Descriptive Gazetteer Entry for LONDON

LONDON, the metropolis of England. The centre of it is London city or London proper; the centre of that is St. Paul's cathedral; and this is situated in 510 30' 47.59" north latitude, 5' 48.2" longitude west of Greenwich observatory, ½ of a mile N of the Thames, and 47 miles in direct line, or about 60 by route, W of the Nore. Articles on all parts of the metropolis, great and small, chief and subordinate, excepting the City, are dispersed throughout our work. The present article does not require to repeat any of the matter contained in these articles; but it will take only a comprehensive view of the entire metropolis, will give particular attention to the City, will notice matters which are common to the City and to the rest of the metropolis, will supply some omissions in some of the other articles, and will finish with an account of the diocese.

History.—The name London is commonly thought to have been derived from the Celtic words Llyn and Din or Dinas; the former signifying "a lake, "the latter signifying originally "a fort "or a "fortified place, "and supposed to be the etymon of the Roman "dunum, "the Saxon "don "or "ton, "and the English "town. "The "lake "to which the name refers may have been a great expansion of the Thames, which existed till comparatively recent times, covering the site of Southwark and Lambeth, and spreading on both sides of the river, as far as the marshes of Plaistow, Greenwich, and Woolwich. Tacitus states that the name was taken from the site; and Owen, the learned editor of the Welsh Archæology, says that it means "the town on the lake. "Camden, however, derives it from the words Llwyn and Dinas, the former of which signifies "a wood," "a grove, "or "a copse;,' and the editors of the Mag. Brit. of 1738, remark that this "exactly agrees to the manner of the Britons making of cities or towns, by fencing in woods or groves with trees cut down, plashed within and trenched about, as Cæsar and Strabo assure us; "and they add, "that if this derivation please not, the same learned writer gives us another, from the words Lhong and Dias,.the former signifying a ship, and then the name will import a city or harbour of ships. "The Romans originally called it Londininm, -evidently a corruption of its pristine British name; they afterwards, but probably not till after it became the capital of their British pro vince, called it Colonia Augusta, seemingly from its magnificence; and they likewise called it Augusta Trinobantum, with allusion to its having been the capital of the British tribe Trinobantes. The Britons of the 5th century called it Lundaine; Bede calls it Londinia; King Alfred calls it Lundenceaster; and other or later authorities, call it varionsly Lundenbyrig, Lundenburgh, Lundewic, Lundene, Lundune, Lnndone, and Londone. The present name, under one modification or other, has thus existed from the earliest period of its authentic history. And "it is evident, "says old Lambarde, writing in 1567, "that verie few places of this real me have enjoyed their name so longe: which thing also is in myne opinion no light argument that it hathe bene of great price these many years; for what greater cause is theare of the channge of names than the channge of their estate?.-neither meane I by this that it hathe sence the begynninge possessed either that largenesse, beautie, or nomber of people, that it now enjoy the, but that in regard of the state of the real me then beinge, it was inferior to none within the same."

The town, in the ancient British times, consisted of huts, formed of stakes, wattles, and mud; occupied the slopes and summits of the rising-ground along the river, from between Billingsgate and the Tower to Dowgate, and backward to the line of the present Lombard-street and Fenchurch-street; and was engirt, on all sides except the river one, by either marsh or forest. The inhabitants probably lived chiefly by hunting and by fishing; they were accustomed to stall as many cattle as sufficed for a few months' consumption; and they may have carried on some small inland commerce. Their chiefs or kings, in the century before the Christian era, reigned over a considerable territory, and seem to have been equal to the greatest in Britain. Cassibelan or Cassivellaunus, king of the Catteucham, resident at Verulam, invaded their territory, slew the king Immanuence or Lud, and sought to slay also his son and heir Mandubrace. The latter was not able to make resistance; fled to Cæsar, who then lay in Gaul with the Roman army; besought and obtained his protection; and conducted him and his army into Britain, in order to be restored to his kingdom. Cæsar encamped near Staines, and is thought to have there done something for restoring Mandubrace: and he must have passed either through London or near it; but he does not make any mention of it in his Commentaries. The Romans took possession of it in the time of Clandins; and they soon made it a comparatively great seat of trade and commerce; yet they did not at first constitute it a "colonia, "but allowed it to remain an "oppidum "It was, therefore, unwalled; and when Boadicea, at the head of her Icenine and Trinobantine troops, rose in wrath against the Romans, it could not resist her, but was sacked and destroyed, even to the slaughter of all its inhabitants. The Romans speedily re-acquired power; rebuilt the town, in an altered form, and with enlarged limits; and erected it into a prefecture; yet even then did not raise it to the rank of a colony, much less of a municipium. York was the Roman capital; and Colchester was the seat of the court which held jurisdiction over London. But, in the time of Constantine, about the year 306, the Romans built a wall round London; and at other dates, before and after, they erected substantial houses throughout the town, a temple to Diana on the ground now occupied by St. Paul's, and a citadel or fortified post either on the site of the Tower or in St. Paul's churchyard. They also formed great military roads through it and from it; raised its commerce to such a pitch that, in 359, it had no fewer than 800 vessels in the export trade of corn alone; and eventually made it a capital city, a place of comparative luxury, and the seat of the Vicarius Britanniarum and the Commissioners of the imperial treasury. Their wall was 3 miles in circuit, 22 feet high, and 8 feet thick; had 15 towers on it; and went from the Tower, by the Minories, Aldgate, Houndsditch, Bishopsgate churchyard, St. Alphage, London Wall, Cripplegate churchyard, Falcon-square, St. Botolph, Aldersgate, and Ludgate to the Fleet river at New Bridge-street. Some re main of the wall still exist on Tower-hill, Cripplegate churchyard, and St. Martin's-court off Ludgate; and traces of it exist also in Bishopsgate churchyard, and at London Wall opposite Sion college. Watling-street came in by Dowgate, from Southwark, Shooter's Hill, and Dover; went through the town, along the present Watling-street, and past St. Paul's; and went off, by Oxford-street and Edgware-road, toward St. Albans and the North. Ermine-street went out, by Cripplegate, to Stamford Hill, Edmonton, and Royston toward Lincolnshire; the Portway went westward toward Staines and Silchester; another road went eastward, by Old-street and Shoreditch churchyard, toward Colchester; Stanestreet went from a ford or ferry opposite York-Gate stairs, by St. George's Fields, toward Streatham and Chichester; and another road went from the same place toward Holwood Hill and Pevensey. A famous Roman relic, known as the London Stone, supposed to have been part of the milliarium or central stone from which the miles were reckoned along the road, stood long on the N side of Cannon-street, and is now preserved in a recess of the wall of St. Swithin's church. Roman coins, urns, vases, pottery, bronze weapons, fibulæ, beads, amulets, lamps, lachrymatories, inscriptions, and tesselated pavements, have been found in many places; and some are preserved in the Guildhall,-others in the British museum.

London was left in peaceable possession of the Britons at the retiring of the Romans; was taken, about 477, by the Saxon invaders under Hengist and Horsa; was retaken, in 497, by Ambrosins, after the death of Hengist; remained with the Britons for nearly a century; passed then into possession of the Saxons; was made the capital of the kingdom of Essex, which included Middlesex; became, about 604, the seat of a diocese, with a cathedral, afterwards known as the East Minster, on the site of Diana's temple; was then, according to Bede's account, a princely market-town, or emporium of a vast number of nations resorting to it by sea and by land; suffered devastation by plague in 664, and by fire in 764,798, and 801; was the meeting-place of a parliament, in 833, convoked by Egbert, king of Wessex, and inheritor of all the quondam heptarchy; suffered much injury at different yimes, particularly in 839, from inroads by the Danes; went into possession of that people in 851, and continued securely under them till 872; was taken by Alfred in 884; suffered desolation by fire in 893; and was immediately rebuilt by Alfred, re-fortified in its encompassing walls, divided into wards, under separate sheriffs, and constituted, in some respects, the capital of the kingdom. The Danes menaced it again in 896-7, laying up their fleet in the river Lea, wintering there, and strengthening themselves by an entrenchment; but they were beaten off, with capture of some of their ships and burning of the rest, by the citizens. Athelstane made London a mint-town in 925; and endeavoured to stimulate commerce by promising a patent of gentility to every merchant who should make three voyages, on his own adventure, to the Mediterranean. The city was burnt again in 982; and was taken by Sweyne the Dane in 1013. Only a very few relics of the Saxon period now exist; and these consist chiefly of crypts and small portions of conventual buildings. Winchester, even in the latter part of that period, and not London, was the paramount capital of England.

Canute got the sovereignty from his father Sweyne; and, after encountering considerable resistance from the Saxons under Edmund Ironside, he established himself securely on the throne. A tax of £11,000 was, in 1018, imposed by him on the city; and that amount both evinces the wealthy condition to which the inhabitants had risen, and shows the productiveness of London to have then been, what it has nearly continued till the present day, about one-seventh of the productiveness of the whole kingdom; for while the tax on London was £11,000, that on all England was £72,000. Harold was elected, by an assembly or wittenagemote at Oxford, to succeed his father Canute. That assembly consisted mainly of all the nobles to the N of the Thames: but it included certain traders from London, probably those merchants who had acquired patents of gentility for making three voyages on their own adventure to the Mediterranean; and it has, therefore, been regarded, by some writers, as affording the first instance of commonsmembers from London to parliament; yet it appears to have really been altogether aristocratic, and to have ad mitted the London merchants solely on the ground of their patents of gentility. The Danes, while in power, did great things for London. They originally, and for a number of times, came against it as semi-savages only to steal and sack and slay; but, even before the fall of the Saxon power, they began to settle down as promoters of industry and commerce. Some suburban extension of the city, or extension beyond the walls, had taken place so early a before the close of the 6th century; and that extension was greatly enlarged, toward the close of the Saxon period, by Danish colonists. These settlers built houses outside the walls, on both banks of the river, in the Strand and in Southwark; and even had sites in the city been at their option, they probably would have preferred the suburban sites for conveniences of trade. Their descendants, after the sceptre passed to Canute, followed their example. These built largely to the W of the city walls, and on the S side of the river; they mainly originated Westminster; they gave name to Southwark by constructing a fortified post at it, originally called the South-Werk; they addicted themselves zealously to commerce; they used their Scandinavian prestige, as descendants of the old Norsemen rovers, for navigating all seas; they made London an entrepôt of foreign wares for all parts of the kingdom; and they soon constituted London, with its suburbs, the true capital of England, both commercial and political. The local memorials of them are both numerous and great. The present church of St. Clement-Danes occupies the site of a church of theirs, which had a burial-place for their merchants and their mariners; and it retains, for its parochial badge, the emblem which they gave it, the emblem of an anchor. St. Olave's church, in Southwark, took its name from the famous Scandinavian St. Olaf; and Tooley-street there acquired its designation through corruption of the same name. Even three churches within the city were built by them in honour of their great saint; and, though rebuilt, still retain the name of St. Olave. The church of St. Magnus-the-Martyr, London-bridge, also was originally a Danish church. The Danish kings, too, resided principally in London, and made it the seat of the national councils. Hardicanute died in it; and was buried, among his countrymen, in the church of St. ClementDanes. Even Edward the Confessor, though restoring the Saxon line in his own person to the throne, adopted the usages of the Danes; acted more as the half-brother of Hardicanute than as the representative of his Saxon ancestors; was indeed crowned at Winchester; but made London the seat of his government, and built a palace at Westminster, founded Westminster abbey, gave a charter to London, followed out the Danish commercial policy, and was the first of the English kings buried at Westminster.

