past, than I had done in any one afternoon before. I shunned appearing in public, lest my advice should be asked, or lest, if I heard others talking, my very silence should be deciphered into advice. But one argument of my innocence I can give, which will even convince you of it. I know my life is in your hands: and you know, that was you to frown upon me, and give the least intimation that it would be agreeable to you, the generality of these wretched people would say or swear anything." To this he agreed, and owned the case was so with them all. "You see that my safety depends on your single opinion of me. Must I not therefore be mad, if I would in such a situation provoke you by disturbing the public peace? Innocence, I know, is not the least protection; but my sure trust is in God." His company interrupted us, and I left him.

I was no longer careful of the event, after reading those words in the morning lesson: "Thou cannot follow me now; but thou shalt follow me afterwards." (John xiii. 36.) Amen. When Thou pleasest. Thy time is the best.

Mr. Oglethorpe, meeting me in the evening, asked when I had prayers. I said, I waited his pleasure. While the people came slowly, "You see, Sir," said I, "they do not lay too great a stress on forms." "The reason of that is, because others idolize them." "I believe few stay away for that reason." "I don't know that." Mr. Oglethorpe stood over against me, and joined audibly in the prayers. The chapter was designed for me, and I read it with great boldness, as follows: "I charge thee before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, who shall judge the quick and the dead at his appearing and his kingdom; preach the word; be instant in season, out of season; reprove, rebuke, exhort with all longsuffering and doctrine. For the time will come when they will not endure sound doctrine." "But watch thou in all things, endure afflictions, do the work of an Evangelist, make full proof of thy ministry." "At my first answer no man stood with me, but all men forsook me." "Notwithstanding the Lord stood with me ...... that by me the preaching might be fully known, and that all the Gentiles might hear: and I was delivered out of the mouth of the lion. And the Lord shall deliver me from every evil work, and will preserve me unto his heavenly kingdom: to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen." (2 Tim. iv. 1—3, 5, 16—18.)

Sat., March 27th. This morning we began our Lord's last discourses to his disciples: every word was providentially directed to my comfort, but particularly those: -"Let not your heart be troubled: ye believe in God, believe also in me." "I will not leave you comfortless: I will come to you." "Peace I leave with you, my peace I give unto you. Let not your heart be troubled, neither let it be afraid." (John xiv. 1, 18, 27.)

I was sensibly concerned this afternoon at hearing that M. W. is growing more and more like M. H., declares she will be no longer priest-ridden, jests upon prayers, and talks in the loose, scandalous dialect of her friend. In the evening a thought came into my mind of sending Mr. Ingham for my brother. He was much averse to leaving me in my trials, but was at last persuaded to go.

Sun., March 28th. I went to the storehouse (our tabernacle at present) to hearken what the Lord God would say concerning me. Both myself and the congregation were struck with the first lesson: Joseph and Potiphar's wife. The second was still more animating: "If the world hate you, ye know that it hated me before it hated you. If ye were of the world, the world would love his own." (John xv. 18, 19.) After the prayers poor Mr. Davison stayed behind, to take his leave of Mr. Ingham. He burst into tears, and said, "One good man is leaving us already. I foresee nothing but desolation. Must my poor children be brought up like these savages?" We endeavoured to comfort him by showing him his calling. At ten Mr. Ingham preached an alarming sermon on the day of judgment, and joined with me in offering up the Christian sacrifice.

In my walk at noon I was full of heaviness; complained to God that I had no friend but Him; and even in Him could now find no comfort. Immediately I received power to pray; then, opening my Bible, read as follows :— "Hearken unto me, ye that seek the Lord: look unto the rock whence ye are hewn." "Fear ye not the reproach of men, neither be ye afraid of their revilings." "Who art thou, that thou shouldest be afraid of a man that shall die; ...... and hast feared continually every day because of the fury of the oppressor - and where is the fury of the oppressor?" (Isai. li. 1, 2, 12, 13.) After reading this, no wonder that I found myself renewed in confidence.

While Mr. Ingham waited for the boat, I took a turn with Mr. Horton. He fully convinced me of M. H.'s true character; ungrateful in the highest degree, a common prostitute, a complete hypocrite. She told me, her and her husband had begged him upon their knees to intercede with Mr. Oglethorpe, not to turn them out of the ship, which would be their utter ruin. This he accordingly did; though Mr. Oglethorpe at first assured him he had rather give one hundred pounds than take them. The first person she fell upon, after this, was Mr. Horton himself, whom she abused, as she has since done to me. From him I hastened to the water-side, where I found Mr. Ingham just put off. O happy, happy friend! Abiit, erupit, evasit! But woe is me, that I am still constrained to dwell with Meshech! I languished to hear him company, followed him with my eyes till out of sight and then sunk into deeper dejection than I had known before.

Mon., March 29th. I was revived by those words of our Lord: "These things have I spoken unto you, that you should not be offended. They shall put you out of the synagogues: yea, the time cometh, that whosoever killeth you will think that he doeth God service. And these things will they do unto you, because they have not known the Father, nor me." "In the world ye shall have tribulation: but be of good cheer; I have overcome the world." (John xvi. 1-3, 33.)

Knowing I was to live with Mr. Oglethorpe, I had brought nothing with me from England, except my clothes and books; but this morning, asking a servant for something I wanted, (I think a tea-kettle,) I was told Mr. Oglethorpe had given orders that no one should use any of his things. I answered, that order, I supposed, did not extend to me. "Yes, Sir," says she, "you were excepted by name." Thanks be to God, that it is not yet made capital to give me a morsel of bread.

Tues., March 30th. Having laid hitherto on the ground, in a corner of Mr. Reed's hut, and hearing some boards were to be disposed of, I attempted in vain to get some of them to lie upon. They were given to all besides. The Minister only of Frederica must be afrhtwr, aqemistos, anestios. Yet are we not hereunto called, astatein, kakopaqein. Even the Son of man had not where to lay his head!

I find the Scripture an inexhaustible fund of comfort. "Is my hand shortened at all, that it cannot save? or have I no power to deliver? I gave my back to the stutters, and my cheeks to them that plucked off the hair. I hid not my face from shame and spitting. For the Lord God will help me, therefore shall I not be confounded. Therefore have I set my face like a flint; and I know that I shall not be ashamed. He is near that justifieth me; who will contend with me? Let us stand together. Who is mine adversary? let him come near to me. Behold, the Lord God will help me: who is he that shall condemn me?"

Wed., March 31st. I begin now to be abused and slighted into an opinion of my own considerableness. I could not be more trampled upon, was I a fallen Minister of state. The people have found out that I am in disgrace, and all the cry is, Curramus praecipites, et Dum jacet in ripa calcemus caesaris hostem.

