Descriptive Gazetteer Entry for PLYMOUTH

PLYMOUTH, a great seaport in the S W extremity of Devon. It comprehends the three towns of Plymouth-proper on the E, Stonehouse in the middle, and Devon-port on the W, and the suburb of Morice-Town on the N W; it extends from the Catwater or estuary of the Plym on the E, to the Hamoaze or estuary of the Tamaron the W; it occupies all the peninsula between these estuaries, cut in the S into three subordinate peninsulasby two creeks called Mill-bay and Sutton-pool, each about ½ a mile long; it is washed, along the S, by theupper part of Plymouth sound, which extends southward from it to the English channel; and it lies around the meeting-point of the South Devon railway and the Cornwall railway, 3½ miles W by S of the junction of the South Devon and Tavistock railway, and 43¼ miles by road, but 52¾ by railway, S W of Exeter. Stonehouse., Devonport, and Morice-Town are separately noticed in their own alphabetical places; and only Plymouth-proper and Plymouth sound form the subject of the presentarticle.

History.—Plymouth, or its site, was called, in the Saxontimes, Tameorwerthe; after the Norman conquest, Sutton, or South-town; in the time of Edward I., Sutton-Prior, inone part, belonging to the priory of Plympton, Sutton-Valletort, or Sutton-Vauton, in another part, belonging to the family of Valletort; and, in the time of Henry VII., Plymouth. It is not mentioned in Domesday-book; and it is described in a manuscript of the time of Henry "a mene thing, an inhabitation for fishars." It soonafterwards began to rise into importance; and, in the time of Edward I., it had many vessels, and sent two members to parliament. A large fleet sailed from it, in 1295, to Guienne. The French attacked it in 1338, butwere repulsed by the Earl of Devon. A contribution of26 ships with 603 men was made by it, and by neighbouring places, in 1346, to the siege of Calais. The French attacked it again in 1350. The Black Princeembarked at it in 1355, on his expedition to France, and landed at it in 1357, with his royal prisoner. The French attacked it a third time in 1377, and then burntpart of it; they plundered it also in 1400; and they madeanother attempt to destroy it by fire in 1403. Fortifications for its defence were constructed in 1439. Margaret of Anjou landed at it in 1471; and Catherine of Arragon, in 1500. The plague ravaged it in 1579, 1581, and 1626. Sir Francis Drake, in 1584, constructed water-works forit, which still exist, and draw their supplies from a distance of 24 miles in Dartmoor. The fleet of 120 men ofwar, collected against the Spanish armada in 1588, tookanchorage in P. sound, and sailed out thence, on sight of the armada, to chase and disperse it. Twenty-two chests of Papal bulls and indulgences, which had beentaken from a discomfited party of Spanish invadersin Cornwall, were publicly burnt in 1595 in P. market-place. The fleet for the expedition against Cadiz rendezvoused in the sound in 1596. Sir Walter Raleighsailed hence, on his expedition to Guiana, in 1617. The " Pilgrim Fathers" also sailed hence, to make a settlement in America; and they therefore called their firstsettlement there New Plymouth. Charles I., with hiswhole court, a fleet of 120 ships, and 6,000 troops, visited P. in 1635, remained ten days, and was sumptuously entertained by the corporation. The town, nevertheless, declared against him at the civil war; and, in 1643, itwithstood a siege of three months by Prince Maurice. Charles II. visited P. in 1670. The fleet of the Prince of Orange, after having landed the Prince at Torbay, came into P. sound in 1688. Plymouth Dock, the nucleus of Devonport, was founded in the latter part of thereign of William III. Captain Cook sailed from P. in 1768; George III. visited it in 1789; Buonaparte, onboard of the Bellerophon, arrived in the sound in 1815; Don Miguel landed here in 1829. Queen Victoria alsovisited the town; and the Prince Consort in personopened the adjacent Albert bridge in 1859. Lethbridgethe miniature painter and Foulston the architect diedhere; and Sir John Hawkins the admiral, Jacob Bryant, Glanville who wrote on witchcraft, Bidlake the author of " Virginia, " Carrington the poet, Northcott the painter, Haydon the painter, Eastlake and Prout the artists, Bacon the theologian, Crane and Quick the theologians, Mrs. Parsons the novelist, and Mudge the scientificwriter, were natives.

