Descriptive Gazetteer Entry for CAMBRIDGE

CAMBRIDGE, a university town, the capital of Cambridgeshire. It stands on the Via Devana, the river Cam, and the Eastern Counties railway, 51 miles by road, and 57½ by railway, N by E of London. The Cam is navigable to it; and railways go from it in six directions, toward London, Hitchin, Bedford, Huntingdon, Ely, and Ipswich, ramifying toward all parts of the kingdom.

History.—Cambridge is the Granta, perhaps also the Camboricum of the Romans, and most probably the Grantaceaster of the Saxons. It was burnt by the Danes in 870 and 1010. A military station seems to have been at it in the times of the Saxons, certainly in those of the Romans; and a castle was built at it, probably on the site of the previous station, by William the Conqueror, to overawe the Isle of Ely. In the castle was received Sir Osborn, whose legendary conflict with a demon knight on Gogmagog hill was used by Sir Walter Scott for an episode in "Marmion." The town was injured by both parties in the wars of the Barons and the Roses, especially in 1216 and 1267; suffered from insurrections of the townsmen against the University, in 1249, 1322, and 1381; was occupied on behalf of Queen Mary, after the attempt to place Lady Jane Grey on the throne; and was seized and occupied under Cromwell, for the parliamentarians. Royal visits were made to it by Stephen. in 1139; by John, in 1200 and 1216; by Henry III., in 1265 and 1270; by Edward I., in 1293; by Edward II., in 1325; by Edward III., in 1328; by Richard II., in 1390; by Edward IV., in 1463; by Richard III., in 1483 and 1485; by Henry VII., in 1486, 1487, 1491, 1498, and 1506; by Queen Catherine, in 1520; by Henry VIII., in 1522; by Elizabeth, in 1564; by James I., in 1614, 1615, 1623, and 1624; by Charles I., in 1628, 1632, and 1641; by Charles II., in 1671 and 1681; by William III., in 1689; by Anne in 1705; by George I., in 1717; by George II., in 1728; and by Victoria, in 1847.

Site and Streets.—The town stands amid a great flat tract; is not clearly seen on any approach to it, till near; and appears relieved, even then, by only the tower of St. Mary, the spire of Trinity, and the four turrets of King's, over a line of trees. Tradition alleges it to have anciently extended 3 miles along the Cam, from Granchester to Chesterton; but this is not to be believed. The present borough limits indeed include a space about 31/8 miles long, with a mean breadth of 1½ mile, comprising 3,470 acres; but the town itself, exclusive of the suburb of Chesterton, which is not in the borough, covers only about one fifth of the space. Regent-street is a fine street; Trumpington and St. Andrew's streets also are broad, airy, and pleasant; and many new streets of small houses have recently been formed; but the other streets, generally, are narrow, winding, and irregularly edificed. The town has, of late years, been much improved by extension or renovation of public buildings, by removal of old private houses, and by erection of new ones; and, as the seat of a great university, it necessarily possesses great wealth of structure and ornament; yet it fails to impress a stranger with a fair idea of either beauty or dignity. It suffers severely from dearth of stone, and has betaken itself largely to brick and stucco; and, owing to the recent rebuilding of some of its colleges, and to the Grecian or Italian character of large portions of others, its university looks almost modern.

Antiquities.—Dr. Stukeley notes that the site of the Roman Granta is very traceable on the side of Cambridge towards the castle; that the Roman agger is identical with a fine terrace walk in the garden of Magdalene college; that the gateway of the castle, and the churches of St. Giles and St. Peter are marked antiquities; that many Roman bricks have been found in the latter church's walls, and many small Roman relics in the adjoining fields; and that remains exist of three bastions, raised by Cromwell. Other antiquities will be noticed in connexion with the churches and the colleges.

Public Buildings.—An elegant suite of buildings, to comprise guildhall, public rooms, and municipal offices, was commenced in 1860, on an immediate scale to cost about £6,000, but on a plan to be ultimately extended, at a cost of nearly £40,000. The new county courts occupy the site of the castle, contiguous to the ancient gateway; and are commodious. The county jail has capacity for 72 male prisoners, but has no cells for females. The borough jail was built subsequent to 1827, at a cost of £15,738; has capacity for 62 males and 26 females; and, by arrangement of the authorities, serves also for county female prisoners. The spinning house was founded in 1628; and is used as a place of confinement for lewd and disorderly females. The market place was originally spacious; was recently enlarged and improved; and has a handsome restored conduit, originally erected in 1614, and a statue of Jonas Webb, erected in 1866. The corn exchange is a recent and ugly structure. The theatre is small but neat. The Union Buildings were erected in 1867, at a cost of £10,000; are in the pointed style of the 13th century; and include a debating room 60 feet by 45.