My few well-wishers are afraid to speak to me. Some have turned out of the way to avoid me. Others desired I would not take it ill, if they seemed not to know me when we should meet. The servant that used to wash my linen sent it back unwashed. It was great cause of triumph my being forbidden the use of Mr. Oglethorpe's things, and in effect debarred of most of the conveniences, if not necessaries, of life. I sometimes pitied, and sometimes diverted myself with, the odd expressions of their contempt; but found the benefit of having undergone a much lower degree of obloquy at Oxford.

Thur., April 1st. In the midst of morning service a poor scoutboat-man was brought in, who was almost killed by the burst of a cannon. I found him senseless and dying. All I could do was to pray for him, and try by his example to wake his two companions. He languished till the next day, and died.

Hitherto I have been borne up by a spirit not my own; but exhausted nature at last prevails. It is amazing she held out so long. My outward hardships and inward conflicts, the bitterness of reproach from the only man I wished to please, "At last have borne my boasted courage down."

Accordingly, this afternoon, I was forced by a friendly fever to take my bed. My sickness, I knew, could not be of long continuance; but, as I was in want of every help and convenience, must either shortly leave me, or release me from farther suffering.

In the evening Mrs. Hird and Mrs. Robinson called to see me, and offered me all the assistance in their power. I thanked them, but desired they would not prejudice themselves by taking this notice of me. At that instant we were alarmed with a cry of the Spaniards being come; heard many guns fired, and saw the people fly in great consternation to the Fort. I felt not the least disturbance or surprise; bade the women no to fear, for God was with us. Within a few minutes news was brought us that the alarm was only a contrivance of Mr. Oglethorpe, to try the people. My charitable visitants then left me, and soon returned with some gruel, which threw me into a sweat. The next morning, April 2nd, they ventured to call again. At night, when my fever was somewhat abated, I was led out to bury the scoutboat-man, and envied his quiet grave.

Sat., April 3rd. Nature I found endeavoured to throw off the disease by excessive sweats: I therefore drank whatever my women brought me.

Sun., April 4th. Many of the people had been ill of the bloody flux. I escaped hitherto by my vegetable diet; but now my fever brought it. Notwithstanding this, I was obliged to go abroad, and preach, and administer the sacrament. My sermon on, "Keep innocency, and take heed to the thing that is right, for this shall bring a man peace at the last," was deciphered into a satire against M.H. At night I got an old bedstead to lie on, being that on which the scoutboat-man had died.

Mon., April 5th. At one this morning the sand flies forced me to rise, and smoke them out of the hut. The whole town was employed in the same manner. My congregation in the evening consisted of two Presbyterians and a Papist. I went home in great pain, my distemper being much increased with the little duty I could discharge.

Tues., April 6th. I found myself so faint and weak, that it was with the utmost difficulty I got through the prayers. Mr. Davison, my good Samaritan, would often call, or send his wife to tend me: and to their care, under God, I owe my life.

Today Mr. Oglethorpe gave away my bedstead from under me, and refused to spar one of the carpenters to mend me up another.

Fri., April 9th. While talking to Mrs. Hird, I turned my eyes towards the huts, and saw Mr. Lassel's all in a blaze. I walked towards the fires, which, before I could come up to it, had consumed the hut, and everything in it. It was a corner-hut, and the wind providentially blew from the others, or they would have been all destroyed.

Sat., April 10th. Mr. Reed waked me with news of Mr. Delamotte and my brother being on their way to Frederies. I found the encouragement I sought in the Scriptures for the day, Psalm liii.: "Why boastest thou thyself in mischief, O mighty man? the goodness of God endureth continually. Thy tongue deviseth mischiefs; like a sharp razor, working deceitfully. Thou lovest evil more than good; and lying than to speak righteousness."

At six Mr. Delamotte and my brother landed, when my strength was so exhausted I could not have read prayers once more. He helped me into the woods; for there was no talking among a people of spies and ruffians; nor even in the woods, unless in an unknown tongue. He told me the scripture he met with at landing was, "If God be for us, who can be against us?" and that Mr. Oglethorpe received him with abundant kindness. I began my account of all that has passed, and continued it till prayers. It were endless to mention all the scriptures which have been for so many days adapted to my circumstances; but I cannot pass by the evening lesson, Heb. xi. I was ashamed of having well-nigh sunk under mine, when I beheld the conflicts of those triumphant sufferers, of whom the world was not worthy.

Sun., April 11th. What words could more support our confidence, than the following, out of the Psalms for the day? —" Be merciful unto me, O God, for man goeth about to devour me. He is daily fighting, and troubling me. Mine enemies are daily in hand to swallow me up; for they be many that fight against me, O thou Most Highest. Nevertheless, though I am sometimes afraid, yet put I my trust in thee. I will put my trust in God, and will not fear what man can do unto me. They daily mistake my words: all that they imagine is to do me evil." (Psalm lvi. 1-,5.) The next Psalm was equally animating :—" Be merciful unto me, O God; for my soul trusteth in thee: and under the shadow of thy wings shall be my refuge, until this tyranny be overpast. I will call upon the most high God; even unto the God that shall perform the cause which I have in hand. He shall send down from heaven, and save me from the reproof of him that would eat me up. God shall send forth his mercy and truth; my soul is among lions. And I lie even among the children of men, that are set on fire: whose teeth are spears and arrows, and their tongue a sharp sword. Set up thyself, O God, above the heavens; and thy glory above all the earth." (Psalm lvii. 1-6.)

I had just recovered strength enough to consecrate at the sacrament: the rest my brother discharged. We then got out of the reach of informers, and proceeded in my account; being fully persuaded of the truth of M. W.'s information against Mr. Oglethorpe, M. H., and herself.

Next morning Mr. Oglethorpe met and carried us to breakfast at the modest M.H.,s. At noon my brother repeated to me his last conference with M. W., in confirmation of all she had ever told me.

At night I took leave of Mr. Horton, Mr. Hermsdorf, and Major Richards, who were going, with thirty men, to build a fort over against the Spanish look-out, twelve leagues from Augustine.

Wed., April 14th. By a relation which my brother gave me of a late conference he had with her, I was, in spite of all I had seen and heard, half persuaded into a good opinion of M. H. For the lasting honour of our sagacity be it written!