Streets and Public Buildings.—The town occupies an area of only about a mile each way; and, though so comparatively limited, is not quite compact. Its site ascends boldly and brokenly from Mill-bay, Sutton-pool, and the intermediate headland; and is such as to render some of the street lines steep, and the entrance from the N E inconvenient. Most of the streets are narrow, short, and irregular; but a main good thoroughfare of several namesdescribes the fourth of a circle through the central parts:another good street, called Union-street, forms the chiefconnexion with Stonehouse; and two other good streets, called Cambridge-street and Oxford-street, form a straight and continuous line on the N W; while multitudes of renovations have been made in the old parts, and a profusion of handsome private houses have been erected in thesuburbs. Many a pleasant spot, once open for prome-nading, has been covered with public buildings and government works; but one magnificent promenade, called the Hoe, one of the most beautiful promenades in thekingdom, remains untouched. This is a high ridge, extending from Mill-bay to the entrance of Sutton-pool; constitutes the sea-front of the town; commands a view, both near and far, unrivalled for variety and sparklingwith all sorts of beauty; has, on the centre, a camera-obscura, taking in the view, and, on the E part, an obe-lisk, serving as a landmark to ships entering the sound; and is fabled to have been the scene of a stout combatbetween a powerful giant and Brutus' kinsman, Corinæus. Drayton, in his " Polyolbion, " describes the alleged combat as having been fought "upon that lofty place at Plimmith. called the Hoe; " and Spencer speaks of

The Western Hogh, besprinkled with the gore
Of mighty Goemot, whom in stout fray
Corinæus conquer'd.

The guild-hall stands in Whimple-street; was erected in 1800; is a very irregular structure, in a sort of pointed style; and contains a portrait of George IV., when Regent, and some other pictures. A vast edifice belongingto the corporation, and comprising hotel, assembly-rooms, and theatre, stands at the end of George-street; was erected in 1811-18, at a cost of £60,000; suffered much damage by fire in the beginning of 1863; and was restored before the end of that year. A new hotel at Millbank-Grovewas projected in 1862, on a scale and with a magnificenceto cost £20,000. The Freemasons' hall stands at the N E of Cornwall-street; was built in 1827, at a cost of about £2, 500; and has, on the ground-floor, public reading-rooms instituted in 1832. The custom-house stands on the Quay at Sutton-pool; was built in 1820, at a cost of £8,000; and contains a principal room 521/3 feet long, 26feet wide, and 22 feet high. The exchange stands near the custom-house; was erected in 1 825, by means of £25shares; and includes various public offices, and a reading-room. The post-office stands in Whimple-street; and is in the Grecian style, and commodious. The borough-jail stands on the right of the Tavistock-road; was erected in 1849, at a cost of about £12, 500; and has capacity for48 male and 23 female prisoners. The corn, meat, poultry, fish, and vegetable market occupies an area of about3 acres, with entrances from Cornwall-street, East-street, and Drake-street; the cattle-market is on the Tavistock-road, and is well-fitted with stalls and pens; and the wholesale fish-market is held on the Barbican and themargin of Sutton-pool. The Union baths are situated in Union-street; were founded in 1828; present a Doricfrontage; measure 242 feet by 67; and contain completesuites of all kinds of baths. The public baths and wash-houses are in Hoe-gate; and comprise three classes of baths, and 34 trays for washing. The emigrants' home, the female emigrants' home, and the sailors' home are inrespectively Baltic-wharf, Barbican, and Vauxhall-street. A clock-tower, 56 feet high, and crowned with a spire ofornamental iron-work, was erected in 1863 as a memorial to the late Prince Consort. Other public buildings will be noticed in subsequent paragraphs.