Parishes.—Downing college is in the parish of St. Benedict; the new buildings of St. John's, and the grove of Catherine's also are within parishes; but all the other colleges are extra-parochial. The parishes are All Saints, St. Andrew the Great, St. Andrew the Less or Barnwell, St. Benedict, St. Botolph, St. Clement, St. Edward, St. Giles, St. Peter, St. Mary the Great, St. Mary the Less, St. Michael, St. Sepulchre, and Holy Trinity. Only St. Andrew the Less and St. Giles extend much beyond the limits of the town. St. Paul's chapelry also is ecclesiastically a parish. The living of St. Botolph is a rectory; that of St. Edward is a donative; the others are vicarages; that of St. Peter is annexed to that of St. Giles; and all are in the diocese of Ely. Value of All Saints, £130; of St. Andrew the Great, £120; of St. Paul, £120;* of St. Andrew the Less, £48;* of St. Benedict, £151; of St. Botolph, £122; of St. Clement, £56; of St. Edward, £66; of St. Giles, with St. Peter, £170; of St. Mary the Great, £104; of St. Mary the Less and St. Michael, each £95; of St. Sepulchre, £123; of Holy Trinity, £96. Patron of All Saints and St. Clement, Jesus' College; of St. Andrew the Great, the Dean and Chapter of Ely; of St. Andrew the Less and St. Paul, Trustees; of St. Benedict, Corpus Christi College: of St. Botolph, Queen's College; of St. Edward, Trinity Hall; of Holy Trinity, not reported; of St. Giles, the Bishop of Ely; of St. Mary the Great and St. Michael, Trinity College; of St. Mary the Less, St. Peter's College; of St. Sepulchre, the parishioners.

Ancient Monasteries.—An Augustinian priory was founded, on the left bank of the river, in 1092, by Picot, a Norman lord of Bourne; removed to Barnwell, in 1112 by Payne Peverell, standard bearer in Palestine to the Duke of Normandy; and given, after the dissolution, to Lord Clinton. Some portions of the building still exist. A Gilbertine priory was founded at the old chapel of St. Edmund, in 1291, by Bishop Fitzwalter; and given, at the dissolution, to Edward Elrington and Humphrey Metcalf. A Benedictine priory was founded on the site of Trinity hall, at the beginning of the reign of Edward III., by John de Crauden; but was granted, in a few years, to the Bishop of Norwich, and gave place to Trinity hall. A Benedictine nunnery was founded on the site of Jesus' college, in 1130; and part of it is included in the college chapel. A Bethlehemite friary, the only one in England, was founded at Trumpington-street in 1257. A friary de Sacco was founded in 1258; a friary of St. Mary, in 1273; a grey friary, on the site of SidneySussex college, in 1225; an Augustinian friary, by Pitchford, in 1259; a white friary, at King's college garden, in 1316; and a black friary, on the site of Emmanuel college, in 1275.