William the Conqueror acquired London without a struggle, and was crowned at Westminster. He got possession rather by reason of internal factions than by reason of the city's want of strength; and he prudently chose to conciliate the inhabitants, by giving them a kindly and pithy charter. The document was written, in the Saxon character, on a slip of parchment, 6 inches Long and 1 inch broad; and, translated into modern English, it ran as follows. "William the king greeteth William the bishop, and Godfrey the portreeve, and all the burgesses within London, friendly. And I acquaint you, that I will that ye be all three law-worthy, as ye were in King Edward's days. And I will that every child be his father s heir, after his father's days. And I will not suffer that any man do yon any wrong. God preserve you. "London, with exception of three small plots, is not mentioned in Domesday book; but it probably was the subject of a separate survey. The White Tower, forming the nucleus of all the subsequent Tower, and serving as both a palace and a fortress, was built in 1078. Great part of the city had been consumed by fire in the previous year; and great part of it, including both new buildings and old, was consumed again in 1086 and in 1092. Its prosperity was checked also by exactrons of William Rufus, and by violent hurricanes and extensive inundations. William Rufus strengthened the Tower, built Westminster Hall, and restored a wooden bridge which had been erected on the site of old London bridge. Numerous churches and monastic establishments were built during the reigns of the two Williams; and some portions of several of them still exist. Henry I. was crowned here in 1100; and he gave a charter to the citizens, exempting them from Dane-geld and the billeting of soldiers, and conferring upon them many new privileges; yet he so oppressed the natives and favoured the Normans, as to provoke much antipathy to the Norman rule. The citizens, therefore, opened their gates to Stephen; submitted reluctantly to the Empress Mand; and took part with the Bishop of Winchester in restoring Stephen to the throne. A great fire broke out in 1136, burned down the city from London Stone to Aldgate, and destroyed William Rufus's wooden bridge. The Knights of St. John settled at Clerkenwell in 1118; and the Knights Templars, at Holborn, in 1184. The Tower was used as a palace by Stephen; and St. Katharine's hospital, on ground now occupied by the docks, was founded by the Empress Mand.

An interesting picture of the metropolis and its customs, in the time of Henry II., is given in a curious tract, written by Fitz-Stephen, a monk of Canterbury, and printed by Stowe. The city, according to this author, was then bounded on the land side by a high and spacious wall, furnished with turrets and with seven double gates, supposed to have been Aldgate, Bishopsgate, Cripplegate, Aldergate, Newgate, Ludgate, and a postern near the Tower; and had in the east part "a tower palatine, "and in the west two castles well fortified, the castes of Bayard and Montfichet. About 2 miles further west, on the banks of the river, was the royal palace at Westminster, "an incomparable structure, guarded by a wall and bulwarks. "Between this and the city was a continuous suburb, mingled with large and beautiful gardens and orchards belonging to the citizens; who themselves were everywhere known, and supereminently respected, for "their civil demeanour, their goodly apparrel, their table, and their discourse." The number of conventual churches, in the city and the suburbs, was 13; and that of "lesser parochial churches "was 126. On the north side were open meadows and pasture lands; and beyond these was a great forest, in whose coverts lurked "the stag, the hind, the wild boar, and the bull. "Outside one of the gates in a certain plain field-Smithfield-on every Friday, "unless it were a solemn festiVal, "was a great market for horses; to which earls, barons, knights, and citizens repaired for seeing and for purchasing; and to which the city merchants took their wares from every nation under heaven. "The Arabian sent thither his gold; the Sabeans, spice and frankincense; the Scythians, armour; Babylon, its oil; Egypt, precious stones; India, purple vestments; Norway and Russia, furs, sables, and amber grease; and Gaul, its wine. The only plaggues were the intemperate drinking of foolish persons, and the frequent fires. "

Richard I. was crowned at Westminster in 1189; changed the designation of the chief magistrate of the city from portreeve to mayor in 1190; obliterated all distinctions between natives and foreigners; acquired great popularity by his exploits in the Holy Land, insomuch as to induce a large sum from the citizens toward his ransom; and gave to the corporation, after his return, a new charter investing them with the conservancy of the Thames and with other privileges. Yet he subjected the Jews to severe exactions, and even to torture and massacre; and he so heavily taxed the citizens themselves as to provoke them, on one occasion, to open revolt. John, at his accession in 1199, confirmed all the citizens' rights and privileges, on their paying him 3,000 marks..A stone bridge which had been begun by the Empress Mand, in lieu of the wooden one of William Rufus, was completed in John's reign; and a fire took place there, which occasioned the death of about 3,000 persons by burning or by drowning. The barons took possession of the city against John; committed the Tower to the keeping of Langton; and procured, in Magna Charta, a declaration that the franchise of the city was inviolable. Henry III. repeatedly roused the citizens to wrath by the severity of his actions; got angry with them in turn, in consequence of their purchasing his plate and jewels, which he offered for sale under emergency; and, in punishment of that act of theirs, and of their destroying the house of the Abbot of Westminster, granted to the Abbot the right of an annual fair of fifteen days' continuance in Tothill Fields, with the effect of suppressing business during that time in the City. In 1263, a raid was made upon the Lombard bankers, many of whom took shelter for their lives in the churches; and in the following year, on some trivial pretext, a massacre of upwards of 500 Jews took place. The Earl of Leicester, during the civil war, took up his head-quarters in London; and, after he was slain at the battle of Evesham, and an end put to the power of the barons, the City suffered vengeance from the royalists, was mulcted in 20,000 marks, and underwent temporary deprivation of its privileges.

An order was issued, in 1191, by the first mayor, in his own name and that of the aldermen, for the prevention of fires, that "all houses erected thereafter in London should be built of stone or brick, with party-walls of the same, and should be covered over with slates or tiles. "The City, till then, had been supplied with water from three brooks which ran through it; but in consequence of the extension of its buildings along and over these brooks, it began to require supply from some other quarter. A measure, therefore, was adopted in 1236, and completed in 1255, to bring a supply, in leaden pipes, from Tyburnbrook, -a stream which crossed the present line of Oxford-street near Marylebone-lane, and fell into the Thames a little above Vauxhall-bridge. In 1 258, according to the chronicles of Evesham, 20,000 persons in the metropolis died of hunger from a dearth of coru; and in 1270, according to Fleetwood, "provisions were so scarce that parents did eat their own children, "and wheat was sold at a price equivalent to 36s. a bushel. The Black friars settled in Holburn, in 1221; the Grey friars, in 1225; the White friars, on the river, in 1241; the Augustinian friars, in 1253; the Crutched friars, in 1298.

Edward I. was crowned at Westminster; massacred 280 Jews in the City, and seized their property; restored to the citizens the privileges of which they had been deprived; disafforested Middlesex forest; and finished Westminster abbey. The citizens, in the time of Edward II., took part with his queen and son against him, slew the Bishop of Exeter, and seized the Tower. A fish market was established, in 1320, at Fish wharf; and tolls were established, in 1340, for defraying the expenses of streets and roads. The citizens, in the time of Edward I II., obtained many important privileges; particularly the right of holding courts of jail delivery for Newgate, the right of refusing to go to war out of the City, the right of appointing the mayor as sole escheator within the City, and the perpetual right of magisterial supremacy over the borough of Southwark. Edward II. also gave to the chief magistrate the title of lord mayor; afforded great encouragemeut to the trading companies of the City; ordered the smiths and the goldsmiths to put their marks on all their chief articles of maunfacture; established the mint at the Tower, and erected St. Stephen's chapel. The City sent 4 members to parliament in 1355; received the Black Prince, and his prisoner John of France, in 1359; and gave entertainment, through its lord mayor, to these personages, to Edward III., to David of Scotland, and to the King of Cyprus, in 1363. John of France, as a prisoner, occupied the Savoy palace in the Strand; and David of Scotland, also a prisoner, was lodged in the Tower. The poet Chaucer, about the same time, left the "Tabard Inn, "in the borough, on that famous pilgrimage to Canterbury, which he has immortalized by his pen. A terrible pestilence, supposed to have come from India or China, broke out in 1349, and is recorded to have been fatal to upwards of 50,000 persons. The general use of woollen, at the time, was unfavourable to cleanliness; and the practice of maintaining household fires against a reredos or screen, and of Venting the smoke through mere apertures of the roof, was prejudicial to health. The windows also were chiefly latticed, glass being used in few buildings except palaces, churches, and monastic houses; and the very shops, even those in the main thoroughfares, were rather stalls and stands than sheltered places. Another pestilence devastated the City in 1369.

Richard II., in 1377, when scarcely eleven years old, made a triumphal progress through London, amid great demonstrations of rejoicing; and was crowned at Westminster. A rustic mob of about 200,000, indignant at a poll-tax, and headed by Wat Tyler and Jack Straw, assembled, in 1380, at Blackheath; proceeded to London; were joined there by another body of insurgents; worked much damage in the City, plundering warehouses, pillaging mansions, burning the Savoy palace, and liberating the prisoners in the jails; extorted from the king a promise of certain rights and liberties; and struck such alarm into him, that he took refuge in the Tower. Their leader, Wat Tyler, was slain by the lord mayor at Smithfield; their forces were overpowered; and the king, when the crisis was over, retracted the promise he had given, and, in commemoration of the lord mayor's zeal, added the symbol of the dagger to the City arms. The king's subsequent reign, however, by its extravagance and luxurionsness, excited such strong disaffection that, on occasion of his absence in Ireland in 1399, the people and the nobles, headed by Henry of Lancaster, broke into open revolt. Henry IV. was crowned, before the close of the same year, at Westminster; and an illumination of the City, the first which had ever been done, took place at his coronation. The Grecian emperor Palæologus was received in 1400. Another pestilence, which carried off about 30,000 persons, occurred in 1406. Henry IV. was noted for persecution of the Lollards or Wickliffites; and Henry V., who succeeded to the throne in 1413, followed in the same course. Sir John Old castle, better known as Lord Cobham, and distinguished as a leader of the Lollards, was condemned for alleged heresy and treachery; got a respite of fifteen days, during which he escaped from the Tower; but was retaken, and eventually burnt in St. Giles' Fields. In 1416, the streets were first lighted with lanterns, one being placed at the door of each house; and, about the same time Holborn was first paved, the new guild hall was built, and a second illumination of the City, in celebration of the victories of the English arms in France, took place. Sir Richard Whittington, thrice lord mayor of London, flourished in the reign of Henry V.; was a great benefactor to St. Bartholomew's and Christ's hospitals; endowed certain alms houses near Sion college, now removed to the vicinity of Highgate; and, at an entertainment to the king in the Guildhall, is said to have cancelled a debt of the Crown to him, by burning a packet of bonds for £60,000.