Parishes and Churches.—One parish comprehended allthe town till 1640; and it was then divided into two, called St. Andrew and Charles-the-Martyr. St. Andrew's parish comprises a section of the borough, and the chapelry of Pennycross or Weston-Peverell; and, in the borough section, is ecclesiastically cut into the divisions of St. Andrew, Christchurch, Holy Trinity, St. James, and St. Peter. Acres of the borough section, 519, of which 65 are water; of the whole, 1,800, of which 305are water. Pop. of the borough section, in 1851, 33,064; in 1861, 39, 209. Houses, 3, 663. Pop. of the whole, in 1851, 33, 385; in 1861, 39, 524. Houses, 3, 723. Pop. in 1861 of Christchurch portion, 3, 984; of Holy Trinityportion, 3, 807; of St. James portion, 3, 163; of St. Peterportion, 10, 325. Charles-the-Martyr parish comprises asection of the borough and the tything of Compton-Gifford; and is ecclesiastically cut, in the borough section, into the divisions of Charles-the-Martyr proper and Sutton-on-Plym. Acres of the borough section, 1, 116, of which 240 are water; of the whole, 1, 757. Pop. of the borough section, in 1851, 19, 157; in 1861, 23, 390. Houses, 2, 421. Pop. of the whole, in 1851, 19, 548; inl861, 24, 270. Houses, 2, 561. Pop. of the Sutton-on-Plym portion, in 1861, 6, 237. There are also, within the borough, two chapelries, called St. Andrew's and Charles', without any defined limits. The livings of St. Andrew and Charles-the-Martyr are vicarages, and the other livings are p. curacies, in the diocese of Exeter; and the vicarage of St. A. is united with the chapelry of Penny-cross, and the vicarage of C.-the-M. with the chapelry of Compton-Gifford. Value, of St. A. with P., £920; *of C.-M. with C.-G., £575; of Christchurch, £95; of Trinity, £114; * of St. James, £150; of St. Peter and of Sutton-on-Plym, each £300; of St. Andrew's chapel, £115; * of Charles' chapel, £100. Patron of St. Andrew, the Church Patronage Society; of Charles-the-Martyr, the Executors of the late SirBishop, Bart.; of Christchurch, Trinity, and St. Andrew's chapel, the Vicar of St. Andrew's; of St. James, St. Peter, and Sutton-on-Plym, alternately the Crown and the Bishop; of Charles'chapel, Trustees.

The places of worship within the borough, in 1851, were 10 of the Church of England, with 9, 615 sittings; 5 of Independents, with 2, 968 s.; 1 of Baptists, with1,036 s.; 1 of Quakers, with 400 s.; 2 of Unitarians, with674 s.; 5 of Wesleyans, with 2, 276 s.; 1 of Bible Christians, with 628 s.; 1 of the Wesleyan Association, with308 s.; 10 of isolated congregations, with 5, 500 s.; 1 of the Catholic and Apostolic church, with 250 s.; and 1 of Jews, with 150 s. Some other places of worship were erected prior to 1868. St. Andrew's church stands at the corner of Bedford-street; is later English, with a tower of 1490; has lofty nave, and aisles, extending to the E end, and producing a triple chancel; was restored in 1826, at a cost of nearly £5,000; and contains a monument by Westmacott to Dr. Woolcombe, monuments of a number of other distinguished persons, and a fine bust of the Rev. Z. Mudge by Chantrey. Charles' church stands in Vennell-street; was built in 1846-58; consists of nave, aisles, and chancel, with tower and elegant spire, the latter partly of the last century, partly of the present; and contains a tablet to Dr. Hawker. Christchurchstands in Oxford-street; was erected in 1845; and is in the pointed style. Trinity church stands in Southside-street, was built in 1841, and is in plain Doric style. St. Peter's church stands in Wyndham-place, was built in 1830 as Eldon chapel, and underwent alterations in 1850, when it was made St. Peter's. St. John's church stands in Jubilee-street, and is in the decorated English style. St. Andrew's chapel stands in Lockyer-street, was erected in 1822, and is in the Doric style. Charles' chapelstands in Tavistock-place, was erected in 1828, and contains about 1, 500 sittings. The Sherwell Independent chapel was built in 1864, at a cost of £6,000; is in the decorated English style, and cruciform; has a tower and spire 140 feet high; and contains 1, 200 sittings. The Wesleyan chapel, in King-street, was built in 1866, at a cost of £8, 500; is in the Italian style; and contains 1, 600sittings. The Roman Catholic church, in Cecil-street, was built in 1857, at a cost of £5,000; was in the pointedstyle and cruciform, with accommodation for 2,000 persons; and, on the very eve of completion, collapsed intoa heap of ruins. A house of sisters of mercy adjoins St. Peter's church. There were formerly a white friary, agrey friary, and a lepers' hospital.