Churches.—The church of All Saints was reconstructed on a new site in 1864; is an ornamental edifice; and contains a monument, by Chantrey, to Henry Kirke White. The church of St. Andrew the Great was re built in 1643, and again in 1845; and contains a cenotaph to Cook, the navigator. The church of St. Andrew the Less, or Barnwell, was partly built out of Barnwell priory, and was recently restored. The church of St. Benedict has a Saxon tower; was recently repaired and enlarged; contains some interesting monuments; and was some time served by Thomas Fuller. The church of St. Botolph was recently restored, and has many monuments. The church of St. Clement has an early English door, and a fine tower and spire of 1821; was restored in 1855; and contains an octagonal font, and a monument of 1329. The church of St. Edward is early English; was recently restored; has a good font; and was served by Latimer. The church of St. Giles is partly as old as 1100, and was recently restored. The church of St. Peter, now disused, includes Roman bricks, and has a Norman door. The church of St. Mary the Great is the University church; was built in 1478-1519; has a conspicuous tower of 1593-1608, surmounted by octagonal turrets; shows the architectural features of the age in which it was erected; measures, within walls, 20 feet by 68; was recently restored and beautified at large expense; and contains the grave of Martin Bucer. The church of St. Mary the Less is later English; was recently restored; has a rich east window; and contains a Norman font. The church of St. Michael was built in 1337, and restored in 1849; is pure decorated English; possesses the old stalls of Trinity college chapel; and had the grave of Fagius. The church of St. Sepulchre was built by the Templars in 1101, and restored by the Camden Society in 1843; is a round Norman edifice, with short massive piers; and includes restored windows, south aisle, domical ribbed vault, and campanile. The church of Holy Trinity was built in the 15th century, and recently repaired; has a good tower and spire; contains an altar-tomb to Sir Robert Taber, the physician, and a monument to Henry Martyn, the missionary; and was served by Charles Simeon. The church of St. Paul, and another called Christ church, are recent erections; and the church of St. Barnabas was founded in 1869. The total places of worship within the borough, in 1851, were 16 of the Church of England, with 9,384 sittings; 1 of Independents, with 680 s.; 3 of Baptists, with 2,170 s.; 1 of Wesleyan Methodists, with 1,000 s.; 1 of Primitive Methodists, with 280 s.; 1 of Latter-Day Saints, with 150 s.; and 1 of Roman Catholics, with 230 s. The new cemetery was laid out by Loudon; and contains a chapel by G. G. Scott.

Schools.—A grammar school was founded in 1615 by bequest of Dr. Perse; was recently rebuilt; and gives its pupils, of 3 years standing, a preference to the Perse fellowships and scholarships at Caius college. Whiston's charity schools for boys and girls were instituted in 1703, and have an endowed income of £64; but have long been united with the National schools. The total schools within the borough in 1851, were 18 public day schools, with 2,734 scholars; 54 private day schools, with 1,121 s.; and 22 Sunday schools, with 3,477 s. Eleven of the public schools were National; and one was a ragged school. There are a Union Society; a Philo-Union Society; a Philosophical Society; several students' clubs and associations; a free library, founded in 1855; a lending library, founded in 1858, and largely aided by the late Prince Consort; and a working men's college and reading room. Addenbrooke's hospital or infirmary was founded in 1766, by bequest of Dr. John Addenbrooke, and enlarged in 1813, by bequest of John Bowtell; has upwards of £1,500 from endowment, and a large income from subscription; and was undergoing enlargement and improvement in 1864, at a cost of about £10,000. Storey's alms-houses, for clergymen's widows, have £813; Wray's have £215; Knight's, £94, and the Spital, £25. The Victoria and Royal Albert asylums are modern institutions, munificently maintained by donation and subscription. The total endowed charities of the borough amount to £5,000.

Trade.—The town is maintained chiefly by supplying the wants of the university; yet conducts a large trade in land produce, and carries on some manufactures in leather, ropes, baskets, pattens, mustard, vinegar, iron-ware, brass-ware, and other articles. Markets are held daily; chief markets, on Wednesdays and Saturdays; and fairs on 24 June and 25 Sept. The town has a head post office,‡ a railway station with telegraph, two other telegraph stations, four banking offices, and six chief inns; is a seat of assizes and sessions, a place of election, and the head of an excise district; and publishes two weekly newspapers. Races are run on Midsummer Common; and boat-races, among the University men, from the vicinity of Ditton church. A fine public park, called Parker's Piece, contains about 20 acres, and is almost square.

The Borough.—Cambridge is a borough by prescription; was incorporated by Henry I.; has sent two members to parliament since the time of Edward I.; and is governed by a mayor, ten aldermen, and thirty councillors. Real property of the town, £117,307; of the corporation, £2,400; of the university, £33,758. Corporation revenue, £17,258. Direct taxes, £24,559. Electors, in 1868, 1,926. Pop. in 1841, 24,453; in 1861, 26,361. Houses, 5,388. The borough forms a registration district.-Poor-rates, in 1866, £19,938. Marriages, 197; births, 829,-of which 44 were illegitimate; deaths, 635,-of which 227 were at ages under 5 years, and 15 at ages above 85. Marriages in the ten years 1851-60, 1,868; births, 7,709; deaths, 5,504. The town gives the title of Duke to a prince of the blood royal. Sir J. Cheke, tutor of Edward VI.; Gibbons, the organist; Bishops Thirlby, Goldsborough, Rust, Townson, and Musgrave; Bennet, the martyr; Dean Duport; Jeremy Taylor; Lady D. Masham; Essex, the antiquary; Drake, the translator of Herodotus; and Cumberland the dramatist, were natives.