Fri., April 16th. My brother brought me of a resolution which honour and indignation had formed, of starving rather than asking for necessaries. Accordingly I went to Mr. Oglethorpe, in his tent, to ask for some little things I wanted. He sent for me back again, and mid, "Pray, Sir, sit down. I have something to say to you. I hear you have spread several reports about." *

The next day my brother and Mr. Delamotte set out in an open boat for Savannah. I preached in the afternoon on, "He that now goeth on his way weeping, and beareth forth good seed, shall doubtless come again with joy, and bring his sheaves with him."

Easter-eve, April 24th. At ten I was sent for by Mr. Oglethorpe. He began,

"Mr. Wesley, you know what has passed between us. I took some pains to satisfy your brother about the reports concerning me, but in vain. He hereby renews his suspicions in writing. I did desire to convince him, because I had an esteem for him; and he is just so considerable to me as my esteem makes him. I could clear up all, but it matters not. You will soon see the reason of my actions.

"I am now going to death. You will see me no more. Take this ring, and carry it from me to Mr. V. + If there is a friend to be depended upon, he is one. His interest is next to Sir Robert's. Whatever you ask, within his power, he will do for you, your brother, and your family. I have expected death for some days. These letters show that the Spaniards have long been seducing our allies, and intend to cut us off at a blow. I fall by my friends, Gascoin, whom I have made; the Carolina people, whom I depended upon to send their promised succours. But death is to me nothing. T. will pursue all my designs; and to him I recommend them and you."

He then gave me a diamond ring: I took it, and said, "If, as I believe, Postremum fato, quod te alloquor, hoc est,

hear what you will quickly know to be true, as soon as you enter upon the separate state. This ring I shall never make any use of for myself. I have no worldly hopes. I have renounced the world. Life is bitterness to me. I came hither to lay it down.1

"You have been deceived, as well as I. I protest my innocence of the crimes I am charged with; and take myself to be now at liberty to tell you what I thought never to have uttered."

When I had finished this relation he seemed entirely changed, full of his old love and confidence in me. After some expressions of kindness, I asked him, "Are you satisfied?" He replied, "Yes, entirely." "Why then; Sir, I desire nothing more upon earth; and care not how soon I follow you." He added, he much desired the conversion of the Heathen, and believed my brother intended for it. "But I believe," said I, "it will never be under your patronage; for then men would account for it without taking in God." He replied, "I believe so too :" then embraced and kissed me with the most cordial affection. I attended him to the scout-boat, where he waited some minutes for his sword. They brought him first, and a second time, a mourning sword. At last they gave him his own, which had been his father's. "With this sword," says he, "I was never yet unsuccessful." "I hope, Sir," said I, "you carry with you a better, even the sword of the Lord, and of Gideon." "I hope so too," he added.

When the boat put off; I ran before into the woods, to see my last of him. Seeing me and two others running after him, he stopped the boat, and asked whether we wanted anything. Captain Mackintosh, left Commander, desired his last orders. I then said," God be with you. Go forth, Christo duce, et auspice Christo!" "You have," says he, "I think, some verses of mine. You therefore see my thoughts of success." His last word to the people was, "God bless you all!" The boat then carried him out of sight. I interceded for him, that God would save him from death, would wash out all his sins, and prepare, before he took, the sacrifice to himself.

Easter-day, April 25th. The people were alarmed at night, by the sight of two great fires, on either side of the town, not knowing if they were made by friends or enemies. Next morning news was brought of a boat coming up. Every one seemed under a consternation, though no one but myself was fully apprized of our dangers. At night the watch was doubled by Captain Mackintosh. The people being unwilling to comply with his orders, I was forced to tell Mr. Hird, the constable, that there might be danger which Mackintosh alone knew of, and therefore they ought to obey. He promised it for himself and the rest. Though I expected every hour that the Spaniards would bring us the news of Mr. Oglethorpe's death, yet I was insensible of fear, and careless of the consequence.

But my indifference arose from stupidity rather than faith. There was nothing I cared for in life, and therefore the loss of it appeared a trifle.

Thur., April 29th. About half-hour past eight I went down to the bluff, to see a boat coming up. At nine it arrived with Mr. Oglethorpe. I blessed God for still holding his soul in life. In the evening we took a walk together, and he informed me more particularly of our past danger. Three great ships, and four smaller, had been seen for three weeks together at the mouth of the river; but the wind continuing full against them, [they] were kept from making a descent, till they could stay no longer. I gave him back his ring, and said, "I need not, Sir, and indeed I cannot, tell you how joyfully and thankfully I return this." "When I gave it you," said he," I never expected to receive it again, but thought it would be of service to your brother and you. I had many omens of my death, particularly their bringing me my mourning sword; but God has been pleased to preserve a life which was never valuable to me; and yet, in the continuance of it, I thank God, I can rejoice." "I am now glad of all that has happened here, since without it I could never have had such a proof of your affection as that you gave me, when you looked upon me as the most ungrateful of villains." While I was speaking this, he appeared full of tenderness; and passed on to observe the strangeness of his deliverance, when betrayed on all sides, without human support, and utterly defenceless. He condemned himself for his anger, (God forgive those who made me the object of it!) which he imputed to his want of time for consideration. "I longed, Sir, to see you once more, that I might tell you some things before we finally parted: but then I considered that if you died, you would know them all in a moment." "I know not whether separate spirits regard our little concerns. If they do, it is as men regard the follies of their childhood, or as my late passionateness."

Fri., April 30th. I had some farther talk with him in bed. He ordered me whatever he could think I wanted; promised to have me an house built immediately; and was just the same he had formerly been to me.

Sun., May 2nd. I went to him to ask if there was any truth in the report, that Major Richards and Mr. Horton were detained at Augustine, and the men at St. George's run away. He told me, he hoped that the gentlemen were well received; but the people had been frightened away by two soldiers bringing a civil proffer of refreshment; that thereupon the men mutinied, and obliged Captain Hermsdorf to quit the advanced post, and turn homeward, which he had done pursuant to Ferguson's advice; that he intended immediately to go in quest of them. In an hour's time he set out accordingly.

In the evening I endeavoured to convince Mr. Moore (as I had done some few besides) of Mr. Oglethorpe's innocency. He then read me a list of the officers that were to be: and who should be appointed head-bailiff, but my dear friend the Doctor?

Mon., May 3rd. The people had observed that I was taken into favour again, which I found by their provoking civilities.

Wed., May 5th. At night news was brought of a boat being seen off the point, which would not come to, though the soldiers had fired at her several times. The people were greatly alarmed, being in no preparation for an enemy. I went to bed, but was soon awakened by the firing of a gun; and, rising, found all the town flocking towards the fort, in the utmost consternation. I walked leisurely after them, without fear, yet without faith; found the uproar was occasioned by a friendly Indian; and walked back again.