Schools and Institutions.—The schools within the borough, in 1851, were 16 public day schools, with 2, 719scholars; 80 private day schools, with 2, 103 s.; 25 Sunday schools, with 4, 544 s.; and 3 evening schools foradults, with 148 s. Some other schools were erected prior to 1868. The grammar school, in Catherine-street, was founded in 1572, and has an endowed income of £20. Hele and Lanyon's charity school, at North Hill, was founded in 1632; educates, clothes, maintains, and apprentices 20 boys; and has an endowed income of £700. The grey school, in Hampton-street, was built in 1814, at a cost of £1, 178; educates and clothes 50 boys and 50girls; and is supported partly by endowment and partly by collections and subscriptions. Lady Rogers' charityschool, in Tavistock-road, was founded in 1773, in result of a bequest of £10,000; and educates, clothes, maintains, and apprentices 58 girls. The free schools, on land belonging to Rowe's charity, were established in 1810, and enlarged about 1855: are attended by about 540 scholars; and have an endowed income of £25. The household offaith, comprising an industrial school and a Sundayschool, stands near Charles' church; was established in 1787; educates and clothes about 40 scholars; and has an endowed income of £30. The Presbyterian school, orbenevolent institution, in Batter-street, was founded in 1785; educates and clothes 50 girls; and is supportedchiefly by subscription. Wesleyan schools, behind the King-street Wesleyan chapel, were about to be built in 1866, at a cost of £4,000. There are also five or sixsuites of national or parochial schools, and two or three ragged schools.

The athenæum stands close to the corporation build-ings, at the end of George-street; was built in 1818-9; has a Doric portico, 36 feet in frontage and 37½ feet highto the apex of the pediment; includes a hall or lecture-room 36 feet by 30; and contains a valuable library and an interesting museum. The public library, in Cornwall-street, was erected in 1812, and enlarged in 1852; contains a spacious committee-room, a spacious news-room, a square library-room, 33 feet across and 33 feethigh, with nearly 20,000 volumes; and includes the Cot-tonian library, with a multitude of rare. volumes, and a rich collection of manuscripts, prints, paintings, bronzes, and other works of art. The mechanics' institute, in Princess-square, was established in 1825; and contains anews-room, a good library, and a lecture-hall 75 feet long and 35 feet wide. The Western college, in Radnor-place, was first founded at Ottery, St. Mary, in 1752, by the London Congregational Fund Board, to counteract thetendency to Arianism which had then extensively affectedthe western churches; was removed to Plymouth in 1766, and rebuilt in 1861; is in the second pointed style, withfeatures of Italian Gothic; contains a spacious hall, lecture-rooms, students' rooms, dormitories, a refectory, a handsome library-room 40 feet by 18, and various offices, with adjoining house for the principal; gives a course offive years' training to ministerial students; is open alsoto young men of all denominations as lay students; and, in 1864, had an income of £1,052. A school of art, inconnexion with the practical art school in London, is in Ebrington-street. A school of science, in connexion with the science and art department in London, was projected in 1865.

The South Devon hospital stands in Notte-street; wasdesigned to consist of a centre and two wings; was constructed with a centre only, at a cost of £4, 435; and has accommodation, in that centre, for 80 patients. The dispensary stands in Catherine-street; was considerablyenlarged about 1850; and contains the library of the Plymouth medical society. The eye infirmary stands in Millbay-road; was established in 1821; and is a neatbuilding, with accommodation for 12 inmates. The female orphan asylum, in Lockyer-street, was founded in 1834; and educates and maintains about 50 orphan girls. The orphans' aid hospital was established in 1625; educates and maintains 10 orphan boys; and has an endowedincome of about £200 a year. Four suites of alms-houses give accommodation and allowances to about 72poor persons. The female penitentiary is in Constantine-street; and was established in 1832. There are variousother benevolent institutions; and the total of endowedcharities, including those already named, is about £3, 700.

Sound and Harbour.—Plymouth sound is the outeror conjoint estuary of the Plym and the Tamar; commences abreast of the conjoint towns of Plymouth, Stone-house, and Devonport; receives, through contractedopenings, the Catwater or estuary of the Plym on the N E, and the Hamoaze or estuary of the Tamar on the N W; extends 3½ miles directly southward, with a width of from 2 to 3½ miles, and opens abruptly into the English channel, between Wembury point on the E and Penlee point on the W. It is famous at once as a magnificent roadstead, as a station of the British navy, and as one of the most beautiful sheets of water on the English coast. It covers about 4, 500 acres; has a depth offrom 5 to 12 fathoms; and can readily accommodate2,000 ships. Its shores rise in hills from 100 to 400 feetin height; and are margined with rocks, and diversifiedwith woods, villages, and towns. Its E side has the Mewstone, Renny, and Shagstone rocks, off Wemburypoint; the Tinker and Shovel shoals, in the E channelpast the breakwater; Statten pier in Bovisand bay, with a reservoir of 12,000 tons of water for shipping; the Duke and Leek shoals, further N; and the Mount Battentower, at the embouche of the Catwater. The W sidehas the Dragstone rock, off Penlee point; the Panther and Knap shoals, near the W end of the breakwater; Cawsand bay, with pilot station, and Maker church, opposite the breakwater; Scottish and New shoals, off Ravenness; the grandly picturesque park of Mount-Edgcumbe, overhanging the shore to the N of Maker; and the Isle of St. Nicholas, or Drake's Island, a bold, strongly-fortified, pyramidal rock, at the entrance of the Hamoaze.