An insurrection, headed by Jack Cade, took place in 1450, in the reign of Henry VI. The insurgents, to the number of about 20,000, encamped on Blackheath; marched thence, by London bridge, into the City; committed many outrages,-among the rest, beheading lordtreasurer Say and other eminent persons; but, with assistance of the governor of the Tower, were confronted and overpowered by the citizens. The wars between the houses of Lancaster and York soon followed; and, after the first engagement, a solemn but abortive meeting was held by the heads of the contending factions in St. Paul's, to attempt a reconciliation. The citizens chiefly favoured the Yorkists; and, in guerdon of their partizanship, the honour of knighthood was afterwards conferred on the lord mayor, the recorder, and twelve of the aldermen. The Yorkists were finally successful at the battle of Mortimer's Cross; and Henry was sent to the Tower. The frost was so severe in 1432 that heavy waggons could travel on the ice of the Thames from London to Gravesend. The first lord mayor's show took place in 1450. Money began to be lent on security to government, about that time, forming then the first small nucleus of the national debt. The first corn law was introduced about the same period, prohibiting importation from foreign countries when the home price rose to 6s. 8d. per quarter. A law was in force also for regulating the apparel of each grade of society; and the earliest historical or explicit notice of the use of bricks in the construction of houses in London, dates at 1460. The bricks were burnt in Moorfields; and so rapidly did they promote building that, as has been rather poetically said, "the houses sprang up almost like plantations, out of the very ground where they stood. "Yet the masonry of the City was most probably of brick in the Roman times; and the discontinuance, for centuries, in the use of that material, was probably due first to the deterioration and next to the loss of the Roman art of brick-making.

A grand tournament was held at Smithfield in 1467, in the reign of Edward IV., in honour of ambassadors from Charles the Bold of Burgundy, to demand the king's sister in marriage for their master. The Laucastrians were finally overthrown at the battle of Tewkesbury in 1471; and Queen Margaret was then sent to the Tower. The bastard of Falconberg, during Edward IV's. reign, came up the river, with a force of 5,000 men, to London bridge; burnt some houses there; marched on to Aldgate; was confronted by the citizens, and driven back to St. Botolph's church; and was there assailed, and utterly routed, by the garrison of the Tower. The current coin was changed, and considerably depreciated, in 146 4; the first printing-press was established by William Caxton, under the patronage of the abbot of Westminster, in 1 471; the right of choosing the lord mayor and sheriffs was vested in the masters, wardens, and liveries of the several corporations in 1473; a construction of cisterns and conduits, for supplying water in varions parts of the City and the suburbs, took place about the same time; and another pestilence, fatal to a vast number of the citizens, occurred in 1479. The young Edward V., whose reign lasted only two months and twelve days, in 1483, was committed to the Tower; and Richard III. took his seat, as king at Westminster, in the same year; but he reigned only till 1485, and is notable for little else locally than the incorporating of the Herald's college. Henry VII., immediately after the overthrow of Richard at Bosworth field, made a victorious entry into London, and went straight to St. Paul's to make devout acknowledgments for his accession. But he passed through the streets in a closed chariot, either in fear of the Yorkists, or in dread of a pestilence which then prevailed in the City. The pestilence is known as the s weating sickness; appears to have been of a severe nondescript character; and carried off, in one week, two lord mayors and six aldermen. Henry borrowed £2,000 from the citizens, professedly for public purposes, but appropriated it to his own use; he extorted other sums from them by fines and other oppressive methods; he envied them the great wealth which they were then beginning to acquire from regular commerce with the East and the West Indies; he confiscated much property of the Jews, and instituted the Star Chamber; and he, in general, practised such rapacity as to leave, at his death, an amount of nearly £2,000,000. His oppressions extended also to the country, and provoked an insurrection so far away as Cornwall. The insurgents proceeded toward London; were met, by a royal force, at Deptford-bridge, and driven to Blackheath; and, taking post there, struck battle, and were beaten and dispersed. Another pestilence, said to have been fatal to 30,000 persons, devastated the city in 1499-1500; and it so alarmed the king and the court that they removed to Calais. The first lord mayor's feast was held at the Guildhall in 1502; and the king, who was himself a member of the Merchant Tailors' Company, gave it the name of the Merchant Tailors' feast. In this reign, Henry VII. s chapel was erected, the Fleet river was made navigable to Holborn-bridge, Houndsditch was arched over, and an archery-ground, the origin of the artillery-ground, was formed on the area of several gardens in Finsbury.

Henry VIII. was crowned, in 1509, at Westminster. The citizens, at that time, were jealous of the residence of trading foreigners; and a portion of them soon became so riotons against the foreigners as to necessitate the march into the city of a body of the king's troops. Many of the rioters were seized, and capitally arraigned; the lord-mayor and the corporation t1iemselves were implicated, but sued the crown for mercy and obtained it; and, so late as 1527, several of the citizens were disfranchised for malpractice with the foreigners. The Londoners again, as in former reigns, were required to furnish money for the state's emergencies; and they were forced, under threats of severities, to raise large sums to Wolsey, who appropriated considerable portions to his own use. Charles V. was received, in 1522, and lodged at Blackfriars; and a parliament was held there in 1524. Pestilences again ravaged the city in 1513 and 1525. St. Paul's school was founded in 1512; the lord-mayor began to be chosen annually in 1529; and many street and sanitary improvements were made during Henry VIII. 's reign. The streets were paved and widened; the new houses were of better constrnction and greater height; nuisances were removed; and the police regulations were revised and ameliorated. The first act for improving the streets described them as "veiy foul and full of pits and sloughs, very perilous and noxions, as well for all the king's subjects on horseback as on foot or with carriages;" and it made provision for the paving of Aldgate, High-street, Shoe-lane, Fetter-lane, Grays Innlane, Chancery-lane, and the way leading from Holbornbar toward St. Giles-in-the-Fields. The next act referred particularly to Chiswell-street, Whitecross-street, Golden-lane, Grub-street, Long-lane, St. John's-street from Smithfield-bars to the Pound, Cowcross from Smithfieldbars, the street from Temple-bar westward to Clements-Inn-gates, the bridge called Strand-bridge, the road thither from Temple-bar, and Foscue-lane from the Bishop of Lichfield's garden to Strand-bridge.

The commencement of the Reformation was accompanied with striking local scenes, and followed by great Local changes. Sermons against popeiy were preached at St. Paul's-cross; Tindal's translation of the Bible was publicly bnrned in Cheapside; persons differing very much from one another in religions belief were prosecuted or executed for their reliigions opinions; and the entire fabric of monasticism, with its immense temporal appurtenances, was overthrown. Nearly two-thirds of the area within the city walls are computed to have been occupied at Henry VIII. 's accession, by churches, monasteries, and other ecclesiastical buildings; while a vast aggregate of dwelling-houses and gardens of bishops, abbots, and other ecclesiastical personages, lay dispersed throughout the suburbs. Neither the parish churches nor the splendid establishments of St. Paul's cathed ral were much in question by the Reformation; nor were the episcopal residences, amounting to sixteen, for Canterbury, York, Winchester, Durham, Bath, Worcester, Exeter, Lichfield, Hereford, Ely, Rochester, Salisbury, Chester, Carlisle, St. David's, and Llandaff, much affected; but all the friaries, priories, and nunneries, and all other kinds of establishments under monastic brotherhoods or sisterhoods, were entirely and sweepingly affected. The number of these was enornions. Of friarics there were Black friars, between Ludgate and the Thames; Grey friars, near Old Newgate, afterwards Christ,s hospital; Augustine friars, afterwards Austin friars, near Broad-street; White friars, near Salisbury square; Crouched or Crossed friars, at St. Olave's Hartstreet, near Tower-hill; Carthusian friars, aIterwards the Charter-house, in Charter-house-square; Cistertian friars, or New abbey, in East Smithfield; and Brethren de Sacca, or Bon Hommes, in Old Jewry. Of priories there were St. John of Jerusalem, in Clerkenwell; Holy Trinity, or Christchurch, within Aldg.ate, on the site of Duke's palace; St. Bartholomew-the-Great, near Smithfield; St. Mary-Overies, in Southwark, near London-bridge; and St. Savionr's, in Bermondsey. Of nunneries there were the Benedictine or Black nunnery, in Clerkenwell; St. Helen's. in Bishopsgate-street; St. Clears, in the Minor ies; and Holywell, between Holywell-lane, and Norton Falgate. Of monastic colleges there were St. Martins, at St. Martin's-le-Grand; St. Thomas of Acres, at Westcheap; Whittington's, in Vintry-ward; St. Michael's, in Crooked-lane; and Jesus Commons, in Dowgate. Of monastic chapels, and similar establishments, there were St. Stephen's in Westminster; Our Lady's of the Pew, in the Strand; St. Anne's, in Westminster; St. Esprit's, or the Chapel of the Holy Ghost, in the Strand; Roll's chapel, or Domus Conversorum, in Chancery-lane; St. James-in-the-Wall, chapel and hermitage, in Monkwellstreet; Mount Calvary chapel, near Goswell-street road; St. Mary's chapel, Pardon chapel, and two other chapels, in St. Paul,s churchyard; Guildhall chapel, at the Guildhall; Corpus Christi, in the Poultry; St. Anthony's chapel, with hospital and school, in Threadneedle-street; a chapel and alms houses in Petty France; Lady Margaret's alms houses, at the Almonry, Westminster; Henry VIII. 's alms houses, near the Gatehouse, in Westminster; St. Catherine's chapel and hermitage near Charing-cross; Pardon chapel, in Wilderness-row, St. Johnstreet; and the chapel of Our Lady, in Barking. Of hospitals, with resident brotherhoods or sisterhoods, there were St. Giles'-in-the-Fields, near St. Giles church; St. James', afterwards St. James palace, in Westminster; Our Lady's of Rounceval, at the Savoy in the Strand; Elsing Spital, afterwards Sion College, at London Wall; Corpus Christi, in St. Lawrence Pountney; St. Papey's, near Bevis Marks; St. Mary Axe; Trinity, without Aldgate; St. Thomas', Mercer's chapel; St. Bartholomew-theLess, near Smithfield; St. Giles' and Corpus Christi, without Cripplegate; St. Mary's of Bethlehem, near London wall; St. Mary Spital, without Bishopsgate; St. Katherine's, below the Tower; St. Thomas', in Southwark; and the Lock Spital or Lazar House, in Kent-street, Southwark. And of monastic fraternities, and similar institutions, there were St. Nicholas', in Bishopsgate-street; St. Fabian, and St. Sebastian's, or the Holy Trinity, in Aldersgate-street; St. Giles', in Whitecross-street; the Holy Trinity, in Leadenhall-street; St. Ursula-le-Strand; the Hermitage, in Nightingale-lane, East Smithfield; Corpus Christi, at St. Mary Spital; Corpus Christi, at St. Mary Bethleheni; and Corpus Christi and St. Mary's, at the Poultry.