Sat., May 8th. I had some affecting talk with a poor man, belonging to the scout-boat, who had broke his arm. He owned himself greatly moved by the Christian Monitor I had given him; convinced thereby of the truth of religion; unable to read for tears; and fully resolved to obey the motions of the Holy Spirit, by leading a new life.

Between ten and eleven I was woken up again by an alarm. I rose, as did all the women, and found a signal had been made from the man-of-war. I sent away the women, and, being myself of equal service, soon followed their example, and went to sleep again.

Sun., May 9th. Notice was given to me that Mr. D., Chaplain to the Independent Company, had landed, and walking toward me. His moral character did not recommend him. I had just time to run away into the woods, and so escaped his visit. The next morning Mr. Oglethorpe returned, from whom I had the following account of his expedition.

On Saturday, May 1st, late at night, arrived the "Caroline" scout-boat, with Captain Ferguson, bringing advice that Major Richards and Mr. Horton (who had carried answers to the Spanish Governor's letters) had landed at their look-out, and he believed were made prisoners by the Spaniards; for they had heard no more of them, except by a blind letter, written with a pencil; that the boats, in which were the men under Captain Hermsdorf, had come about thirty miles on this side of St. George's Point, and there waited for orders; that the men were mutinous, and Hermsdorf believed he should be forced to retire to Fort St. Andrews; that he was apprehensive they would either murder their officers, and turn pirates, or be cut off by the Spaniards. Mr. Oglethorpe, on Sunday, went on board the man-of-war, and proceeded from thence with the man-of-war's boat, commanded by the Lieutenant, and the Georgia scout-boat. They arrived that night at Fort St. Andrews. On Monday they came up with the south point of Cumberland, where we met with the boats under the command of Captain Hermsdorf. Mr. Ogiethorpo immediately took them out to sea with him, round Amelia Island. He found, upon examination, that the men did not intend to mutiny; but that the suspicion was occasioned by the lies of one man, who was hereupon sentenced by Mr. Oglethorpe to run the gauntlet.

He went to Point St. George, within sight of the Spanish look-out, and re-settled them on the same place where Mr. Hermsdorf had before taken up his quarters. It had been agreed that the Spaniards should make a signal; and from thence he would repair with his boats, to fetch Major Richards back, who was gone to Augustine, at the request of the Governor, who promised to send horses to conduct him, but did not. It likewise was agreed that the boats should patrol up and down the rivers, to prevent the Indians, our allies, passing over to molest the Spaniards; as they should prevent their Indians passing over to molest us.

Mr. Oglethorpe went that afternoon to the Spanish lookout, with a flag of truce; but not being able to perceive any one, leaving the boat at her grappling, he leaped ashore himself, to see if he could discover anybody there; and going along the beach, at distance from the Sandy hillocks, to prevent surprise, he surrounded the hillocks, where he found two horses hobbled. He went forward to a palmetto hut; but could find no man. After this he sent the flag of truce into a great savannah, to see if that would draw down any people to a conference. Upon this W. Frazer, a Scotch lad, going into the neighbouring woods, and finding a Spaniard, brought him to Mr. Oglethorpe, to whom he delivered two letters; one from Major Richards, the other from Mr. Horton, directed to Mr. Hermsdorf, acquainting him that he should be back with him in two days' time. Mr. Oglethorpe gave the man a bottle of wine, victuals, and tobacco, and a moidore for his trouble in bringing the letters; and inquired where Major Richards and Mr. Horton were. The man said he knew nothing concerning them; that he was a horseman, and sent by the Colonel of the cavalry from the head-quarters, which were about twelve leagues off, with these letters, to wait there till he should see an English boat appear, and deliver it to them; that he had lain four days on the beach, and had not discovered a boat in that time. Mr. Oglethorpe delivered to him letters for the Governor of Augustine; and between ten and eleven on Thursday morning set out with the man-of-war's boat, and Georgia scout-boat, to meet the man again, according to appointment.

He discovered a guard-coast full of men, that lay behind the sand-bank, beyond the breakers, on the English side of the water; and soon after he discovered several men hid in the woods, next to some sand-hills. Two horsemen showed themselves, and beckoned to the boats, which had a flag of truce flying, to come down to a point, beyond which the guard-coast lay concealed: on which Mr. Oglethorpe rowed with the two boats toward the guard-coast, that he might not leave her behind to intercept us and our people at St. George's Point.

There seemed to be about seventy men on board her, and there were in our boats twenty-four. She lay still for some time; but when they found plainly that they were discovered, they rowed away with incredible swiftness, directly out to sea, toward Augustine.

Mr. Oglethorpe returned to the horsemen, who seemed very unwilling to approach the boat; but at last agreed to receive a letter, if Mr. Oglethorpe would send an unarmed man ashore. One of them, seemingly an officer, forbade the boats to land on the King of Spain's ground. Mr. Oglethorpe answered, that as it was the King of Spain's ground, the English would forbear landing on it, since the Spaniards requested it; but that the Spaniards should be very welcome to land on the King of England's ground, which was on the opposite side of the river, and should be welcome to a glass of wine with him there. He asked him for the news of Mr. Horton and Mr. Richards, and whether he could not send anything to them. The man said he knew nothing of them; that he received his orders from the Colonel of horse, who was quartered at twelve leagues' distance; and that he could carry no news but to him. Upon this Mr. Moore, Lieutenant of the "Hawke" man-of-war, wrote a letter to the Colonel of the horse, acquainting him that he was come thither with boats, to conduct back the gentlemen who were sent by Mr. Oglethorpe to treat with the Governor of Augustine; and that, if at any time he would make three fires on the Spanish main, he would take it as a signal that the gentlemen were come, and would come over with a boat and fetch them. The Spanish officer promised to deliver the letter by night to the Colonel of horse. Mr. Oglethorpe stayed till Saturday night, expecting an answer, and sent over to the Spanish side every day; but could find nobody to have conference with. By the look-out within-land they have a vineyard, flocks of turkeys, cattle, and horses; but great care was taken that none of our people should touch any of them, On Saturday night Mr. Oglethorpe set out, leaving Captain Hermsdorf with an armed periague, the Georgia scout-boat, and another boat.