The sound was naturally exposed to southerly gales, often blowing with such force as to be very disastrous toshipping; but it is now protected, all upward of a lineabout a mile within its entrance, by a stupendous artificial breakwater. This work was suggested, in 1806, by the Earl of St. Vincent; was commenced, in 1812, under the direction of Rennie; extends 5, 100 feet from E to W; leaves an entrance 3,000 feet wide between its E end and the E shore, and an entrance 4, 800 feet widebetween its W end and the W shore; consists of a middle and direct part 3,000 feet long, and two end parts, deflecting inward at an angle of 120o, and each 1,050 feetlong; is 210 feet wide at the base, and contracts to awidth of 48 feet at the top; contains about 2, 500,000 tons of stone, much of it from Orestone quarry; derivedadvantages for its construction from the existence ofshoals on its site; underwent improvements on its plan, at several stages in the course of its formation; has threeconvenient landing-places, facing the E, the W, and the N, giving shelter for debarkation in any wind; has also, on its W arm, a lighthouse 63 feet high, showing a fixedlight, red toward the sea, white toward the land, and visible at the distance of 8 miles; is paved on the topwith square blocks of stone, so as to form, in fine weather, a delightful promenade; was completed, as to its mainbody, in 1840, as to its accessories, in 1845; and iscomputed to have cost at least £1, 500,000. The work, on the whole, has admirably withstood the rage ofstorms; but it suffered material damage, particularly in 1838 in the course of its construction; and it still is liableto casualties, in somuch that a damage done to worksconnected with it in the beginning of 1867 was officiallyreported to involve a loss of about £10,000.

Various fortifications, noticed in other articles, defendthe sound; a new fort was begun in 1866 to be constructed at the breakwater; and another fort, called thecitadel, is at Plymouth. The citadel is on the S E headland, at the E end of the Hoe; commands the entrance of the Catwater and Sutton-pool; was constructed in 1670-1; occupies the site of a previous fortification; isentered, on the town side, by two sculptured gateways, with drawbridges; has a spacious esplanade, adornedwith a bronze statue of George II., in the costume of a Roman warrior; comprises three regular and two irregular bastions, the former strengthened by ravelins and horn works; is defended, on all sides except the S, by adeep ditch, counterscarp, and palisadoed covered way; ispierced, in the parapets, with embrasures for 120 guns; and commands, from its ramparts, richly varied and delightful views. A lower fort, connected with the citadel, but of much later date, is designed chiefly to defend thesound.

Catwater harbour is capable of protecting 500 shipsfrom the SW gales. Sutton-pool forms the principalharbour for merchant vessels; has an entrance 90 feetwide, between two piers called the Barbican, erected in 1791-3; has, on the W pier, a lighthouse 29 feet high, put up in 1822, and showing a light visible at the distance of 6 miles; and has, on its E side, a granite shipping establishment, connected by railway with quarriesin Dartmoor. Millbay, on the W, is a larger harbour, with sufficient depth for berthing the largest vessels atlow water: has a pier extending about 500 feet across its E side; has also, inside the pier, an iron pontoon 300 feet long, capable of containing 4,000 tons of coal; and is one of the principal coaling stations in the Englishchannel. Capacious docks, at the head of Millbay, wereformed in 1846-60; comprise an inner basin of 13 acres, with a depth of 22 feet and entrance-gates 80 feet wide, an outer dock of 30 acres, and a W graving dock 367feet long and 96 feet wide; and are connected with thestation of the South Devon and Cornwall railway s.