The ordeal of suppression or of alteration which these institutions underwent at the hands of Henry VIII., operated varionsly for the City's advantage. The indolence which they had cherished gave place to activity; many persons whom they had maintained as idlers were turned adrift to earn a subsistence by their own exertions; the benumbing effects which they had pi.oduced on the popular mind were followed by the uprisings of enterprise; the wealth which they had long absorbed to the uses of laziness and self-indu1gence was thrown loose for employment in trade and commerce; and the great aggregate area of ground which they had occupied both in the City and in the suburbs, became available for the occupancy and the business-premises of industrions men. The entire metropolis, therefore, notwithstanding the exactions of the state and the confusions attending the reformational change, assumed a much more prosperous aspect. Some check was experienced, in 1543, by a cattle plague. This seems to have affected more than one species of the animals for the shambles; but it raged particularly among horned cattle, and caused a great dearth of meat. A sumptuaiy law, in consequence, was passed by the lord mayor and the common council, enacting that the lord mayor shonld not have more than seven dishes either at dinuer or at supper, that the aldermen and the sheriffs should not have more than six, the sword-bearer not more than four, the mayor's officers and the sherift's officers not more than three, and that none of them after the ensuing Easter, should buy cranes, swaus, or bustards. A human epidemic prevailed in the same year, and cut off so many of the citizens that the term was adjourned to St. Albans. Edward VI. was crowned at Westminster in 1547. The chief local events of his reign were the relaxing of religions persecution, the comparative emptiness of the Fleet prison and the Tower, the converting of the palace of Bridewell into an hospital, the re-founding of Christ's hospital, the re-erection of the hospitals of St. Thomas and St. Bartholomew, the proceedings and fate of Protector Somerset, and the outbreak of two more pestilences. Protector Somerset pulled down two churches and three episcopal residences in the Strand, and a chapel in St. Paul's churchyard; used their materials for erecting a palace on the site of the present Somerset House in the Strand; appropriated to himself a large amount of the proceeds of the suppressed monastic houses; abstracted from the Guildhall library three cart-loads of valuable books and manuscripts; and was eventually driven to the Tower and to the scaffold. One of the two pestilences raged in 1548, and carried off large numbers of persons; and the other raged in 1551, and, like that of 1485, was called the sweating sickness. An act of parliament was passed in 1553, prohibiting the taking of interest for lent money, protecting native traders by impost of certain disabilities on the Hanse merchants, and limiting the number of taverns in Westminster to three, and in the City and its liberties to forty.

Lady Jane Grey, the good and loveable, made her brief and tragic appearance in the City in 1553. Mary, the bloody, immediately followed; was received with great demonstrations of rejoicing; and soon proceeded to rack the City with distraction, and to stain it with gore. Ridley, Cranmer, and other great and good men were sent to the Tower; and great numbers of Protestants were burnt in Smithfield. Sir Thomas Wyatt, in 1554, made an insurrectionary effort against Mary; marched with an insurgent force through Knightsbridge, along what is now Piccadilly, and down the Strand, to Ludgate; was there encountered and captured; and was sent to the Tower and executed. Mary oppressed the citizens by forced loans; compelled them to become security for £30,000 which she had borrowed at Antwerp; exacted from them £60,000, in aid of her alliance with Spain against France; took from them a bribe of £50,000, to prohibit foreign merchants from exporting English cloth, and altogether, during her short reign of five years, worked vast damage to the City's happiness and prosperity.

Elizabeth's accession was hailed with surpassing joy. A magnificent progress from the Tower to Westminster preceded her coronation; an immense display of exultant devices was exhibited along all the line of route; a purse of 1,000 marks of gold was presented to her, at the Standard in Cheapside, as a token of the City's respect and love; bonfires, in the evening, blazed in all directions; and a thrill of confidence ran through the whole community, that the period of depression, suffering, and terror was at an end. Her long reign did much to justify the people's rejoicing and confidence. It was marred indeed, in the City, by what Pennant, with allusion particularly to tilts and tournaments, calls its ' ' romantic fooleries; ' ' it also had its shocks for the citizens, in some adverse public occurrences, especially during the dread of the Armada; but, on the whole, it redeemed the promise practically given at its commencement, that the City should enjoy a current of prosperity. The refugees from the Netherlands, under protection by the government, introduced numerous manufactures which were new to England; and the native merchants were enabled very greatly to extend and rainify the City's trade and commerce. The Royal Exchange was opened by the queen in 1556; Westminster school was founded in 1560; the Merchant Tailors' school was founded in 1561; and a charter to the East India Company was granted in 1600. Other events, of more doubtful character, were the instituting of the first lottery in 1569, the erection of the first treadmill in 1570, and the opening of the first theatre in 1576. A great pestilence also broke out in 1563, and carried off about 20,000 persons; another occurred in 1569, and was so violent as to occasion the adjournment of the Michaelmas term to that of Hilary; a lesser one occurred in 1574; and two others, with fatal results to respectively 7,000 and 11,000 persons, occurred in 1582 and 1592.

A proclamation was issued in 1580, prohibiting the erection of new buildings within three miles of the City gates. The invigorated spirit of the people had been giving rise to comparatively rapid street-extension; and a fear was entertained that there might not be space enough left in the suburbs for public recreation and sports. A view of the extent of London at that time is interesting, not only for showing what reason there was or was not for the prohibition, but also for sake of comparison with the present extent of the metropolis; and that view is proximately attainable from a very curious plan, entitled ' ' Civitas Londinum, ''made soon after the accession of Elizabeth, and still extant. The most compact or crowded parts, then as since, extended from Newgate-street, Cheapside, and Cornhill to the Thames. The space immediately N and NE of these parts, excepting Coleman-street, and a few scattered buildings from Lothbury to Bishopsgate, and from Bishopsgate to the Tower, was all open or garden ground. Goodman'sfields were only enclosed pasture lands, and very few buildings were E of the Tower. Whitechapel consisted of only a few houses; and Houndsditch contained but one row of houses opposite the City walls, and along the edge of open fields. Spitalfields, from the back of the church, lay entirely open. A tolerable street went from Bishopsgate-Without to Shoreditch church; but even that had unoccupied gaps. The space westward from Bishopsgate to Moorfields and Finsbury was nearly all unedificed. A few houses stood between the upper end of Chiswell-street and Whitecross-street; but what is now Goswell-street was called the road to St. Albans. Clerkenwell, with the exception of Cowcross and part of St. John-street, was occupied chiefly by its monastery and church. The space from the back of Cowcross to Gray's-inn lane, which extended a very little way from Gray's inn, was either unoccupied, or laid out in pasture or gardens. The thoroughfare from Holborn-bridge to Red Lion-street was edificed on both sides; but thence to the village of St. Giles, was either an open road, or bounded on one side by a garden wall. The village of St. Giles consisted of a small cluster of houses on the right of the road; and was therefore called, as the parish is still called, St. Giles-in-the-Fields. All the tract to the N and the W of this was open country. Oxford-street was a rural road, with trees and hedges on both sides. A road, called the Way, leading in from Reading, went from Oxford-street, through Hedge-lane and Haymarket, to St. James' hospital, afterwards St. James' palace. Hedge-lane and Haymarket were avenues entirely destitute of houses. Pall Mall had nothing more than a few small buildings on the site of Carlton House. Leicestersquare was all open fields. St. Martin's-lane had only a few buildings above the church, toward Covent-garden. Covent-garden was literally a garden, and extended to Drury-lane. Long-Acre, Seven Dials, and Drury-lane, as far as to the top of Wych-street, were quite open. The Strand was edificed principally with mansions of the nobility and the bishops. The space between the Strand and the Thames was occupied by gardens attached to these mansions; and the names of the present streets there, Arundel-street, Norfolk-street, Surrey-street, Cecil-street, Salisbury-street, Buckingham-street, Villiersstreet, and others, were taken from the several mansions or gardens. Spring-gardens were literally gardens with springs, and extended to the royal cockpit and tilt-yard, afterwards occupied by the Treasury, and opposite which stood the palace of Whitehall. The space from Kingstreet to the Abbey, and that from Whitehall to Palaceyard, were compactly edificed. A plot near the present Abingdon-street, and another on the shore opposite Lambeth palace, had each some houses. The shorespace, on the Surrey side, from Lambeth palace to a point opposite White-friars, had only six or seven houses. The tract thence to Winchester-house, in Southwark, had a line of houses with attached gardens. A theatre with gardens, known as Paris-garden, occupied the site of the present Christchurch. Circular buildings, appropriated to bull and bear baiting, often witnessed by Elizabeth, stood opposite Queenhithe. South wark extended but a little way down the High-street. London-bridge was crowded with buildings. The line along Tooley-street to Horsley-down was much edificed; but the tract beyond had only a few houses with gardens.

Another pestilence appeared in 1603, the year of the succession of James I., and cut off 30,578 persons. Yet the commerce of the City was then in so highly flourishing a condition that the citizens were able to contribute to the fleet sent against the Armada 16 ships fully equipped, and carrying 10,000 men. The year 1604 was memorable for the gunpowder plot. The City took part, in 1 609r19, in the colonizing of Londonderry; and it was supplied with water by Middleton's formation of the New River, in 1613-20. The sides of the streets began to be paved with flags, instead of pebbles, in 1616.. Another proclamation against the further street extension was issued in 1618, occasioned by disregard of the previous proclamation; but it also was disregarded; for not only did the metropolis continue rapidly to extend, but toward the end of James I. 's reign, it began to acquire the graces of architecture which were so richly imparted to it by Wren and his associates. The first newspaper, at least the first which has been strictly authenticated, appeared in 1622; and the first hackney coach appeared in 1634. Charles I. arrived on horseback in 1625; and the lord mayor and aldermen repaired to Ludgate to receive and proclaim him. Another pestilence broke out in that year, and carried off 35,470 persons; and again another appeared in 1635, and carried off 10,400 persons. Great confusion, with the effect of embarrassing trade, suspending City extension, and arresting the progress of the arts and sciences, prevailed during the civil war. The citizens early took the side of the parliament; accepted the solemn league and covenant in 1643; and entertained the houses of parliament in 16 44-5. Charles I. was beheaded at Whitehall in 1649. St. Paul's Cathedral was used as a stable for some of the cavalry regiments of the Commonwealth; and the crosses in Cheapside and Charing, as also many fine statues and decorations in the churches, were destroyed by the Puritans. The Royal Society was founded in 1650; and the City goldsmiths, about the same time, received deposits of money from the citizens, allowed interest upon them, and thus established banking houses. Cromwell was feasted at the Guildhall in 1651. The Jews, in 1655, offered Cromwell a large sum of money for permission to trade in England; and many of them settled in London, and opened next year a synagogue. A thorough revival of general prosperity occurred under Cromwell's adininistration, and produced a large amount of City extension.

Charles II., at his restoration, came to London from Blackheath, was received with immense demonstrations of rejoicing, made a progress from London-bridge to Whitehall, and was gorgeously banquetted in St. George's Fields. The old streets till then were mostly very narrow and close, their houses projecting in the upper stories so far as almost to overarch the thoroughfares; but many of them, about that time, were widened, paved, and otherwise improved; and such new ones as Great Queen-street, Bow-street, Lincolns-Inn-fields, Long-Acre, Covent-garden, St. James'-street, Pall-Mall, Piccadilly, and many others, either had been built, or were approaching completion. The City was first supplied with tea, by the East India Company, about the time of Charles' restoration. A pestilence, known as the great plague, commenced in I December 166 4; did not entirely cease till January 1666; carried off about 4,000 persons in one night, about 12,000 in one week, and 68,596 during its entire prevalence; raised the number of deaths, together with those from other diseases, in the year 1665 to 97,306; and caused such awful desolation that the streets were deserted, most of the houses were shut up, some thoroughfares which had been busy with traffic were overgrown with grass, pest-carts went round at certain hours, with the cry ' ' bring out your dead; ''and, for lack of sufficient burying-ground, large pits were dug for the reception of the corpses. Another calamity, seeming to be a dispensation of Providence to cure one evil by another, was a terrific conflagration, known as the great fire. This began on 2 Sept., 1666, at the house of a baker in Pudding-lane, adjacent to the site of the Monument afterwards erected to commemorate it; spread as far west as to Pye-corner near Holborn-bridge; raged continuously during four days and four nights; consumed about three-fourths of the City within the walls, and about one-fifth as much without the walls; laid waste a densely edificed oblong space of upwards of a mile in length and half a mile in breadth, or an area of upwards of 436 acres; destroyed the Guildhall, the Royal Exchange, 52 corporation halls, 4 City gates, St. Paul's Cathedral, 85 churches and chapels, and 13,200 out of 65,000 houses; and was computed to involve a loss of not less than £10,000,000's worth of property.