The University.—Cambridge university is an incorporated society of students in all the liberal arts and sciences. It originated with or was restored by Sigebert, king of East Anglia; and was revived by Edward the Elder; but first acquired consequence about 1209, under the abbot of Croyland. The students lived, for some time, in inns and hostels, built for their reception; but were afterwards provided with seventeen colleges. The colleges possess equal privileges; form an aggregate body under one supreme authority; and at the same time are ruled separately, each by its own statutes. The supreme authority comprises legislative and executive. The legislative is a senate, composed of all the masters of arts, and doctors in divinity, civil law, and physic, whose names are on the boards,-divided till recently into two houses, of regents and non-regents, or white-hoods and black-hoods, but now voting as one body,-and controlled by a council, consisting of the chancellor, the vice chancellor, four heads of colleges, four professors, and eight other members of senate chosen annually from the roll, who must approve all business before it can be offered to the senate. The executive includes a chancellor, generally a person of rank and non-resident; a vice-chancellor or acting governor; a high steward, or judge in cases of felony; a commissary or assessor; a public orator, who acts also as official secretary; and several other officials. The members of the university are variously heads of colleges, professors, fellows, noblemen, graduates, doctors in the several faculties, bachelors in divinity, graduates, bachelors in civil law and in physic, bachelors of arts, fellow-commoners, pensioners, scholars, and sizers; and all, in their several ranks, and also in their several colleges, are distinguished by differences of costume. There are 27 professorships, 416 fellowships, about 900 scholarships or exhibitions, and about 1,800 residents. Two-thirds, or nearly so, of the residents, live in the colleges; and the rest live in lodgings. The doctors and regent masters of arts in convocation send two members to parliament; and amounted, in 1868, to 5,184. The income of all the colleges is £184,994.

University Buildings.—The senate house stands on the north side of a spacious square, near the centre of the town; was built in 1722-30, after a design by Burrough, at a cost of £20,000; is exteriorly Corinthian, and interiorly Doric; measures 101 feet by 42, with a height of 32 feet; has galleries of Norway oak; and contains statues of George I. and the Duke of Somerset by Rysbrack, George II. by Wilton, and W. Pitt by Nollekens. The public schools stand on the west side of the same square; were first founded in 1443; form three sides of a small court; and contain apartments for the philosophy, divinity, law, and physic schools, and for disputations, exercises, and lectures. The old library is over the schools; was rebuilt in 1775; and contains a colossal Ceres from Eleusis, 100,000 volumes, and 2,000 manuscripts. The new library was built in 1837, after designs by Cockerell; is an elegant edifice, 167 feet by 45, with a new wing begun in 1864; and contains, on the base, Dr. Woodward's geological specimens. The Fitzwilliam museum, in Trumpington-street, originated in 1816, in a bequest of £100,000, a library, and a collection of works of art from Viscount Fitzwilliam; was built in 1837 and following years, after a design by Basevi; covers an area of 160 feet by 162; has a noble octastyle Corinthian portico, 76 feet high; and contains 144 paintings of the Italian, Dutch, and Flemish schools, statuary, books, and a valuable manuscript collection of music. New museums and lecture rooms, in the Gothic style, estimated to cost about £30,000, on the site of the old Botanic garden, were built in 1862-4. The observatory, on a rising ground, on the Madingley road, about a mile from the college walks, was built in 1822-5, by Mead, at a cost of £19,000; is 120 feet long; and has a domed house for a 20 feet telescope, presented by the Duke of Northumberland. The university printing office, in Trumpington-street, was built in 1831-3 by Blore; is in the perpendicular English style, with a lofty central tower; and looks like a church. The botanical gardens formerly lay around the site of the ancient Augustinian priory, and occupied upwards of three acres; but were recently removed to a new site between Trumpington-road and Hills-road; and they occupy there an area of about twentyone acres, and are both rich in specimens and ornately laid out. The college walks have avenues of limes, elms, and horse-chestnuts, and are overlooked by the backs of most of the larger colleges.