Tues., May 11th. I had now so far recovered my strength, that I could again expound the lesson. In the lesson next morning was Elisha encompassed with the host at Dothan. It is our privilege, as Christians, to apply those words to ourselves: "There be more than be with us, than those that be against us." God spoke to us yet plainer in the second lesson: "Behold, I send you forth as sheep in the midst of wolves: be ye therefore wise as serpents, and harmless as doves. But beware of men: for they will deliver you up to the councils; ...... and ye shall be brought before Governors and Kings for my sake." "And ye shall be hated of all men for my name's sake: but he that endureth to the end shall be saved. But when they persecute you in this city, flee ye into another." "The disciple is not above his master." "Fear ye not therefore: for there is nothing covered, that shall not be revealed, and hid that shall not be known." (Matt. x. 16—26.) In explaining this, I dwelt on that blessed topic of consolation to the innocent, that however he suffers under a false accusation here, he will shortly be cleared at God's righteous bar, where the accuser and the accused shall meet face to face, and the guilty person acquit him whom he unjustly charged, and take back the wickedness to himself. Poor . W., who was just over against me, could not stand it, but first turned her back, and then retired behind the congregation.

While I waited for Mr. Oglethorpe, setting out again for the southward, Mr. Appee accosted me, a young gentleman, lately come from Savannah. He mentioned his desire of being baptized (having only received lay-baptism before). I thought he ought to have a longer trial of his own sincerity. He passed on to his intended marriage with Miss Bovey, which I dissuaded him from, not thinking either sufficiently prepared for it. He had made little progress in subduing his will, and ought to be more dead to the world before he threw himself into it. Near midnight I took leave of Mr. Oglethorpe, who set out in the scout-boat, after the other boats, for St. George's. The remainder of the night I passed upon the ground in the guard-room.

At four the next day I set out for Savannah, whither the Indian traders were coming down to meet me, and take out licences. I was overjoyed at my deliverance out of this furnace, and not a little ashamed of myself for being so.

Sun., May 16th. We landed at Skiddoway, and dined at Mrs. M.'s. I then went round, and asked the few people there were upon the island, to come to prayers: which accordingly I read, and preached to about ten in the guardroom; and promised so to contrive, if possible, that they should be supplied once a month.

At four we returned to our boat, and by six reached Thunderbolt; whence I walked the five remaining miles to Savannah. Mr. Inglmm, Mr. Delamotte, and my brother, were surprised at my unexpected visit: but it being late, we each retired to his respective corner of the room, where, without the help of a bed, we slept soundly till morning.

Wed., May 19th. According to our agreement, my brother set forward for Frederica, and I took charge of Savannah in his absence. The hardest duty imposed on me was on expounding the lesson morning and evening to one hundred hearers. I was surprised at my own confidence, and acknowledged it not my own. The day was usually divided between visiting my parishioners, considering the lesson, and conversing with Mr. lngham, Delamotte, and Appee.

Tues., May 25th. I visited a girl of fifteen, who lay dying of an incurable illness. She had been in that condition many months, as her parents, some of the best people of the town, informed me. I started at the sight of a breathing corpse. Never was real corpse half so ghastly.

Her groans and screams alone distinguished her from one. They had no intermission: yet was she perfectly sensible, as appeared by her feebly lifting up her eyes, when I bade her trust in God, and read the prayers for the energumens. We were all in tears. She made signs for me to come again.

Fri., May 28th. Mr. Oglethorpe returned from the frontiers. The following account of his expedition I extracted out of his letter to the Trustees :-

"After that flagrant breach of the law of nations, putting our messengers, sent with a flag of truce, under arrest, I could expect nothing but farther hostilities, and therefore prepared to repel force by force. We fortified, with the utmost speed that the smallness of our number would allow, St. George's Point, within sight of the Spanish outguards, and Were much facilitated by finding the ruins of a fort, built by Sir Francis Drake: so that we had nothing to do but to repair and palisade the breaches made by time, and to clear the ditches, which were originally thirty foot deep. "The Independent Company and man-of-war being posted below Frederica, I drew out from thence, and from the Scotch settlements, what men I possibly could, to increase the garrison on St. George's Point. While we were getting down recruits and cannon, the Governor of Augustine, having before put our messengers under arrest, sent out Don Ignatio, Colonel of foot, with thirty of his picked men, some Yamasaw Indians, and a strong boat's crew, about sixty men, in a launch, to reconnoitre our settlements; and, if he had found us so weak as the advices from Carolina said we were, to dislodge us. Don Ignatio came out by sea, and attempted to get undiscovered into Jekyl's Sound; was discovered by Ensign Delegall, who commanded guard upon the sea-point. He hailed them to give an account who they were; which they refusing, he fired some cannon with powder; and about the same time they discovered the man-of-war lying within the sound. They ran out to sea with great precipitation, and strove to get in at another inlet, by the island of Cumberland; where the Scotch from St. Andrews challenged them. They neither answered, nor hung out colours, but rowed away in such haste, that the same night they reached the Spanish outguards, on St. John's river, near sixty miles distant.

"Don Ignatio landed in the night, and had a conference with Don Pedro de Lambertl, the Commander of the Spanish horse; who had come up by land to the look-out, with one hundred and sixty foot, and fifty horse. They concluded by the two forts they had met with, and the man-of-war's being there, that all our strength lay at Frederica, and that we were weak at Fort St. George; therefore resolved to try to surprise some of our boats, and upon their intelligence leave their horses, carry over their men by water, and attack us the night following. This was on Wednesday. I, having discovered some fires on the Spanish main, concluded troops came down, and therefore, in order to make them delay attacking us till our succours should arrive on Thursday morning, I had two carriage-guns, and two swivel-guns, which we had brought with us, carried into the woods, that the Spaniards might not distinguish where they were fired; and ordered the swivel-guns to be re-charged so often as to make a salute of seven, and with the carriage-guns fired five shot in answer. The swivel-guns, by reason of the smallness of the report, seemed like a ship at a distance saluting, and the carriage-guns like batteries answering from the shore.

"I set out with two boats, and a flag of truce, to meet the Spaniards. They concluded from the guns, as I have heard since, that there was a new strength arrival; in which they were confirmed by our boats rowing briskly toward them: on which their launch thought proper to make the best of their way toward Augustine. There the soldiers and boatmen, fatigued with over-labour, spread such dismal accounts, magnifying our strength and diligence, in order to save their own reputation, that they created a general uproar among the people.

"That night I had several fires made in the woods, some at two, some at three, miles' distance from Point St. George. On Friday morning the foot and horse, under the command of Don Pedro, finding themselves abandoned by the launch, and therefore in no possibility of passing over into the island against us; and from the many fires in the woods collecting that the Creek Indians were come up; having left a small guard of horse to observe our motions, retired in good order to Augustine. Their arrival doubled the confusion, they apprehending that if the Indians should cut off their communication by land, as the man-of-war might do by sea, they should perish by famine. The Governor was obliged to call a council of war, in which the oldest officers, and indeed almost all, gave their opinion, that the gentlemen sent by me should be immediately released, and sent back in the most honourable manner, with an officer attending them, to treat with me, and desire me to restrain the Indians from invading them: at the same time to ask me why we settled upon lands and territories belonging to the King of Spain.