The desolated portions of the City were rebuilt with astonishing celerity, and in a style of masonry or of architecture far superior to that of the buildings which had perished; but, unhappily, the old lines of the streets were, in main degree, preserved, and even the narrowness of them was, in a considerable degree, resumed; St. Paul's cathedral, which had been in a transition state of architecture, was immediately re-founded in a new style; a multitude of new churches, with domes, towers, and spires, and in styles beautified and diversified by the fertile genius of Wren, took the place of those which had been destroyed; the Royal Exchange was rebuilt; St. James' Park was planted with trees; and an entirely new face was given to both the City and the suburbs. Yet, under the force of prejudice, a noble plan prepared by Wren for the reconstruction of the City was ignored or laid aside, and an act was passed, in 1674, imposing severe penalties on the erection of houses on new foundations. The general community, in rebound from the calamities which had passed, and in reaction from the repressive social usages of the times of the Commonwealth, and under influence of the example of the royal court, passed speedily into frivolity and vice. Bullbaiting and acrobatic sports were chief amusements; the theatres, which had all been suppressed, were re-opened; women were, for the first time, allowed to appear on the boards as actresses; and gambling and debauchery became prevalent and unblushing. A disbanded officer called Blood, carried off the crown jewels from the Tower in 1671; prosecutions, under the false testimony of Titus Oates and his associates, commenced in 1678; much excitement and many executions immediately followed; the famous Rye House plot occurred in 1683; and Lord William Russell, for alleged complicity in that plot, was executed in Lincoln's-Inn-Fields. The penny post, for the metropolis, was established and a post-master-general appointed in 1683. The Thames was so deeply frozen in Jan. and Feb. 1684 that streets of booths were erected on it; and all kinds of trades and amusements were carried on there for nine weeks. Cranbourne-street was erected about 1680; Coventry-street, about 1682; Southampton-square, afterwards called Bloomsbury-square, about the same period; and the last was shown to foreign princes visiting London as one of the wonders of England. Sohosquare also was built about that time, and, what seems curious to the present generation, was likewise a subject of pride to the citizens. During Charles II's. reign also, insurance offices were established, and Chelsea hospital and Greenwich observatory were founded. Charles II. was buried at Westminster, and James II. crowned there, in 1685.

The comparative importance and splendour of London, about that time, had become very great. The population is computed to have been about 530,000; and, though that does not seem much as compared with the populaation now, it was more than seventeen times the population of Bristol, which was then the largest town in England except London. The families of nobles, prelates, and wealthy commoners formed no inconsiderable portion of the population; and they resided chiefly in fine new suburbs, situated in the tracts between the City and the present fashionable West end. The lord mayor never appeared in public without his rich robe, his hood of black velvet, his gold chain, and a large attendance of harbingers and guards; and on great occasions he rode on horseback, accompanied by a magnificent cavalcade, second in pomp and pageantry only to that which accompanied the sovereign, on his coronation day, from the Tower to Westminster. The trainbands, or City militia, comprised twelve regiments of foot and two of horse, officered by councillors and aldermen; were under the orders of a commission of eminent citizens; possessed the prestige of having contributed much, or even mainly, to both the overthrow of Charles I. and the restoration of Charles II.; and were able to cope with all other military force in the kingdom. The merchants, or upper class of citizens, were much more intelligent than the same class in Bristol or elsewhere; they looked with pride on the City; and they felt solicitude for her liberties, ambition to enjoy her honours, and determination to maintain and enforce her claims to respect. The aggregate trade, though small compared to what it is now, bore a much greater proportion to the trade of the entire kingdom than it does now; and the money at command of the traders was so ample and ready that a government enjoying their confidence could obtain from them as large a supply in one day as it could have got from all the rest of the kingdom in months. Yet the social and sanitary condition of London then, as compared with what it ought to have been, or with what it afterwards became, was astonishingly low.

"We should greatly err, ''remarks Lord Macauley, "if we were to suppose that any of the streets and squares then bore the same aspect as at present. The great majority of the houses, indeed, have since that time been wholly, or in great part, rebuilt. If the most fashionable parts of the capital could be placed before us, such as they then were, we should be disgusted by their squalid appearance, and poisoned by their noisome atmosphere. In Covent-garden a filthy and noisy market was held close to the dwellings of the great. Fruit women screamed, carters fought, cabbage stalks and rotten apples accumulated in heaps, at the thresholds of the Countess of Berkshire and of the Bishop of Durham. The centre of Lincoln's-Inn-Fields was an open space where the rabble congregated every evening, within a few yards of Cardigan House and Winchester House, to hear mountebanks harangue, to see bears dance, and to set dogs at oxen. Rubbish was shot in every part of the area. Horses were exercised there. The beggars were as noisy and importunate as in the worst governed cities of the Continent. A Lincoln's Inn mumper was a proverb. The whole fraternity knew the arms and liveries-of every charitably disposed grandee in the neighbourhood, and, as soon as his lordship's coach and six appeared, came hopping and crawling in crowds to persecute him. These disorders lasted, in spite of many accidents and of some legal proceedings, till, in the reign of George II., Sir Joseph Jekyll, Master of the Rolls, was knocked down and nearly killed in the middle of the square. Then at length palisades were set up, and a pleasant garden laid out.-St. James'-square was a receptacle for all the offal and cinders, for all the dead cats and dead dogs, of Westminster. At one time a cudgel player kept the ring there. At another time an impudent squatter settled himself there, and built a shed for rubbish under the windows of the guided saloons in which the first magnates of the realm, Norfolks, Ormonds, Kents, and Pembrokes, gave banquets and balls. It was not till these nuisances had lasted through a whole generation, and till much had been written about them, that the inhabitants applied to parliament for permission to put up rails, and to plant trees. When such was the state of the quarter inhabited by the most luxurious portion of society, we may easily believe that the great body of the population suffered what would now be considered as insupportable grievances. The pavement was detestable; all foreigners cried shame upon it. The drainage was so bad that, in rainy weather, the gutters soon became torrents. Several facetious poets have commemorated the fury with which these black rivulets roared down Snow-hill and Ludgate-hill, bearing to Fleet ditch a vast tribute of animal and vegetable filth from the stalls of butchers and of green grocers. The flood was profusely thrown to right and left by coaches and carts. To keep as far from the carriage-road as possible was, therefore, the wish of every pedestrianThe mild and timid gave the wall; the bold and athletic took it. If two roisterers met, they cocked their hats in each other's faces, and pushed each other about till the weaker was shoved towards the kennel. If he was a mere bully, he sneaked o ff, muttering that he should find a time; if he was pugnacious, the encounter probably ended in a duel behind Montague House.-The houses were not numbered. There would, indeed, have been little advantage in numbering them; for of the coachmen, chairmen, porters, and errand-boys of London, a very small proportion could read. It was necessary to use marks which the most ignorant could understand. The shops were, therefore, distinguished by painted signs, which gave a gay and grotesque aspect to the streets. The walk from Charing-cross to Whitechapel lay through an endless succession of Saracens Heads, Royal Oaks, Blue Bears, and Golden Lambs, which disappeared when they were no longer required for the direction of common people. When the evening closed in, the difficulty and danger of walking about London became serious indeed. The garret windows were opened, and pails were emptied, with little regard to those who were passing below. Falls, bruises, and broken bones were of constant occurrence; for, till the last year of the reign of Charles II., most of the streets were left in profound darkness. Thieves and robbers plied their trade with impunity; yet they were hardly so terrible to peaceable citizens as another class of ruffians. It was a favourite amusement of dissolute young gentlemen to swagger by night about the town, breaking windows, upsetting sedans, beating quiet men, and offering rude caresses to pretty women. Several dynasties of these tyrants had, since the Restoration, domineered over the streets. The Muns and Tityre had given place to the Hectors, and the Hectors had been recently succeeded by the Scourers. At a later period arose the Nicker, the Hawcubite, and the yet more dreaded name of Mohawk. The machinery for keeping the peace was utterly contemptible. There was an act of the Common council which provided that more than a thousand watchmen should be constantly on the alert in the City, from sunset to sunrise, and that every inhabitant should take his turn of duty; but the act was negligently executed. Few of those who were summoned left their homes; and those few generally found it more agreeable to tipple in the alehouses than to face the streets."

In 1685-7, numerous French Protestants, driven from their homes by the revocation of the edict of Nantes, settled in London; and some of them introduced the manfacture of silk, and peopled Spitalfields; while others, who were ornamental jewellers and goldsmiths, estab. lished themselves in Long Acre, Seven Dials, and SohoIn 1685, the Duke of Monmouth was beheaded on Tower hill, and Titus Oates was flogged through the streets, and pilloried at Westminster-Hall gate, Charing-cross, the Temple, the Royal Exchange, and Tyburn. In 1697 varions places which had been political sanctuaries- three in Fleet-street, two in Holborn, one in the Minories, one in the Strand, and some others-and which had become the haunts of vice and the refuge of the most abandoned characters, were deprived of their privilege of sanctuary. The proceedings of James and his ministers, the systematic efforts to introduce Roman Catholicity, the imprisonment of the seven Protestant bishops in the Tower, the reports of the terrific cruelties of Jeffreys and Kirke in the West, and the general aspects of James, reign, caused great distraction in the City. James at length resolved on flight; embarked, on the night of 10 Dec. 1 688, at Whitehall Stairs; and threw the great seal into the Thames. No Popery riots broke out after his departure, and produced some destruction of property. William and Mary were crowned, in 1689, at Westminster; and they dined, in the same year, with the lord mayor, at the Guildhall. A new coinage, in consequence of the old one having become very much depreciated, was ordered in 1693; and was issued by Sir Isaac Newton, who was then master of the Mint. The queen died on 28 Dec. 1694; and William thence till his death ruled as sole monarch A fire occurred, in 1698, at Whitehall, and burnt it all down except the banquetting house. Peter the Great, Czar of Russia, came to England in the same year, lodged at Deptford, worked there as a ship's carpenter, and, at his departure, was presented, by the king, with a yacht, and gave the king, in return, a ruby valued at £10,000, which is now in the imperial crown. There were, in William and Mary's reign, 900 hackney coaches and 200 sedan chairs in London; and, during the reign, varions acts were passed for the regulation of these and of street traffic, for completing and adorning St. Paul's cathedral and Westminster abbey, and for conserving what has been called the Cottonian library, then lodged at Cotton House in WeStminster, and now lodged in the British museum.

William III. died on 7 March, 1702, at Kensington palace, and was buried at Westminster. Anne, who had been born at St. James' palace, was crowned in April; and her accession was hailed with joy by all classes of the citizens. A terrible storm raged during the night of 29 Nov. 1703; destroyed property to the value of about £2,000,000 in the City; drove the ships from their moorings in the river; and occasioned the maiming or death of upwards of 2,000 persons. A theatre was opened in Haymarket, in 1705, by Vanbrugh and Cibber. A commotion arose in 1709-10 from the preaching of a violent sermon, by Dr. Sacheverel, in St. Paul's cathedral, before the lord mayor and the corporation; led to his impeachment and trial before the House of Lords; was substantially a revival of the old contest between the High Church party and the Puritans; was attended with the destruction of several dissenting chapels and many private dwellings during the period of his trial; and issued in his suspension for three years from the office of preaching, and in the burning of his sermons by the hangman in front of the Royal Exchange. An act was passed in 1711 for building 50 new churches in London; and provided for the cost of them by a tax, during eight years, on all coals brought into the river. The General Post-Office was established in the same year; and St. Paul's cathedral was completed about the same time. The first Italian opera ever performed in England, was given, toward the end of 1711, at the theatre in Haymarket. The ships belonging to London, in 1712, were 560, of aggregately 85,000 tons; but the quantity of coals brought into the port, in that year, was only a little above 225,000 tons. The reign of Anne, which terminated at her death in 1714, was marked by much extension of the metropolis, by the general lighting of the streets at night, by great improvements in police, by extensive frequenting of clubs and coffee-houses, and by material improvement in the general condition of society.