St. Peter's College, or Peterhouse.-This is the oldest of the colleges; and was founded, in 1284, by Hugh de Balsham, Bishop of Ely. It stands in Trumpington-street, on ground previously occupied by two hostels; and comprises two old courts, the larger 144 feet by 84, and a new court built in 1826. Its chapel was erected in 1632; has a fine east window, with painted glass re-representing the crucifixion; and got all its side windows filled, in 1858-64, with painted glass from Munich. The college has 14 fellowships, 59 scholarships, 2 exhibitions, 11 livings, and an income of £7,311. Eminent men educated at it were Cardinal Beaufort, Archbishop Whitgift, Bishops Cosin, Law, and Walton, Dean Sherlock, the poets Crashaw, Gray, and Garth, Jer. Markland, Col. Hutchinson, the Duke of Grafton, and Lord Ellenborough.

Clare College.-This was founded, in 1326, by Dr. Richard Badew, under the name of University Hall; was burned to the ground about 1342; was rebuilt by the sister and co-heiress of Gilbert Earl of Clare, and took then the name of Clare Hall; and was begun to be rebuilt again in 1638. It stands on the east bank of the Cam; has, over the river, a fine old stone bridge; and comprises a noble quadrangle, 150 feet by 111. Its chapel was rebuilt in 1769, at a cost of £7,000; and has a picture of the Salutation, by Cipriani. The college has 17 fellowships, 24 scholarships, and 18 livings. Eminent men educated at it were Archbishops Heath and Tillotson, Bishop Gunning, Chaucer, Cudworth, Whiston, W. Whitehead, Parkhurst, Nicholas Ferrar, Hervey, Dr. Dodd, and the Duke of Newcastle.

Pembroke College.-This was founded, in 1347, by the Countess of Pembroke. It stands in Trumpington-street, nearly opposite St. Peters; and consists of two courts, 95 feet by 55, with intermediate hall. Its chapel was built by Bishop Wren, after a design by his nephew, Sir Christopher Wren; and has a picture of the entombment by Baroccio. A large and curious orrery, made by Dr. Long in 1730, is in the inner court; and waterworks are in the gardens. The college has 14 fellowships, 2 bye fellowships, 20 scholarships, 10 livings, and an income of £12,013. Eminent men educated at it were Archbishops Grindall and Whitgift, Bishops Lyndwood, Ridley, Andrews, Wren, Tomlin, and Middleton, the martyrs Bradford and Rogers, the poets Spencer, Gray, and Mason, E. Calamy, W. Pitt, and Dr. Long.

Gonville and Caius College.-This was founded, in 1348, by Sir Nicholas Gonville; and enlarged in 1557, by Dr. John Caius. It stands at the corner of Trumpington and Trinity streets; comprises three courts, with a picturesque new one in progress in 1869; and includes three gates by John of Padua. Its chapel is small but beautiful; and contains a brass of 1500, a monument of Dr. Caius, and a picture of the Annunciation by Retz. The college has 30 fellowships, 36 scholarships, and 22 livings. Eminent men educated at it were Dr. Harvey and many other distinguished physicians, Jeremy Taylor, Sir T. Gresham, Shadwell, Henry Wharton, Lord Thurlow, Dr. Shuckford, Jeremy Collier, Dr. S. Clarke, and the antiquaries Grater, Chauncey, and Blomefield.

Trinity Hall.-This was founded, in 1350, by Bateman, bishop of Norwich. It stands near Clare College, on ground previously occupied by a hostel for the monks of Ely; and comprises two courts, one of which is modern. Its library is rich in law works; and its chapel contains three brasses, and a painting of the Presentation by Stella. A range of students' residences, in strictly collegiate style, but of earlier character than the rest of the college buildings, with a plain oriel over the entrance doorway, and an octagonal oriel turret at the angle, crowned with a short spire, was built in 1861, at a cost of about £10,000, and replaced previous buildings burnt down in 1851. Trinity Hall has 13 fellowships, 19 scholarships, 8 livings, and an income of £3,917. Eminent men educated at it were Bishops Gardiner and Horsley, the martyr Bilney, Corbet, Tusser, Dr. Andrews, Sir R. Naunton, Lord Chesterfield, Earl Fitzwilliam, Sir Bulwer Lytton, and Lord-Chief-Justice Cockburn.