"Not knowing anything of these proceedings, except that the Spaniards were retired, I lay at Fort St. George from Thursday to Sunday; in which time fresh troops arrived: and falling all of us to work, with the officers and men of the King's troop, who distinguished themselves upon this occasion, we mounted some guns upon the batteries along the river, and got the fortifications in good forwardness; and having left the fort under the command of Captain Hermsdorf, retired with the utmost diligence to Frederica.

"There I found the King of the Uchees, with thirty men, who offered to assist me with one hundred more against the Spaniards. King Tome Chachi was also there, with thirty men, and an account that hundreds of the Creeks eagerly desired to fall upon the Spaniards. In three days I set out with a large periagua, and fifty men, cannon and provision for two months, two ten-cared boats, and the Indians in their own boats, to relieve St. George, which I imagined by that time might be besieged. God was pleased to prosper us; so that about fifteen miles from St. George's, being fortunately an hour a-head of the rest of the boats, I met a Spanish boat, with a flag of truce flying, and Mr. Dempsey, and the gentlemen sent to Augustine, in her, together with Don Pedro de Lamberti, Captain of their troop of horse, and Don Manuel, Secretary to the Governor, and Adjutant of the garrison. It was lucky the Indiana were not foremost; for if they had been, they would certainly have engaged the Spanish boat; which, as it was, I could hardly prevent, by sending a ten-cared boat to guard them to Frederica. Then I ordered them to be received on board the man-of-war, where they dined with me. I received them with the greatest form I could, having a guard of the King's troops on the right hand, with their bayonets fixed; and on the left hand the Highlanders, with their targets, and broad-swords drawn.

"After dinner we drank the King of Britain's and the King of Spain's health, under the discharge of cannon from the ship; which was answered with fifteen pieces of cannon from Delegall's fort, at the sea-point. That again was followed by the cannon from the fort of St. Andrews, and that by those of Frederica and the Darien, as I had before ordered. The Spaniards seemed extremely surprised that there should be so many forts, and all within hearing of one another. Don Pedro smiled, and said, ' No wonder Don Ignatio made more haste home than out.' After the healths were done, a great number of Indians came on board, naked, painted, and their heads dressed in feathers. They demanded of me justice against the Spaniards, for having killed some of their men in time of full peace. They farther proved, that after the woman was taken, she was abused by numbers of men; and when she had satisfied their lust for two days, they inhumanly burned her alive.

"Don Pedro, having asked several questions, acknowledged himself fully satisfied of the fact; excusing it by saying he was then in Mexico; and that the Governor, being newly come from Spain, and not knowing the customs of the country, had sent out Indians under the command of the Pohoia King of the Floridas, who had exceeded his orders, which were not to make war with the Creeks. But the Indians not being content with that answer, he undertook that, at his return to Augustine, he would have the Pohoia King put to death, if he could be taken; and if he could not, that the Spaniards would supply his people with neither powder, arms, nor anything else, but leave them to the Creeks. The Indians answered that he spake well; and if the Spaniards did what he said, all should be white between them; but if not, they would take revenge; from which, at my desire, they would abstain till a final answer came.

"The Indian matters being thus settled, we had a conference with the Spanish Commissioners. They thanked me for my restraining the Indians who were in my power, and hoped I would extend that care to the upper Indians. They then, after having produced their credentials, presented a paper, the contents whereof were to know by what title I settled upon St. Simon's, being lands belonging to the King of Spain. I took the paper, promising an answer the next day. The substance was, that the lands belonged to the King of England by undoubted right; that I had proceeded with the utmost caution, having taken with me Indians, the natives, and possessors of those lands; that I had examined every place, to see if there were any Spanish possessions, and went forward till I found an outguard of theirs, over against which I settled the English, without committing any hostilities, or dislodging any. Therefore-I did not extend the King's dominions, but only settled with regular garrisons that part of them which was before a shelter for Indians, Pireks, and such sort of disorderly men.

"The rest of the evening we spent in conversation, which chiefly turned upon the convenience it would be, both to the Spaniards and English, to have regular garrisons in sight of each other. Don Pedro smiled, and said he readily agreed to that; and should like very well to have their Spanish guard upon the south side of H— river {which is within five miles of Charlestown, and where the Spaniards had a garrison in King Charles the First's time). I replied, I thought it was better as it was for there were a great many people living between, who could never be persuaded to come into his sentiments. At last Don Pedro acquainted me, that he thought the Spaniards would refer the settling of the limits to the courts of Europe: for which purpose he would write to their court and in the meantime desired no hostilities might be committed; and that I would send up a Commissary to sign with the Government an agreement to this purpose. I thereupon appointed Mr. Dempsey to be my Commissary, and to return with them.

"Don Pedro is the ruling man in Augustine, and has more interest with the Council of War than the Governor. As he passed by St. George's Point, he sent a whole ox as a present to their garrison. He gave me some sweetmeats and chocolate. I gave him a gold watch, a gun, and fresh provisions. To Don Manuel I gave a silver watch, and sent back a boat to escort them. If the Spaniards had committed any hostilities, I could, by the help of the Indians, have destroyed Augustine with great facility. But, God be praised, by His blessing, the diligence of Dempsey, and the prudence of Don Pedro, all bloodshed was avoided."

Sat., May 29th. At ten this evening I first met my traders, at Mr. Causton's, the head bailiff: as I did some or other of them every day for some weeks.

Mon., May 31st. About noon Mr. Oglethorpe sent us word that he was going to court. We went, and heard his speech to the people, in the close of which he said, "If any one here has been abused or oppressed by any man, in or out of employment, he has free and full liberty of complaining. Let him deliver in his complaints in writing, at my house. I will read all over by myself, and do every particular man justice."

At eight in the evening I waited upon him, and found the three Magistrates, who seemed much alarmed by his speech, and hoped he would not discourage government. He dismissed them, and told me, he feared his following my brother's advice, in hearing all complaints, would ruin the people; and he should never have any to serve him. I replied, I thought the contrary; and that such liberty was the happiest thing that could happen to the colony, and much to be desired by all good men. He fell, I know not how, into talk of Frederica, and said,

Sun., June 6th. I passed good part of this as of every day in conversing with Mr. Appee, who generally breakfasted and supped at our house. The subject of our discourse was my intention of resigning my place, which I resolved to do after my last conference with Mr. Oglethorpe. The giving up my salary and certain hopes of preferment weighed nothing against my resolution. I made Mr. Appee a proffer of them, which he did not accept, being obliged to return, to look after his fortune in Holland.