George I. made his public entry into London in 1714. The Earl of Oxford, for treason against him, was soon sent to the Tower; an immense crowd of sympathizers accompanied him on his way thither; repeated tumults arose, during one of which William III. was burnt in effigy at Smithfield; and the bill, known as the Riot Act, was passed. Much excitement prevailed in connexion with the rebellion of 1715; and Lords Derwentwater and Kenmuir were executed on Tower-hill. A fire in Thames-street destroyed 120 houses, and occasioned the death of 50 persons, in 1715. The South Sea enterprize took place in 1720; occasioned much excitement and confusion in the City; threw such throngs of speculators upon the offices, that clerks' tables required to be placed in the streets for the transaction of their business; and produced so great disaster that thousands of families were brought to beggary, and the entire kingdom threatened with bankruptcy. Guy's hospital was founded in 1721, by John Guy, a bookseller in Cornhill. The Chelsea water-company, for affording better supplies of water to Westminster and the Western suburbs, was formed in 1722. George II. came to the throne in 1727. Only one bridge then spanned the Thames at the metropolis; and that was a structure of irregular arches, surmounted by piles of mean and ricketty houses, and often made horrible with scores of mouldering heads. But in George II. 's reign, that bridge was cleared of its encumbrances, and two others, Westminster bridge and Blackfriars bridge, were founded,-the former in 1739, the latter in 1760. Fleet-ditch also was arched over; Fleet-market was formed upon part of the arching; Grosvenor-square and Great George-street were built; the new road from Paddington to Islington, and several other new roads were laid out; and several new parishes, as St. GeorgeBloomsbury, St. Anne-Limehouse, and St. Paul, Deptford, were formed. The Wesleyan Methodists began their career in the same reign; and occupied the Foundry in Moorfields, as their first chapel, in 1739. The number of houses in the metropolis, or within the bills of mortality, in 1739, was 95,968; and the number of streets was 5,099. The first circulating library in London was formed, in the Strand, in 1740. The rebellion of 1745 produced some excitement in the City; seventeen persons were executed, on Kensington Common, for participating in it; and Lords Kilmarnock, Balmerino, and Lovat were executed on Tower-hill. The government's purchase of Sir Hans Sloane's collections, which led to the founding of the British museum, was made in 1753.

George III. was crowned at Westminster in 1761. The peace of Paris, which followed his accession, gave much stimulus to the improvement of the metropolis; the agitation created by Wilkes, the complaints of the Spitalfield weavers, and the war with America, gave a temporary check to extension; and the public events and influences of the rest of the reign were attended by a vast aggregate of aggrandizing change and enlargement. Three of the City gates-Ludgate, Aldgate, and Cripplegate-were removed and sold at the commencement of the reign; the building of Blackfriars bridge, and of the streets leading from it, went steadily forward; the large signs suspended over the streets from most of the houses, darkening the thoroughfares and obstructing a free circulation of air, began to be removed in 1762; commissioners for superintending and regulating the stands of hackney coaches, and for paving, lighting, cleaning, and watching the streets, were appointed in 1768; the houses were numbered; the names of the streets were marked at the corners; flagged pavements, for footpaths, were laid down; the kennels were removed from the middle of the streets to the sides; further measures were adopted, or new companies formed, for the supply of water; and, in 1807, gaslight was introduced by commencing the use of it in PallMall and Bishopsgate. According to an estimate made in December 1785, there were then, in and near the City, 100 alms houses, 20 hospitals and infirmaries, 3 colleges, 10 public prisons, 15 flesh-markets, 1 cattle-market, 2 vegetable-markets, 23 other markets, for varionsly corn, coals, hay, and other commodities, 1 5 inns of court, 49 halls for companies, 8 public or free schools, 131 charity schools, 207 inns, 447 taverns, 551 coffee-houses, 5,975 ale-houses, 1,000 hackney coaches, 400 hackney chairs, 27 public squares, and 7,000 streets, lanes, courts, and alleys. The first balloon ascent was made by Lunar, from the Artillery ground, in 1784; the first canal affecting the metropolis, the Paddington canal, was opened in 1801; the first docks, the West India ones, were opened in 1802; the first printing of newspapers by steam, that of the Times, took place in 1814; the first steamer on the Thames, the Comet from Glasgow, alp peared in 1816; and the first cabs came into use in 1820. Large extensions of the metropolis, including FinsburySquare, Bedford-square, Russell-square, Brunswick square, numerous streets in the vicinity of these squares and in other places, and numerous erections on the Surrey side of the river, were made during George III. 's reign; and the Royal Academy of Music, the Royal Academy of Arts, the Royal Institution, the Society of Antiquaries, the Royal College of Surgeons, and many other literary and scientific institutions, were founded. George III. returned thanks at St. Paul's, in 1761, for his accession; in 1789, for his recovery from illness; and in 1797, for Howe's, St. Vincent's, and Duncan's victories. The Prince Regent returned thanks there also, in 1814, for the pacification of Europe. Lord George Gordon's No Popery riots broke out in June 1781. burnt down many houses; broke up the prisons of King's Bench, Fleet, New Bridewell, and Newgate; made an attack on the Bank of England; and necessitated the forming of a camp in St. James' park for the maintenance of public tranquillity. The famous trial of Warren Hastings took place at Westminster hall in 1788; the Thames was frozen over in 1807, and again in 1814; Spencer Perceval, the prime minister, was assassinated in the House of Commons' lobby in 1812; and Louis XVIII., the Emperor Alexander, and the King of Prussia visited the (City in 1814.

George IV. came to the throne in 1820. He had already, from the time of his becoming regent in 1812, put his mark on the extension of the metropolis, particularly in the Regent's Park, Regent's-street, and Portland-place, and numerous arrays of aristocratic mansions; and his reign was characterized by a continuance and rapid increase of similar extension. The king himself took a strong interest in improving and beautifying the West End; Carlton House was demolished; St. James Palace was relinquished as a royal residence; Buckingham House was taken down, to give place to Buckingham Palace; and a broad commence ment was made of that migration of the higher classes to the West, which has continued till the present time. New London bridge was founded in 1825; the New General Post Office was completed in 1829; and the metropolitan police act was passed, and omnibuses first began to run, in the same year. The appearance of Queen Caroline, at the commencement of George IV. 's reign, to claim her queenly rights, and her trial upon charges brought against her, threw London society, for some months, into a ferment. The Cato-street conspiracy also, which was a plot to assassinate the king's ministers at a cabinet dinner, produced a great sensation; and it brought five of the principal actors in it to the scaffold. A commercial crisis occurred in 1825, and produced much disaster in the City.

William IV. succeeded to the throne in 1830, and was crowned at Westminster in 1831. New London-bridge was opened, in the latter year, by the King and Queen, amid great rejoicings. The discussions connected with the passing of the Reform Bill in 1832 produced vast excitement in the City; during which a run was made upon the Bank of England, and a mob assembled round Apsley House, the residence of the Duke of Wellington, and broke his windows. The cholera appeared in London in the same year, and created great havoc and distress among all classes. The old lionses of parliament were destroyed by fire in 1834; but the new ones were not founded till 1840. The first of the new cemeteries, that of Kensal-Green, was opened in 1832; and the first of the London railways, that to Greenwich, was open ed in 1836. The extensions and improvements of the metropolis, which had already become so great and distinguished, were carried vigorously forward during the reign of William IV.; and many scientific, literary, and educational institutions, such as the London University, the Astronomical Society, the Royal Geographical Society, the Royal Society of Literature, the National Gallery, the Royal Institution of British Architects, the British Association for the Advancement of Science, the Statistical Society, and varions Mechanics' Institutes, were established.

Queen Victoria came to the throne in 1837. The extension of the metropolis from that time till the present has been more rapid than ever, more characterized by diversity of character, more attended by demolitions and reconstructions, more marked by adaptations to the wants and tastes of the age, and more pervaded, within certain limits, by ambitions aim at ornamentation or display. So many as 64,058 houses, extending along an aggregate of 200 miles of streets, were built between 1839 and 1850; and so many as about 6,400, extending along an aggregate of 20 miles of streets, are computed to have been built on the average of every year since 1850. What the characters of the new extensions are, and what the circumstances of demolition and re-construction, will be shown in our subsequent section on the Structure of London. Considerable local agitation, arising from the proceedings of the chartists, occurred in 1839. Some commercial distress, resulting from the effects of a series of badly productive harvests, occurred in 1842. The railway mania and the repeal of the corn laws made strong impression on London in 1846. Some disturbances, arising from the sympathy of chartists with the expulsion of Louis Philippe from the throne of France, took place in 1848; and announcement that a vast body of chartists should meet on Kennington Common, and march in procession through the City, caused great alarm. So many as 200,000 citizens were sworn in a s special constables to preserve the peace; the entire police force was told off in the best manner of its excellent organization; and great military preparations, both of a defensive kind, and in the way of posting bodies of troops in reserve, were made by the government; and these preparations so completely cowed the chartists, that the entire assemblage of them on Kennington Common did not amount to a tenth part of the number of the special constables, and of course had neither strength nor spirit to attempt any breach of the peace. Sir Robert Peel died in 1850, in consequence of a fall from his horse in Hyde Park. Much excitement was created toward the end of that year by an act of the Pope, dividing England into Episcopal sees, and making Cardinal Wiseman "Archbishop of Westminster; ''but it was quieted, early in the next year, by the passing of a bill in parliament "to prevent the assumption of certain ecclesiastical titles from places in the United Kingdom. ''The great exhibition in Hyde Park was a striking event of 1851, and brought an immense concourse of strangers to the metropolis. The Duke of Wellington died in 1852; and his obsequies were performed with great magnificence, by a lying-in-state at Chelsea, and by a public funeral procession through Westminster and the City to St. Paul's. The elevation of Louis Napoleon to the throne of France, the successive searching expeditions in quest of the missing ships of Sir John Franklin, the war of England and France against Russia, the mutiny and war in India, and the intestine war in North America, with its strong effects on the polity and trade of Britain, kept the public mind of London, even more than the public mind throughout the country, in a state of almost constant tension and anxiety from 1851 till 1865. The launching of the Great Eastern iron steam-ship, and the first laying of an Atlantic telegraph, were marked events of 1858. Com merce had been remarkably increasing for several years prior to the Russian war; was slightly checked by the accompaniments of that war; took a fresh start on the conclusion of the peace; was soon checked again by a monetary crisis, which temporarily raised the rate of discount at the Bank of England to 10l percent.; experienced relief through an interference of government, authorizing the bank to increase its issues of notes as necessity might require; resumed then its regular and prosperous course; went through the trying shocks from the American war with such elastic power as to gain more by increase in other markets of the world than it lost by vast decrease in those of America; and sustained again a check, but under steady and recuperative progress, from a monetary crisis in 1866, which forced up the rate of bank discount to 10 per cent., and kept it there upwards of three months. The volunteer movement began to make much stir in 1859; and a body of about 20,000 volunteers was reviewed by the Queen in Hyde-park in June 1860. A fire broke out, in the same month, in some warehouses near the S end of London bridge; raged with fury for seven days; left smouldering action in vaults and underground stores for several weeks; destroyed buildings over an area of many acres; and involved a loss of property estimated at nearly £20,000,000. The death of the Prince Consort occurred near the end of the same year, and threw a temporary gloom over London society. The Great Exhibition at Kensington was the notable event of 1862. Rai1way operations had already worked much change on the metropolis; and they went forward with accelerated and extended force, ploughing through it and around it, throwing down and building up, during the five years ending in 1866. Cholera revisited London in the last of these years, but much more mildly than in 1832; and was traced, in considerable degree, to the effects of unwholesome water.