Corpus Christi, or Benet College.-This was founded, in 1359, by the two Guilds of Corpus Christi and the Virgin Mary. It stands in Trumpington-street; and comprises an old court of the 14th century, and a new one built in 1823. The new court measures 158 feet by 129; and has a frontage of 222 feet, with grand gateway and four massive towers. The library measures 87 feet by 22; and contains many valuable manuscripts, bequeathed by Archbishop Parker. The chapel was built in 1827; is in the Gothic style; and has windows filled with stained glass from a previous chapel of 1570, built by Lord-Keeper Bacon. The college has 12 fellowships, 6 scholarships, and 11 livings. Eminent men educated at it were Archbishops Parker and Tenison, the martyr Wishart, Bishop Latimer, the poet Fletcher, Sir Nicholas Bacon, Lord Keeper Bacon, and the antiquaries Gough, Salmon, and Stukeley.

King's College.-This was founded, in 1441, by Henry VI. It occupies a central situation, consists of two courts, partly Italian, partly later English; and forms the finest group of buildings in the town. The hall measures 102 feet by 36; the library, 93 feet by 27; the chapel, 316 feet by 45½. The last is esteemed the best specimen of later English in the kingdom; was mainly built in 1441-1530, partly built in last century, and partly restored by Wilkins in 1826; has eleven pinnacles on each side, and four octagonal towers at the corners; and commands, from the leads, an extensive panoramic view, reaching on one side to Ely cathedral. The pinnacles are 101 feet high, and rise from buttresses including a range of chantries between their projections; the towers are 146½ feet high, and capped with cupolas; the side windows, twenty-four in number, are nearly 50 feet high, and filled with scripture subjects in stained glass of the time of Henry VIII.; the doors are very fine; the roof is stone, groined, with fan-tracery, in twelve compartments, without the support of a single pillar, the largest and richest of its kind in England; the stalls and screen are of the 17th century; and the altar-piece is the Descent from the Cross by Volterra. The college enjoys special privileges; and has 46 fellowships, 48 scholarships from Eton, 39 livings, and an income of £26,857. Eminent men educated at it were Archbishop Rotherham, Bishops Aldrich, Close, and Pearson, the martyr Frith, the chronicler Hall, the poets Waller, P. Fletcher, and Anstey, the mathematician Oughtred, the historian Coxe, the antiquary Cole, Jacob Bryant, A. Collins, Sir John Cheke, Sir F. Walsingham, Sir W. Temple, Sir R. Walpole, Sir W. Draper, Horace Walpole, and Lord Camden.

Queen's College.-This was founded, in 1446, by Margaret of Anjou; and enlarged, in 1465, by the queen of Edward IV. Its grounds lie on both sides of the Cam, and are connected by a rustic bridge, rebuilt in 1746. Its buildings comprise three ancient looking courts, with gateway, tower and cloisters; and were reconstructed about 1833. The gateway is of noble design, perpendicular, with a lierne vault. The inner court has three alleys, each 80 feet long; and contains the room of Erasmus. The hall has a fine open roof; the library, about 30,000 volumes; and the chapel, four brasses. The college has 14 fellowships, 14 scholarships, 10 livings, and an income of £5,347. Eminent men educated at it were Erasmus, Bishops Fisher and Patrick, the antiquary Wallis, the poets Beaumont and Pomfret, T. Fuller, S. Ockley, Milner, Weever, Rymer, Shaw, and Manning.

Catherine's College.-This was founded, in 1473, by Chancellor Woodlark. It stands in Trumpington-street; and forms a court, 180 feet by 120, rebuilt in 1700, of plain appearance, but undergoing ornamental change in 1869. The hall measures 42 feet by 24; the chapel, 75 by 30. The college has 9 fellowships, 23 scholarships, and 4 livings. Eminent men educated at it were Archbishops Sands and Dawes, Bishops Hoadley, Sherlock, Blackall, and Overall, Dr. Lightfoot, Strype, and Sparrow