Tues., June 8th. I was present at court, and heard the accusations against Mr. Causton, who stood by while Parker, the first tribune of the people, on whom the malcontents had built all their hopes, brought the heaviest charges I suppose that could be brought against him. But they were so incredible, trifling, and childish, that I thought them a full vindication of the Magistrates, and admired Mr. Oglethorpe's patience in hearing them.

Wed., June 16th. This and many foregoing days have been mostly spent in drawing up bonds and affidavits, licences and instructions, for the traders; the evenings in writing letters for Mr. Oglethorpe. We seldom parted till midnight. To-night, at half-hour past twelve, he set out in the scout-boat for Frederica. I went to bed at one, and rose again at four; but found no effect this variety of fatigue had upon my body till some time after.

Sun., June 20th. Walking in the Trustees' garden, I met the Miss Boveys, whom I had never been in company with. I found some inclination to join them; but it was a very short-lived curiosity.

Sat., June 26th. Mr. Oglethorpe and my brother returned from Frederica.

Thur., July 1st. I was at court while the Creek Indians had an audience with Mr. Oglethorpe; which I took down (as several afterwards) in short hand.

Wed., July 7th. Between four and five this morning Mr. Delamotte and I went into the Savannah. We chose this hour for bathing, both for the coolness, and because the alligators were not stirring so soon. We heard them indeed snoring all around us; and one very early riser swam by within a few yards of us. On Friday morning we had hardly left our usual place of swimming, when we saw an alligator in possession of it. Once afterwards Mr. Delamotte was in great danger; for an alligator rose just behind him, and.pursued him to the land, whither he narrowly escaped.

Sat., July 10th. I was waked by the news my brother brought us, of Miss Bovey's sudden death. It called up all my sorrow and envy. "Ah, poor Ophelia!" was continually in my mind, "I thought thou shouldst have been my Hamlet's wife." Mr. Appee was just set out for Charlestown, [on his way to] Holland, intending to return, when he had settled his affairs, and marry her. "But death had quicker wings than love."

The following evening I saw her in her coffin, and soon seen in her grave.

Wed., July 21st. I heard by my brother that I was to set sail in a few days for England.

Thur., July 22. To-day I got their licences signed by Mr. Oglethorpe, countersigned them myself, and so entirely washed my hands of the traders.

Sun., July 25th. I resigned my Secretary's place, in a letter to Mr. Oglethorpe. After prayers he took me aside, and asked me whether all I had said was not summed up in the line he showed me on my letter :— Magis apta tuis tua dona relinquo. "Sir, to yourself your slighted gifts I leave, Less fit for me to take, than you to give."

I answered, I desired not to lose his esteem, but could not preserve it with the loss of my soul. He answered, he was satisfied of my regard for him; owned my argument drawn from the heart unanswerable; and yet, said he, "I would desire you not to let the Trustees know your resolution of resigning. There are many hungry fellows ready to catch at the office; and in my absence I cannot put in one of my own choosing. The best I can hope for is an honest Presbyterian, as many of the Trustees are such. Perhaps they may send me a bad man; and how far such a one may influence the traders, and obstruct the reception of the Gospel among the Heathen, you know. I shall be in England before you leave it. Then you may either put in a deputy or resign.

"You need not be detained in London above three days; and only speak to some of my particular friends, (Vernon, Hutchinson, and Towers,) to the Board of Trustees, when called upon, and the Board of Trade.

"On many accounts I should recommend to you marriage, rather than celibacy. You are of a social temper, and would find in a married state the difficulties of working out your salvation exceedingly lessened, and your helps as much increased."

Mon., July 26th. The words which concluded the lesson, and my stay in Georgia, were, "Arise, let us go hence." Accordingly at twelve I took my final leave of Savannah.

When the boat put off I was surprised that I felt no more joy in leaving such a scene of sorrows.

July 31st. I arrived with my brother at Chariestown. I lay that night at an inn. Next morning I was much rejoiced at hearing Mr. Appee was still in town, waiting for my company to England. His ingenuous, open temper, and disengagement from the world, made me promise myself a very improving and agreeable voyage: especially as I doubted not but the sudden death of his mistress had taken off that appearance of lightness, which I attributed rather to his youth and education, than any natural inconstancy. After breakfasting with Mr. Eveley, a merchant who had bespoke lodgings for us, I went in quest of my friend. We met with equal satisfaction on both sides: but I did not observe those deep traces of sorrow and seriousness which I expected. I asked him whether his loss had had its due effect, in making his heart more tender, and susceptible of divine impressions. By his answer I concluded his heart was right, and its uppermost desire was to recover the divine image.

Something of this desire I felt myself at the holy sacrament, and found myself encouraged, by an unusual hope of pardon, to strive against sin.

Mon., August 2d. I had observed much, and heard more, of the cruelty of masters towards their negroes; but now I received an authentic account of some horrid instances thereof. The giving a child a slave of its own age to tyrannize over, to beat and abuse out of sport, was, I myself saw, a common practice. Nor is it strange, being thus trained up in cruelty, they should afterwards arrive at so great perfection in it; that Mr. Star, a gentleman I often met at Mr. Lasserre's, should, as he himself informed L., first nail up a negro by the ears, then order him to be whipped in the severest manner, and then to have scalding water thrown over him, so that the poor creature could not stir for four months after. Another much-applauded punishment is, drawing their slaves' teeth. One Colonel Lynch is universally known to have cut off a poor negro's legs; and to kill several of them every year by his barbarities.

It were endless to recount all the shocking instances of diabolical cruelty which these men (as they call themselves daily practise upon their fellow-creatures; and that on the most trivial occasions. I shall only mention one more, related to me by a Swiss gentleman, Mr. Zouberbuhler, an eye-witness, of Mr. Hill, a dancing-master in Charlestown. He whipped a she-slave so long, that she fell down at his feet for dead. When, by the help of a physician, she was so far recovered as to show signs of life, he repeated the whipping with equal rigour, and concluded with dropping hot sealing-wax upon her flesh. Her crime was overfilling a tea-cup.

These horrid cruelties are the less to be wondered at, because the government itself, in effect, countenances and allows them to kill their slaves, by the ridiculous penalty appointed for it, of about seven pounds sterling, half of which is usually saved by the criminal's informing against himself. This I can look upon as no other than a public act to indemnify murder.