Historical Localities.—Many sites, buildings, and objects, associated with historical events, or with curious and bygone phases of the City, have been incidentally noticed in the course of the preceding historical sketch; and many more will be found noticed, in a variety of connexions, in the sequel of the present article, and in other articles. But many others, not noticed elsewhere, may be noticed here; and likewise some of those noticed elsewhere, may, for sake of further particulars, be again noticed here.

The rising-ground in the Tower, near the chapel of St. Peter-and-Vincula, was the place of execution of Anne Boleyn, Lady Jane Grey, and others. Tower-Hill, at the open area outside of the fortifications, was the usual place of execution for state criminals, and long had a permanent scaffold. Great Tower-street, running westward thence, is noted for Peter the Great having there, at the ' ' Czar's Head, ''been accustomed to smoke tobacco, and to drink beer and peppered brandy. Little Tower-street was the place where the poet Thomson wrote his ' ' Summer." The Minories, running northward from the Tower, took its name from a convent of the Nuns of St. Clare, or Minoresses, funded in 1293, near the spot now occupied by Trinity church. Eastcheap, westward from Great Tower-street, contained the Boar's Head tavern, which was made famous by Shakespeare, rebuilt after the great fire, and removed at the making of King Williamstreet to London bridge-Cannon street, on a line thence westward, was the place, at the London Stone, where Jack Cade proclaimed himself in 1447. Leadenhallstreet, going eastward on a line with Cornhill, took its name from Leaden Hall, on the site of the present meatmarket; contained the seat of the Nevilles, which passed to Lord Mayor Whittington, and to the City; contained also the Old King s Head tavern, where the Jacobite plotters met in the time of William III.; contained likewise the residence of ' ' Dirty Dick, ''and the death-place of Stowe; and retains underground structures which were crypts of St. Michael's and St. Peter's. Gracechurchstreet, connecting the E ends of Eastcheap and Leadenhall-street, took its name from St. Benet's church, which was called the Grass church on account of a vegetablemarket being adjacent; and it contains an inn which was once a theatre, and includes the place where George Fox died. Lombard-street, going westward on a line with Fenchurch-street, from the middle of Gracechurch-street, took its name from the Lombardy goldsmiths, who settled in it; retains till the present day its prestige for money transactions, by being the site of banks and insurance offices; and was the residence of Gresham, of Jane Shore's husband, of Guy the founder of Guy's hospital, and of the poet Pope's father. Bishopsgate-street, on a line with Gracechurch-street northward, was the residence of Sir H. Pallavicini, who collected Peter-pence in the time of Mary, and gave entertainment to Elizabeth in 1559.

Cornhill, connecting Leadenhall-street with the Poultry, took its name from a corn-market of very early origin; was long the quarter for dealers in old clothes; had a prison for night-walkers, called the Tun prison, built in 1283, somewhat in the form of a tun standing on end; had also a conduit of sweet water, constructed in 1401, and "castellated in the midst of the street; ' had likewise the standard for water from the Thames, constructed in 1582, and spouting water in four different directions at every tide; contained a house of King John, the Pope's Head tavern, and the birthplace of the poet Gray; and was the place where Jack Cade beheaded Lord Saye. The Poultry, connecting Lombard-street and Cornhill westward with Cheapside, contained the church of St. Lawrence Pountney, said to have been built on the site of the Roman prætorium; contained also the Compter prison, from which G. Sharpe liberated the negro slave Somerset; has a house of 1688-9, built by Wren, and occupied for years by Tegg the publisher; and was the birth-place of Thomas Hood. Cheapside, connecting the Poultry with Newgate-street and St. Paul's-churchyard, and one of the most crowded thoroughfares in the metropolis, was famous in early times, for its cross, its conduit, and its standard; and, in later times, for its silknercers, its linen-drapers, and its hosiers. The cross stood at the corner of Wood-street; was built, in 1 290, by Michel de Cantuaria, as one of Edward I. 's celebrated crosses in memory of Queen Eleanor; was rebuilt in 1441; was repaired and gilt in 1552, at the visit of Charles V.; was adorned again, at successive times, in honour of Anne Boleyn, of Edward VI. 's coronation, and of Mary's marriage to Philip; and was taken down in 1643. The conduit stood near Foster-lane, and was supplied by Tyburn. The standard occupied the spot where Bishop Stapleton was burnt in 1236. A tournament took place in Cheapside, in front of Bow church, in 1331, and was witnessed by Edward II. and Philippa. The Solemn League and Covenant was burnt here in 1661. The lord mayor's pageant, as planned by the last City poet, Elkanah Settle, passed along Cheapside in 1702; was witnessed here, from a balcony, by Queen Anne; and is pictured as entering Cheapside, in the concluding plate of Hogarth's ' ' Industry and Idleness. ''Llewelyn was belieaded in Cheapside in 1282; and P. Warbeck and Defoe were pilloried in it, the former in 1497, the latter in 1703. Old, Change was the residence of Lord Herbert of Cherbury. Queen's Arms Inn passage was the place where Keats wrote some of his pieces.

Old Jewry, going northward from the W end of the Poultry, took its name from being settled by Jews under William the Conqueror; contained the old London Institution, where Porson died as librarian; and contained also the princely mansion of Sir Robert Clayton. Bucklersbury, going from the S side of the Poultry, was noted for the sale of spices, simples, or herbs, and herb-drinks; figures in connexion with those in Shakespeare's ' ' Merry Wives of Windsor; ''and was the residence of Sir Thomas More. Bread-street, going off the S side of Cheapside, contained the house where Milton was born, and which was destroyed by the great fire; contained also the Mermaid tavern, which was frequented by Shakespeare, Raleigh, and Ben Jonson; and retains, beneath one of its present houses, the vaults of a mansion of Sir J. Gisor, built about 1240. Coleman-street, going northward, nearly on a line with Old Jewry, was the residence of Ben Jonson, and of Cowley, who wrote ' ' the Cutler of Coleman-street; ''and contained the Star tavern, which was visited by Cromwell. Swan alley was the residence of Venner, the fifth monarchy-man; and the Great Bellyard was the residence of Bloomfield, when a shoemaker. The Artillery Ground, 5 furlongs N of Colemanstreet, and adjacent on the W to Finsbury-square, was formed by the London trainbands, afterwards called the Hon. Artillery Company, who had their first grounds near Spitalfields, and who numbered John Gilpin as one of their captains; and it was the place from which Lunardi made his balloon-ascent, in 1784. Grubstreet, now called Milton-street, commencing not far from the SW corner of the Artillery Ground, and going from Chiswell-street to Fore-street, took its present name from the circumstance that Milton lived near it; was the place where A B C books were written after the livention of the art of printing; and was long noted as the retreat of poor authors. Hanover-square, in the vicinity of Grub-street, was the residence of Monk. Beach-street, connecting Chiswell-street westward with Barbican, had a residence of the abbots of Ramsey, which was occupied by the Drurys and Prince Rupert. Barbican, on a line with Beach-street westward, took its name from a watchtower on the ancient City wall, and had residences of the Suffolks, the Willoughbysd' Eresby, and Spelman the antiquary.

Aldersgate-street, going southward from the W end of Barbican, and forming part of a main thoroughfare to St. Paul's-churchyard, was long a fashionable quarter, and contained mansions of the Dorchesters, the Westmorelands, the Landerdales, and other nobles. The wits met at the Half-Moon tavern there in the time of Charles II.; the Tuftons, the Ashley-Coopers, and others lived in Shaftesbury House there, a mansion with a front by Inigo Jones, which afterwards was occupied by a grocer; the Pierreponts lived there in Peter House, which passed to the bishops of London; and Milton's ' ' pretty gardenhouse, ''where he kept school, was there on the ground afterwards occupied by the Literary Institution. Little Britain was long the chief place for the sale of books and pamphlets; and there the Earl of Dorset, when ' ' beating about for books, ''drew to light Milton's ' ' Paradise Lost, ''which the vender told him ' ' lay upon his hands like waste paper. ''Artillery-walk, near Bunhill-fields, was the place where Milton finished his Paradise Lost. Smithfield, 2½ furlongs W of Aldersgate, was the scene of the awful victim-burnings in the time of Henry VIII. and Mary; was previonsly the scene of tournaments in 1357,1362,1369,1374,1393,1409, and 1467; and was the place of the roisterings of Bartlemy fair, degenerated from Bartholomew fair. The Elms at Smithfield was the spot where Sir William Wallace was beheaded in 1305. Cloth Fair, adjacent to Smithfield, was long the appointed and customary place for the sale of cloth. Cock-lane, running westward from Giltspur-street, near Smithfield, was noted for a ghost-cheat in 1762. Chicklane, or West-street, going from Smithfield across the present Victoria-street, went down to Fleet-ditch, and was the place of the Red Lion tavern, Hogarth's ' ' Bloodbowl-house, ''the haunt of thieves and other bad characters, taken down in 1846. Giltspur-street was the site of a comptor, taken down in 1855. Aldermanbury was the site of the Guildhall till 1411. Bartholomewclose was the residence of Dr. Cains, the founder of Cains college, Cambridge; of Milton, after the Restoration; of Le Sotur, the sculptor; and of Benjamin Frankin, when a journeyman printer.

Friday-street, off Cheapside, contains the Nag's Head tavern, where the Roman Catholics alleged Archbishop Parker to have been consecrated; and figures in the curious evidence of the poet Chaucer on the Scrope and Grosvenor controversy. Arthur-street, off Fish-streethill, contained a house in which Edward the Black Prince was lodged. Turnwheel-lane, off Cannon-street, contained Herbert Inn, which belonged to Edward III. Petticoat-lane, off Whitechapel, contained the house where Strype the antiquary was born; and near it was the residence of Gondomar, the Spanish ambassador to James I. Sweedon's-passage, off Cripplegate, contained a house in which Whittington and Gresham lived, and which was taken down in 1805. Playhouse-yard, in Whitecross-street, near Cripplegate, contained the Fortune theatre, which was pulled down by the Puritans in 1649. Throgmorton-street contained the residence of T. Cromwell, the vicar-general of Henry VIII. Seething-lane, adjacent to Tower-hill, contained the old navy office, and the residences of Pepys and Sir F. Walsingham. Dowgate, going northward from Upper Thamesstreet toward the Poultry, contained the residence of the Duke of Buckingham, in the time of Charles II., after nearly all the rest of the nobility had migrated to the suburbs. Upper Thames-street contained the residence of the Norfolks and the Talbots, on ground afterwards occupied by Calvert's brewery; and had, on a spot near its junction with Earl-street, the castle of Bainardus, the companion of William the Conqueror. That edifice came to be called Baynard Castle; and the locality now called Bayswater, adjacent to Kensington, also took its name from Bainardus, and was originally called Baynard'swater.