Trade and Commerce.—The town has a head post-office‡ in Whimple-street, a sub-post-office† in Union-street, various receiving post-offices and pillar letter-boxes, two telegraph offices, four banking offices, and a good assortment of hotels; and publishes two daily and three weekly newspapers. Markets are held on Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays; and are well supplied with all kinds of country produce within distances of 20 miles. Fairs are held on the first Tuesday of April and the first Tuesday of Nov. The chief manufactories are sugar-refineries, soap-works, starch-works, potteries, leadworks, artificial manure-works, and a large distillery. Much trade accrues from the sound being a station of the British navy; considerable trade accrues also fromfisheries; and much stir occurs in spring, from extensivedebarkation of emigrants to America, the Cape of Good Hope, Australia, and other parts of the world. A largecoasting commerce is carried on with London, Newcastle, Bristol, Newport, Falmouth, and other ports; a constantcommerce is carried on with the Channel islands; a largeimport trade is done in timber, sugar, hides, tallow, valonia, wine, and other goods, from the British coloniesand foreign countries; and a large export trade is donein pilchards and in various articles of British produce. The vessels which belonged to the port, at the beginning of 1864, were 233 small sailing vessels, of aggregately6, 972 tons; 214 large sailing-vessels, of aggregately43, 766 tons; 11 small steam-vessels, of aggregately 347tons; and 1 larger steam-vessel, of 59 tons. The vesselswhich entered in 1863 were 158 British sailing-vessels, of aggregately 28, 836 tons, from British colonies; 4foreign sailing-vessels, of aggregately 2, 132 tons, from British colonies; 231 British sailing-vessels, of aggregately 24, 338 tons, from foreign countries; 143 foreign sailing-vessels, of aggregately 20, 808 tons, from foreign countries; 11 British steam-vessels, of aggregately 894tons, from British colonies; 34 British steam-vessels, ofaggregately 5, 451 tons, from foreign countries; 9 foreign steam-vessels, of aggregately 1, 323 tons, from foreign countries; 2, 531 sailing-vessels, of aggregately 206, 648tons, coastwise; and 515 steam-vessels, of aggregately 202,023 tons, coastwise. The vessels which cleared in 1863 were 166 British sailing-vessels, of aggregately 24, 747 tons, to British colonies; 4 foreign sailing-vessels, of aggregately 2, 230 tons, to British colonies; 70 British sailing-vessels, of aggregately 6,023 tons, to foreign countries; 61 foreign sailing-vessels, of aggregately11,062 tons, to foreign countries; 14 British steam-vessels, of aggregately 1, 294 tons, to British colonies; 11 British steam-vessels, of aggregately 1, 196 tons, toforeign countries; 1, 231 sailing-vessels, of aggregately 81, 138 tons, coastwise; and 452 steam-vessels, of aggregately 184, 397 tons, coastwise. The amount of customsin 1862 was £160, 578. Steamers sail regularly to Portsmouth, Southampton, London, Falmouth, Penzance, Liverpool, Waterford, Cork, and Dublin.

The Borough.—Plymouth is a borough by prescription;had charters from Henry VI. and ten other kings endingwith William III.; sent two members to parliamentoccasionally in the times of Edward I. and Edward II., and has sent two always since the time of Henry IV.; is of the same extent municipally as parliamentarily; comprises the town sections of the parishes of St. Andrew and Charles-the-Martyr; was divided, under the new act, into 6 wards; and is governed, under that act, by amayor, 12 aldermen, and 36 councillors. It has a separate commission of the peace; and is a seat of quarter sessions, a polling-place, and the head-quarters of the Western military district. The police force, in 1864, comprised 73 men, at an annual cost of £3, 991. The crimes committed, in 1864, were 53; the persons apprehended, 74; the known depredators and suspected persons at large, 1,082; the houses of bad character, 172. Electors in 1833, 1, 461; in 1863, 2, 869. Amount ofproperty and income tax charged in 1863, £18, 203. Real property, in 1860, £241, 483; of which £2, 128 werein quarries, £69, 834 in railways, and £4, 315 in gas-works. Pop. in 1851, 52, 221; in 1861, 62, 599. Houses, 6,084.

The District.—The registration district or poor-law union is conterminate with the borough; is divided into the sub-districts of St. Andrew and Charles-the-Martyr, conterminate with the town sections of St. A. andparishes; and is administered under a local act. Poor-rates in 1863, £24, 361. Marriages in 1863, 782; births, 2, 288, of which 125 were illegitimate; deaths, 1, 636, of which 784 were at ages under 5 years, and 27 at ages above 85. Marriages in the ten years 1851-60, 6, 713; births, 18, 707; deaths, 13, 559. The workhouse is at Hill Park, in Charles parish; stands on the highestground in Plymouth, commanding extensive views; was erected in 1853, at a cost of about £11,000; has capacityfor 700 persons; and, at the Census of 1861, had 466inmates.

(John Marius Wilson, Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales (1870-72))

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Feature Description: "a great seaport"   (ADL Feature Type: "cities")
Administrative units: Plymouth Borough       Devon AncC
Place: Plymouth

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