Jesus' College.-This was founded, in 1496, by Bishop Alcock. It stands in Jesus' lane, on the site of the Benedictine nunnery; and comprises three courts, one of them 140 feet by 120. The frontage extends 180 feet; the gateway is fine perpendicular; the second court has an ancient cloister; the hall has a peculiarly elegant oriel, and a fine wooden roof; and the chapel was the church of the nunnery, is cruciform, belonged to the 12th century, includes recent restorations, and has an altar-piece of the Presentation by Jouvenet. The college has 16 fellowships, 1 honorary fellowship, 34 scholarships, and 16 livings. Eminent men educated at it were Archbishops Cranmer, Bancroft, and Sterne, Bishops Goodrich, Beadon, Bale, and Pearson, the poets Fenton, Fanshaw, and Coleridge, the metaphysician Hartley, the traveller Clarke, Flamstead, Venn, Sterne, Jortin, Wakefield, and R. North.

Christ's College.-This was founded, in 1456, under the name of God's house, by Henry VI.; and refounded, in 1505, under its present name, by the mother of Henry VII. It stands in St. Andrew's street; and forms two courts, partly built by Inigo Jones, one of them 140 feet by 120. The chapel is 84 feet long, and has paintings of Henry VII. and others, and the gravestone of Cudworth; and the gardens contain a mulberry tree planted by Milton. The college has 15 fellowships, 29 scholarships, 18 livings, and an income of £9,179. Eminent men educated at it were Archbishops Sharp and Cornwallis, Bishops Latimer, Law, and Porteous, the poets Milton, Cleland, and Quarles, the platonist More, the blind professor Saunderson, Leland, Mede, Cudworth, T. Burnet, L. Echard, Harrington, and Paley.

St. John's College.-This was founded, in 1511, by the will of the mother of Henry VII. It stands in St. John's street, on ground previously occupied by a canons' hospital; and comprises three old courts and a new one. The entrance gate is of brick, with four large turrets; the first court is the oldest, built in 1510-14, and measuring 228 feet by 216; the second court is of the same century, and measures 270 feet by 240; the third court is smaller than either of the former; and the fourth court was built in 1830 by Rickman and Hutchinson, measures 480 feet by 180, is in the perpendicular English and the Tudor styles, and has a tower 120 feet high. The hall is 60 feet by 38; the library is spacious, and contains a very extensive and valuable collection of books; and the chapel measures 120 feet by 27, and has excellent stall work, and a painting of St. John by Sir R. K. Porter. A covered bridge of three arches crosses the Cam within the grounds; and is nicknamed "the Bridge of Sighs." A spacious new court, a new Master's lodge, and a magnificent new chapel, after designs by G. G. Scott, was founded in 1864. These buildings cost an immense sum; they occupy the site of a large number of houses, which were removed to make way for them; the new chapel abuts upon St. John street, was opened in May 1869, alone cost about £57,000, and is a chief ornament of the town; and the other new buildings stand between the previously existing body of the college and the river on the Bridge-street side. The college has 60 fellowships, about 60 scholarships, 9 sizarships, 54 livings, and an income of £26,167. Eminent men educated at it were Bishops Fisher, Stillingfleet, Watson, Beveridge, and Morgan, the poets Sackville, Wyat, Ben Jonson, Herrick, Hammond, Prior, Brome, Otway, A. Phillips, Browne, Kirke White, and Wordsworth, the historian Cave, the antiquary Baker, Sir J. Cheke, R. Ascham, Sir J. Wyatt, Sir K. Digby, Lord Burleigh, Lord Chancellor Egerton, Lord Falkland, the Earl of Strafford, Lord-Keeper Guildford, Fairfax, Cartwright, Stackhouse, Whittaker, Dr. Bentley, Bowyer, Pegge, S. Jenyns, Briggs, Horne Tooke, the Marquis of Rockingham, and Wilberforce.

Magdalene College.-This was begun, in 1509, by the Duke of Buckingham; and completed, in 1542, by Lord-Chancellor Audley. It stands in Bridge street, on the site of the original Augustinian priory; and comprises two courts, one of them 110 feet by 78. The library contains the collection of Secretary Pepys. The college has 13 fellowships, 25 scholarships and exhibitions, 7 livings, and an income of £4,130. Eminent men educated at it were Archbishop Grindall, Bishops Cumberland and Walton, Lord Keeper Bridgman, the mathematician Waring, Pepys, Duport, and Waterland.

