Descriptive Gazetteer Entry for NEWTON-ABBOT

NEWTON-ABBOT, a town, a sub-district, and a district, in Devon. The town stands on the river Lemonat its influx to the Teign, and on the South Devon railway at the junction of the branches to Dartmouth and to Moreton-Hampstead, near Hackneild ford on the Icknieldway, 15 miles by road, but 20 by railway, S S W of Exeter; and it is partly in Wolborough parish, partly in Highweek parish, which are separated by the river Lemon. It was anciently called Nuietone. It appears to have been originally considered one town, of one name, on one manor; but it afterwards, on a partition of the manor, came to be regarded as two towns, of two names. The part in Wolborough parish passed, by gift of Lord Brewer, to the abbot of Tor, and took the distinctive name of Newton-Abbot; while the part in Highweek parish went, by gift of Henry III., to Robert Bussell or Bushell, and took the name of Newton-Bushell. Charles I. and his suite, in 1625, on their way to Plymouth, were entertained at Ford House, a large and handsome mansion close to the railway station, belonging to the Earl of Devon, and now occupied by W. J. Watts, Esq.; and the Prince of Orange, in 1688, on his way from Torbayto Exeter, slept in the same mansion, made it, for atime, his head-quarters, encamped his army on Milber Down, and emitted his first declaration to the people of England from the pedestal of Newton-Abbot market-cross. The pedestal still stands, and bears an inscription commemorative of the fact. Two port reeves, elected annually, the one by Newton-Abbot, the other by Newton-Bushell, govern the town; a board of 12 members, under the local government act, controls Newton-Abbot; and local magistrates hold petty sessions. The town comprises several good streets; has, of late years, been much extended and embellished; is a polling-place; and has a head post-office, ‡ a railway station with telegraph, three banking offices, two chief inns, a town hall, a market house, three churches, seven dissenting chapels, a national school, a charity school, four alms-houses, and a workhouse. The town hallwas erected in 1848; contains a court-room, a reading-room, and a public room for meetings and lectures; and has, connected with it, a police station. One of the churches, in Woolborough-street, is a chapel ofease to Woolborough; another, in Exeter-street, is a chapel of ease to Highweek; and the third, in Devon-square, is a new chapel of ease, called St. Paul's church, a handsome cruciform edifice, in the early English style, erected in 1861, at a cost of about £4,000, all defrayed by the Earl of Devon, who also endowed it with £100 a year. The parish church of Woolborough is on an eminence about a mile from Newton-Abbot; and that of Highweek, a very old edifice, is about a mile from Newton-Bushell. The alms-houses are for four poor widows of clergymen; and were founded in 1640 by Lady Lucy Reynell, and rebuilt in 1845. The work-house is a substantial stone building, in East-street; and has capacity for 350 inmates. A weekly market is heldon Wednesday; a great cattle-market, on the last Wednesday of Feb.; and fairs, on 24 June, 11 Sept., and 6 Nov. Much business is done in the weekly market; and a considerable import and export trade, in connexionwith Teignmouth, is conducted at good and commodiouswharves on the Teign. Pop. of the town in 1851, 3, 147; in 1861, 5, 221. Houses, 1, 683. Pop. of the Woolborough section in 1861, 4, 122. Houses, 841.

The sub-district contains the parishes of Woolborough, Highweek, Teigngrace, Kingsteignton, Haccombe, Combeinteignhead, Abbots-Kerswell, East Ogwell, West Ogwell, Denbury, Torbrian, and the larger part of Ipplepen. Acres, 21, 313. Pop. in 1851, 9, 217; in 1861, 10, 467. Houses, 2, 176. The district comprehends also the sub-district of Ashburton, containing the parishes of Ashburton, Broadhempston, Bickington, Ilsington, Buckland-in-the-Moor, and Widdecombe-in-the-Moor, and the chapelry of Woodland; the sub-district of Moreton-Hampstead, containing the parishes of Moreton-Hampstead, North Bovey, Manaton, and Lustleigh; the sub-district of Chudleigh, containing the parishes of Chudleigh, Trusham, Hennock, Bovey-Tracey, and Bishopsteignton; the sub-district of Teignmouth, containing the parishes of East Teignmouth, West Teignmouth, St. Nicholas, and Dawlish; and the sub-district of Torquay, containing the parishes of Tormoham-with-Torquay, Cockington, St. Marychurch, Kingskerswell, Coffinswell, and Stokeinteignhead. Acres, 117, 396. Poor-rates in 1863, £19, 798. Pop. in 1851, 52, 306; in 1861, 59, 863. Houses, 10, 825. Marriages in 1863, 416; births, 1,818, of which 81 were illegitimate; deaths, 1, 260, of which 431 were at ages under 5 years, and 32 at ages above 85. Marriages in the ten years 1851-60, 3, 799; births, 16, 172; deaths, 10, 179. The places of worship, in 1851, were 47 of the Church of England, with 19, 333 sittings; 12 of Independents, with 4, 567 s.; 16 of Baptists, with 2, 711 s.; 1 of Quakers, with 25 s.; 24 of Wesleyans, with 3, 771 s.; 1 of Bible Christians, with 114 s.; 6 of Brethren, with 870 s.; 4 undefined, with 800 s.; and 3 of Roman Catholics, with 384 s. The schools were 48 public day-schools, with 3, 968 scholars; 120 private day-schools, with 2, 623 s.; and 55 Sunday schools, with 4, 165 s.

(John Marius Wilson, Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales (1870-72))

Linked entities:
Feature Description: "a town, a sub-district, and a district"   (ADL Feature Type: "cities")
Administrative units: Newton Abbot PLU/RegD       Devon AncC
Place names: NEWTON ABBOT     |     NUIETONE
Place: Newton Abbot

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