Wed., August 11th. Coming on board our ship, I found the honest Captain had let my cabin to another. My flux and fever that has hung upon me, forced me for some nights past to go into a bed; but now my only bed was a chest, on which I threw myself in my boots, and was not overmuch troubled with sleep till the morning. What was still worse, I then had no asylum to fly to from the Captain; the most beastly man I ever saw; a lewd, drunken, quarrelsome feel; praying, and yet swearing continually. The first sight I had of him was upon the cabin-floor, stark naked, and dead drunk.

Fri., August 13th. The wind was still contrary; so that we were forced to lie off the bar, about five miles from Charlestown.

Mon., August 16th. A faint breeze springing up, the pilot, weary of waiting a week to no purpose, said he would venture over the bar, though he feared there was not water enough. Accordingly we attempted it, and had got above half of the two miles between us and the sea, when a violent, squall arose, and drove the ship before it with incredible swiftness. Before it began we were almost becalmed, so that it saved the ship, at least, from being a-ground, though with the immediate hazard both of that and our lives. The sailors were in great consternation, expecting to be stranded every moment. The pilot cursed the ship most heartily, and the hour he set foot in her. Having scraped along the ground for some minutes before, the ship at last stuck. She got clear, and stuck fast a second time; and immediately fell into seven fathom water.

The Mate afterwards told me, it was one thousand to one but she had been lost by the Captain's folly and ignorance, in letting fly the mainsail, while we struck on the bar; which was the surest way to fix her there; as it must have done had we not been on the very edge of it.

Tues., August 17th. We were much surprised (the passengers, I mean) at finding, as soon as over the bar, that two of our twelve sailiors were obliged to pump every half-hour.

Mon., August 23d. I rose in the night to appease a quarrel between the second Mate and the Captain, who was continually interrupting the officers in their duty; giving out, as they informed me, such orders as would, if followed, cost them the ship and their lives. His indignation at present was occasioned by their furling some of the sails in the greatest squall we have yet met with.

Thur., August 26th. We saw a brigantine, standing to the windward of us, but quickly lost sight of her. Had she come near us, Mr. Appee and I intended to have gone on board her; for we cannot yet believe we shall come to England in this ship.

Fri., August 27th. We came to an allowance of water, the Captain knowing nothing of what we had on board, till the officers informed him. Indeed, at his rate of drinking, we must quickly come to a shorter allowance; for while any of his half-hogshead of rum remains, here will be nothing but punch, and drams, and drunkenness without end.

This morning Mr. Appee laid aside his mask. He began by telling me all Mr. Oglethorpe had ever said to him, particularly his inmost thoughts of my brother and me; that he ridiculed our pretended fasting in the ship; that he took all my abstemioushess for mere hypocrisy, and put on for fear of my brother; for he saw how very uneasy I was under the restraint; that he much blamed my carelessness, my closeness, my frightening the people, and stirring them up to mutiny, &c., &c.; that he found I apprehended being turned out of my office, and therefore pretended to be weary of it; that to save my reputation, he had found me an errand to England, but never expected my return, any more than my brother's going to the Indians, which he well knew he never intended, but he would make his own use of him; that he greatly admired his finesse, in offering to go to the Choctaws in all haste, but at the same time procuring the Germans to dissuade him. In a word, he believed him to have a little sincerity, but more vanity: me to have much vanity, but no sincerity at all.

I asked Appee whether his judgment was the same. He answered, "Yes ;" that my brother, he believed, was labouring to establish a character for sanctity; was exceedingly subtle, keeping me in the dark, as well as all others; yet credulous, and easy to be imposed upon himself; that he pitied his ignorance, in taking him (Appee) to be sincere; particularly in regard to his breaking off with Miss Bovey, which he intended, not in pursuance of his ghostly advice, but of Mr. Oglethorpe's, who had told him she was below his aspiring genius; that after his fine talk with my brother, he never made the least alteration in his own behaviour, or thought any farther about it.

While he was giving this blessed account of himself, I could not help reflecting on the profound sagacity and spiritual discernment of my brother and myself; particularly his, who was born for the benefit of knaves. Si vult decipi, decipiatur. For my own part, I will never imitate, I will ever beware of, men, as He who best knows them advises.

I will not think all men rogues, till I find them otherwise, (according to Appee's avowed principle,)but I will insist upon a far different probation from what my brother requires, before I take any one into my confidence.

I next inquired what his thoughts were of me. He frankly replied, he took meto be partly in earnest; but I had a much greater mind to please myself than to pleaseGod. Yet as for money, I did not much value it; but in my eagerness for pleasure and praise, I was a man after his own heart.: that as I could not hold it, he wished I would leave off my strictness; for I should then be much better company. As for himself, he said his only principle was an insatiable thirst of glory; that Georgia was too narrow a sphere for him, and that therefore he should never see it more.

Yet he desired my friendship, because I had learning, was sincere, and of his temper; but he should like me much better, if I were not a Parson. I had before let him into my own affairs, and read him my letter of resignation to Mr. Oglethorpe. His remark upon that was, "It is finely calculated for the end you propose,—the engaging Mr. Oglethorpe's opinion and interest; but he will understand you."

Sat., August 28th. After a restless, tempestuous night, I hardly rose at eight. Our happier Captain, having got his dose, could sleep a day and a night upon the stretch, and defy either pumps or squall to wake him.

Mon., August 30th. At noon we were alarmed by an outcry of the sailors, at their having continued pumping several hours, without being able to keep the water under. They desired the Captain to put into some port, before they were got out to sea too far for returning; but he was too drunk to regard them. At five the sailors came down in a body to the great cabin, waked, and told him it was as much as their lives were worth to proceed on the voyage, unless their leaks were stopped; that he remembered it was as much as ever they could do to keep the ship above water in their passage from Boston, being forced to pump without ceasing; that the turpentine fell down upon, and choked up, the pumps continually: nor was it possible to get at it, or to hold out in such continual labour; which made them so thirsty, they could not live on their allowance of water; that they must come to shorter still, through his neglect to take in five more hogsheads of water, as his Mate advised him; that he owned they had no candles for half the voyage: on all which accounts they begged him to consider whether their common safety did not require them to put in at some land, for more water and candles, and, above all, to stop their leaks. The Captain, having now slept out his rum, replied, "To be sure, the men talked reason," and, without consulting any of his officers, immediately gave orders to stand away for Boston.


1 Several paragraphs following are written in a private character. Most probably Mr. Vernon, one of the Trustees of the colony.

Charles Wesley, The Journal of the Rev. Charles Wesley (London: Hutchinson & Co., 1849)

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