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CENSUS OFFICE,           
EDINBURGH, 14th June 1871.


THE Census Act, 33 and 34 Vict. cap. 108, directed that the Householders' and other Schedules were to be left at every house on or before Saturday, the first day of April 1871, and that the inhabitants were to enter on these Schedules the particulars of the name, sex, age, rank, profession or occupation, condition, relation to the head of the family, and birthplace of every living person who abode in every house on the night of Sunday, the second day of April, and also whether any were blind, or deaf and dumb, or imbecile, or lunatic, and also whether any, or how many of such persons, being of the age of from five to thirteen years, were in regular attendance at school, or were in the receipt of education at home under tutors or governesses.

The Enumerators collected these Schedules, so filled up, on Monday, the 3d April, and copied all the particulars into the Enumeration Books, which, with the Schedules and other documents, were handed to the Local Registrars, who, after revising the work, prepared Summaries of each District. These Summaries, together with all the Enumeration and Memorandum Books, were sent to the Sheriffs of Counties, and to the Chief Magistrates of Royal and Parliamentary Burghs, on or before the 3d day of May, who were to transmit the same to the Registrar-General in Edinburgh not later than the 15th day of May. The Householders' Schedules, on the other hand, were transmitted direct by the Registrars to the Registrar-General, without passing through the hands of the Sheriffs or Chief Magistrates.

From the Summaries prepared by the Registrars the following Tables have been chiefly compiled, giving the numbers on the authority of the Local Registrars, but adding the population of the Shipping in the respective Ports, or in British waters. The numbers, though given on the authority of the Local Registrars, and previous to that careful revisal which is now in progress at the Census Office, may be considered sufficiently accurate for all useful purposes.

The ages of the Children receiving education differ from those referred to in the Census of 1861. At the Census of 1861, it was directed that the number of all Children being of the age of from five to fifteen years who attended school should be given; but the result was unsatisfactory, and did not seem to accomplish the end had in view. In 1867, the Scottish Education Commissioners reported that:

'any attempt at school legislation must fail, unless legislators take into account the period of life which can be spared for educational purposes.'

'From these facts, it appears that in Scotland, education does not begin much earlier than six years.'

'It has already been observed that comparatively few children remain at school after twelve years of age; and the question arises, whether school attendance can be prolonged beyond that period'

'It may be assumed, therefore, that a large majority of the scholars attend school for some time between the ages of six and twelve.'

To carry out these recommendations of the Scottish Education Commissioners, the Census Act of 1871 limited the inquiry into the number of Children in the receipt of education to those whose ages were 'from five to thirteen years.' Seeing that the directions as to ages in the Householders' Schedules were to the effect that the ages were to be stated as at last birthday, the return of Children receiving education would include those who, having completed their fifth year, were entered on the Schedules as five years of age last birthday, up to those who were entered as twelve years of age last birthday, but had not completed their thirteenth year of life.

The whole Returns being taken up under the superintendence of the Local Registrars of Births, Deaths, and Marriages, whose districts, in innumerable instances, do not correspond with the Civil Parishes, which again cause even the Civil and Registration Counties by no means to correspond, much correction of the Registrar's Summaries was required before the population of Civil Counties could be eliminated from those of the Registration Counties. In separate Tables, however, are given the respective populations of both Civil and Registration Counties, as these are required for entirely different purposes.

From the Tables it appears that, on the 3d April 1871, the Population of Scotland, including the seamen belonging to the shipping in Scottish Ports or waters, amounted to 3,358,613 persons, of whom 1,601,633 were males, and 1,756,980 females. This, as compared with the Census of 1861, shows an increase of 151,785 males, and 144,534 females, or a total of 296,319 persons in ten years; being a total increase to the extent of 9.67 per cent. in ten years, or a male increase of 10.47 per cent., and a female increase of only 8.96 per cent.

It thus appears that the Population of Scotland has been increasing during the past ten years very nearly in the same ratio as it did from 1831 to 1841, and from 1841 to 1851. It may be remembered that, probably from the greater amount of emigration, and greater slackness in trade, the increase between 1851 and 1861 was only at the low rate of 6 per cent.; so that the diminished emigration, and the increased prosperity of the country between 1861 and 1871, seems sufficiently to explain the greater rate of increase during these years. The Tables appended relating to Emigration will show that, between 1861 and 1871, only 157,838 natives of Scotland emigrated from the ports of the United Kingdom at which there are Emigration Officers; while from 1851 to 1861, with a smaller population, there emigrated 183,620 natives of Scotland.