Trinity College.-This was founded, in 1546, by Henry VIII. It stands in Trinity-street, on ground previously occupied by seven hostels and two colleges. One of the colleges bore the name of Michael house, and was founded, in 1324, by Hervey de Stanton; the other bore the name of King's hall. and was founded, in 1337, by Edward III.; and both were suppressed by Henry VIII. The present college comprises three courts, called the great court, Nevile's court, and King's court. The great court is entered by a fine old gateway; measures 1,202 feet in circuit; and has an octagonal conduit in the centre. Nevile's court was built in 1609, by D. Nevile; and measures 228 feet by 148. King's court was built in 1823-6, after designs by Wilkins, at a cost of £40,000; displays much elegance; and was named in honour of George IV., who headed the subscription for it with a donation of £1,000. The hall, in the great court, is 100 feet long, 40 feet wide, and 50 feet high; and is in the Tudor style. The master's lodge, in the same court, is large and lofty; and has, since the time of Elizabeth, been the residence of the sovereigns visiting the university. The library, in Nevile's court, was designed by Wren; is 190 feet long, 40 feet wide, and 38 feet high; and contains the manuscript of Paradise Lost, a statue of Lord Byron by Thorwaldsen, and busts of eminent members of the college by Roubiliac. The chapel, in the great court, is late perpendicular, 204 feet long, 34 feet wide, and 44 feet high, and has an altar-piece by West; and the ante chapel contains Roubiliac's statue of Newton. The college has 60 fellowships, 72 scholarships, 16 sizarships, 3 professorships, 74 livings, and an income of £34,522. Eminent men educated at it were Bishops Tunstal and Watson, the poets Cowley, Dryden, Donne, Herbert, G. Fletcher, Marvel, V. Bourne, Lee, Hayley, Byron, and Crabbe, the astrologer Dee, Robert Earl of Essex, Whitgift, Sir Edward Coke, Lord Bacon, Fulke Lord Brooke, Sir R. Cotton, Sir H. Spelman, P. Holland, Hacket, Wilkins, Pearson, Barrow, Willoughby, Bentley, Gale, Ray, Cotes, Robert Nelson,Middleton, Le Neve, Maskeline, Sir Isaac Newton, Villiers, Governor Pownall, Sir R. Filmer, Sp. Perceval, Lord Lansdowne, Lord Macaulay, Dr. Whewell, and Professor Sedgwick. A statue of Macaulay was prepared in 1866.

Emmanuel College.-This was founded, in 1584, by Sir W. Mildmay. It stands in St. Andrew's street, on the site of the Dominican priory; and comprises two courts, one of them 128 feet by 107. The chapel was finished, in 1677, by Archbishop Sancroft, after designs by Wren; and has an altar-piece of the Prodigal Son by Amiconi. The college has 13 fellowships, about 22 scholarships, 25 livings, and an income of £6,517. Eminent men educated at it were Archbishops Sancroft and Manners-Sutton, Bishops Hall, Bedell, Hurd, and Percy, the commentator Poole, the bible translator Chaderton, the mathematician Wallis, the orientalist Castell, the antiquaries Twysden and Morton, Sir W. Temple, Joshua Barnes, Blackwall, Farmer, Martyn, Parr, Temple, and Akenside.

Sidney-Sussex College.-This was founded, in 1596, by the will of Frances Sidney, Countess of Sussex. It stands in Sidney-street, on the site of the Greyfriars monastery; and comprises two courts, restored by Wyatville. The hall measures 60 feet by 27; and the chapel has an altar-piece of the Repose of the Holy Family by Pittoni. The college has 10 fellowships, 20 scholarships, 8 livings, and an income of £5,393. Eminent men educated at it were Archbishop Bramhall, Bishops Reynolds, Seth Ward, and Wilson of Sodor, O. Cromwell, Chief Baron Atkyns, the historian May, Fuller, Comber, L'Estrange, and Twining.

Downing College.-This was chartered in 1800, and founded in 1807, by will of Sir George Downing, Bart. The buildings stand between Trumpington-street and Regent-street; were erected after designs by Wilkins, at a cost of £60,000; and form a quadrangle in the Grecian style. The college has 8 fellowships, 10 scholarships, 2 professorships, 2 livings, and an income of £7,240.

(John Marius Wilson, Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales (1870-72))

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