The Legislature, however, and the public, are both interested in ascertaining among what class of the Population it is that the increase has chiefly taken place. For this purpose, Tables VIII. and IX. have been prepared, dividing the Population of Scotland into Four Groups: 1st, PRINCIPAL TOWNS, with Populations above 26,000; 2d, LARGE TOWNS, with Populations from 10,000 to 26,000; 3d, SMALL TOWNS, with Populations from 3000 to 10,000 persons; and 4th, RURAL DISTRICTS, which comprise the remainder of Scotland, with all the small villages, &c.

By these Tables, it appears that the principal Towns, during the ten years, increased by 183,528 persons, being at the rate of 20.96 per cent.; the Large Towns increased by 56,114 persons, being at the rate of 22.09 per cent. ; the Small Towns increased by 37,856 persons, being at the rate of 7.53 per cent.; while the Rural Districts only added 18,821 persons to their population, being at the low rate of 1.32 per cent. of increase. Even in these Rural Districts the increase was almost entirely limited to the villages of from 2000 to 3000 inhabitants; the greater portion of the truly Rural Districts being either stationary in their numbers, or exhibiting a greater or lesser decrease.

TABLE I . Comprises the numbers of the Population, distinguishing the Sexes, of the Families, of the Children from five to thirteen years in the regular receipt of education, of Houses, and of Rooms with one or more windows, in SCOTLAND, in its EIGHT DIVISIONS, and its thirty-three CIVIL COUNTIES, on the 3d April 1871. The numbers include the Military in Barracks and the Seamen on board Vessels in Scottish Harbours or waters on the night of 2d April; but do not include the 4202 persons on board Scottish Vessels in Foreign Ports, and at Sea, whose returns we have already received; nor yet the persons on board Scottish Vessels in English, Irish, or Colonial Ports, of whose numbers we are yet ignorant. The returns from the inaccessible island of St Kilda have not yet been received; but to complete the Tables, the Population of that island has been. estimated as it stood in 1861.

TABLE II . Exhibits the same facts for SCOTLAND, grouped in its EIGHT REGISTRATION DIVISIONS, and its 33 REGISTRATION COUNTIES. With the exception of the Insular Counties of Shetland, Orkney, and Bute, the Populations of the Registration Counties differ more or less from those of the Civil Counties.

TABLE III . Is prepared with the view of showing the comparative increase or decrease in the numbers of the Population and Houses in 1861 and 1871, in SCOTLAND and in its several CIVIL COUNTIES.

TABLE IV. Shows the numbers of the Population, distinguishing the Sexes, in each of the CIVIL COUNTIES of SCOTLAND, at the taking of each Census from 1801 to 1871. It has to be noted, however, that the Army at home was first included in the returns for 1841; and that the number of Seamen on board Vessels in Scottish Ports or waters was first included in 1851. The returns for 1871, of course, contain both.

TABLE V. Is framed from Table IV., and shows the increase or decrease of the Population in each of the CIVIL COUNTIES, and in all SCOTLAND, in the intervals between the taking of the several Censuses from 1801 to 1871.

TABLE VI. Is based on the numbers given in Table V., and shows the rates of increase or decrease in the respective Sexes, and in the whole Population of SCOTLAND, in each of its CIVIL COUNTIES, in decennial periods, from 1801 to 1871.

TABLE VII. Gives some particulars relative to the PARLIAMENTARY BURGHS OF SCOTLAND, as to the Population, number of Families, of Children in the regular receipt of Education, of the Houses, and Rooms with Windows. Two Parliamentary Burghs, Galashiels and Hawick, have been added since 1861.

TABLES VIII. and IX. Give a comparative view of the Population of Scotland when thrown into Four Groups according to density of Population, viz., Principal Towns, Large Towns, Small Towns, and Rural Districts, Table VIII. giving the numbers of the Sexes and Persons in each, while Table IX. shows the increase in the Sexes and Persons, and the percentage of increase between the Census periods 1861 and 1871.

TABLE X. Shows the number of Persons on board Scottish Vessels in Foreign Ports, or at Sea; but does not include the much larger quantity of Scottish Shipping in English, Irish, and Colonial Ports and Seas, on the 2d of April 1871.

TABLE XI. Shows the ascertained number of Emigrants from the United Kingdom between the periods at which the two Censuses of 1861 and 1871 were taken, distinguishing the Birthplaces of the Emigrants, so far as ascertained.

TABLE XII. Shows the Emigrants whose Birthplaces who were not ascertained distributed in proportion over the other groups.

We have the honour to be,


Your most obedient Servants,



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