St. Paul's churchyard, around St. Paul's cathedial, had, at its NE corner, St. Paul's cross, where the sermons against Popery were preached in the time of Henry VIII. A plot around the centre of the site of St. Paul's cathedral contained the tomb of John of Gaunt, and the first Duke Humphrey's walk. Ludgate hill, going westward from the S side of St. Paul's churchyard, was the place of Wyatt's arrest in the progress of his insurrection; and is noted for the Belle Sauvage or Belle Savage inn, belonging to the Cutlers' company, in a court where G. Gibbons resided, and where he carved a pot of flowers which shook with the vibration of passing carriages. Paternoster-row, somewhat on a line with Cheapside westward, and somewhat parallel to St. Paul's churchyard and the upper part of Ludgate-hill, took its name from the sale in it of paternosters, aves, credos, and similar things, in the Romish times; retains its ancient prestige as a place of publication; and is noted as the site of great publishing establishments. Amencorner, continuous with Paternoster-row, was a place for silk mercers and similar dealers, before the great fire; and contained the house of Harvey which he lent to the Physicians' college. Ave Maria-lane, going northward from Ludgate-hill to Paternoster-row, took its name from resident ' ' text-writers, ''who sold aves and credos. Old Bailey, going northward from Ludgate-hill toward Smithfield, was the residence or haunt of Jonathan Wild; and includes Green Arbour-court, where Goldsmith wrote his ' ' Traveller ''and some others of his works. Blackfriars, between the line of Ludgate and the river, took its name from the Blackfriars' monastery, removed hither from Holborn in 1276, patronized and enriched by Edward I. and his queen, an edifice so stately that parliaments were held in it, Charles V. resided in it during his visit to Henry VIII., and Cardinal Campeggio heard in it Henry's suite for a divorce; an edifice which passed after the Reformation to the royal printers, gave rise then to the name of Printing House-square to the place around it; and was superseded by the printing-offices of the Times newspaper, which still cover some traces of its foundations; but the hall and abbot's house of which were converted by Henry VIII. into a palace, and its church taken down. Blackfriars contained also a theatre erected in spite of opposition by the City authorities, highly associated with Shakespeare, and with the acting of James Burbage and others, and which has bequeathed its name to Playhouse-yard. Blackfriars likewise contained the residence of the Hunsdons, and the residences of Ben Jonson,Jansen, and Vandyck; and it contains Chatham-place, named after Earl Chatham, and where Lady Hamilton lived in Dr. Bird's house as a nurserymaid; and contains also Bride-line, with Coger's Hall tavern, which was frequented by a peculiar set of "thinkers ''in 1756.

Fleet-street, on a line with Ludgate-hill westward to Temple Bar, took its name from the Fleet river or Fleetditch, which runs from Hampstead-hill, and under the line of Farringdon-street, to the Thames at Blackfriars bridge. That stream, for a time, was first a useful watersupply to the ancient City, and next a useful branch of the harbour, made navigable for small craft to Holborn bridge; but it afterwards became a great and increasing nuisance, as a filthy common sewer; and, as already related, was arched over, and made to serve partially as a building-site. A bridge crossed it at the foot of Fleet-street; and the first knife factory in England stood there. A conduit stood a little above the foot of the street, near Shoe-lane. The notorious Fleet prison for debtors also stood near the foot of Fleet-street, on the E side of Farringdon-street; was rebuilt after the great fire, and again in 1781-2; had among its many prisoners, Surrey, Donne, Bishop Hooper, Lord Falkland, Prynne, Wycherley, Savage, W. Penn, R. Lloyd, and J. Howell; was the place where Howell wrote some of his ' ' Letters; ''was noted also for secret marriages, registers of which, from 1674, are preserved at Doctors' Commons; and was taken down in 1844. Fleet-street contains few historical localities in its immediate front lines; but it flanks many along both sides. Salisbury-square, off the lower part of the S side, was the residence of the poet Dryden, the novelist Richardson, and the actor Betterton. Dorsetstreet, to the S of Salisbury-square, was the residence of Locke; contained the house of Bishop Jewel, which he gave up to the Sackvilles; and had a theatre, which was built by Wren for Davenport, and was taken down in 1709. Whitefriars precinct, approached by Whitefiiarsstreet and Bouverie-street, contained the residence of Selden, the old George inn, and a theatre taken down in 1613; was one of the political sanctuaries which came to be vastly abused by the influx and riotousneSs of bad characters; bore then the cant name of Alsatia; and figures graphically in Sir Walter Scott's ' ' Fortunes of Nigel. ''The Mitre tavern, in Mitre-court, near the approaches to Whitefriars, was the place where the Royal Society used to dine, and a resort of Dr. Johnson and Boswell. Peterborough-court was a residence of the Bishops of Peterborough. Inner Temple-lane, Johnson'scourt, and Gough-square were residences of Johnson; and in the last he wrote much of his Dictionary. The W corner-house of Inner Temple-lane was the place where Pope and Warburton first met. The Temple, occupying large space between Fleet-street and the Thames, was settled by the Knights Templars, in 1184, removing to it then from Holborn; was given by Edward II., at the downfall of the Templars in 1313, to Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke; passed, at the Earl's death, to the Knights of St. John; was leased by them to the students of the common law; remained with the students, after Iapsing to the Crown at the dissolution of religions houses; and was given permanently by James I. to the law benchers. The Temple gardens, between the Temple buildings and the river, are set down by Shakespeare as the place where the Yorkists and the Laucastrians first assumed their distinctive badges of the white rose and the red rose. The Rainbow tavern, between Inner Temple-lane and Middle Temple-lane, dates from about 1659, and contained the Phœnix fire office in 1682. The Devil tavern stood at the head of the S side of Fleet-street, on the site of Child's banking office, the oldest banking house in London; was the place where Ben Jonson often met the Apollo club, and where the laureates recited,heir odes; and was taken down in 1788. Shoe-lane, going from the lower part of Fleet-street northward to Holborn-hill, contained the seat of the Bishops of Bangor, afterwards Bentley's printing office; and was the birth-place of Cowley, the death-place of W. Lilly and Lovelace, and the residence of Michael Drayton, Praise-God-Barebones, Wynkin de Warde, E. Curll, B. Lintot, and the publisher Murray. Bolt-court, to the W of Shoe-lane, was the residence and death-place of Dr. Johnson, and the residence. of the printer Bensley, the astronomer Ferguson, and William-Cobbett; and Johnson's house in it was taken down in 178 4. Crane-court, still further to the W, was the meeting-place of the Royal Society from 1701 till 1782, in a house built by Wren. Fetter-lane, still further to the W, and going northward to Holborn, includes Salisbury-court and Lovell's-court, where Richardson resided, and in the latter of which he wrote his ' ' Pamela ''and his "Grandison. ' Chancery-lane, also going from Fleet-street to Holborn, was the birth-place of Strafford, and the residence of J. Tonson and Isaak Walton.

Newgate-street, going west-north-westward from the N end of St. Paul's churchyard, somewhat on a line with Cheapside, has, in Bath-street, the Bagino or Old Royal Baths, built in 1679 by the Turkey merchants; in Bull Head-court, a bas-relief of the giant William Evans, 7½ feet high, and the dwarf Sir Jeffrey Hudson, 3¾ feet high; in Ivy-lane, the site of the King's Head tavern, in which the Ivy-lane club met, with Dr Johnson for a member; and in Warwick-lane, a wall effigies of 1688 of Earl Guy, -the old college of physicians, built by Wren, after the great fire, -and the Bell Inn, where Archbishop Leighton died. Christ's Hospital, on the N side of Newgate-street, occupies the site of the Greyfriars monastery; was founded by Edward VI., ten days before his death; and has many historical associations. The Charter-House, 5 furlongs N of Christ's Hospital, and adjacent to Goswell-street, occupies the site of a Carthusian monastery, founded in 1371, by the Flemish Knight, Sir Walter Manny; was erected as an hospital, chapel, and school house, in 1611, by Thomas Sutton; retains some relics of the original monastery; and was originally surrounded by a wild waste tract, which was purchased by Bishop Stratford as a burial-place for victims of the plague. Moorfields, in that quarter, was then a fen; was made passable by causeways so late as 1415; was laid out with public walks, for the use of the citizens, in 1606; began to be edificed after the great fire; became the site of Old Bethlem hospital, and of Killigrew's nursery for players; and was long a place for sports and for old book stalls. Picthatch, nearly opposite the Charter-House-end of Old-street-road, figures in Shakespeare as Pistol's "Manor of Picthatch. ''Clerkenwell. to the NW of the Charter House, took its name from a well frequented by the incorporate clerks of the City; was long famous for other wells, some of them medicinal; and had, at St. Johns-square, a commandery of the Knights of St. John, a gateway of which continued to stand after the demolition of the rest of the edifice in the time of Edward VI., and which became Cave's printing office, whence he issued the Gentleman's Magazine.

Holborn-hill, Holborn, and High Holborn, westward on a line with Newgate-street, after the intervening link of Skinner-street, took their name by corruption from the Oldbourne or Hilbourne rivulet, which ran-down them to Fleet-ditch; and were the route of criminals from the Tower and from Newgate to the gallows at Tyburn, the route of Lord William Russell on his way to the scaffold in Lincolns Inn-fields, and the route of the whippings of Titus Oates, Dangerfield, and Johnson, from Aldgate to Tyburn. A house in Holborn was inhabited by Gerdar the herbalist in 1597, and had attached to it a good garden, with many rare plants; and the Blue Boar inn, at 270 in High Holborn has been gravely, but erroneously, made the scene of Cromwell and Ireton's interception of a letter, which the story fancifully alleges to have been the proximate cause of the execution of Charles I. Gray's Inn-lane, off the N side of Holborn, was the residence of Hampton and Pym, where they held their consultations for resisting the ship money impost; and Fox-court, off Gray's Inn-lane, was the birth-place of the poet Savage. Drury-lane, going south-south-eastward from the junction of High Holborn and Broad-street, contains or adjoins the birth-place of Nell Gwynn, in Coal-yard; the site of Nell Gwynn's lodging, when Pepys saw her, watching the milkmaids on Mayday; the place of Lord Mohun's seizure of Mrs. Bracegirdle; the site of Cockpit theatre; the original of Drury-lane theatre, in Pit-place; the site of Craven House, in which the Queen of Bohemia died in 1662; and Lewkner's-lane, or Charles-street, long a haunt of very bad characters. Great Queen-street, going northeastward from Drury-lane to the NW corner of Lincolns Inn-fields, is joined there at right angles by Little Queenstreet, down which Lord William Russell went to the scaffold; was built, along all the SE side, by Inigo Jones; was one of the most fashionable parts of the metropolis from 1630 to 1730; and contains the house in which Lord Herbert of Cherbury died, a house occupied for the last 20 years of his life by Sir Godfrey Kneller, and a house which was inhabited by Lord Chancellor Somers and the Duke of Newcastle in the time of George II.

The Strand, going west-south-westward, in a line with Fleet-strect, from the vicinity of Temple Bar to Charingcross, was long little else than an open road between London and Westminster; was not paved till after the passing of an act for the purpose, in 1532; became, from end to end, a place of noble, prelatic, and wealthy mansions; and is now a brilliant portion of one of the great business-arteries of the metropolis. Peter of Savoy, uncle of Henry III., obtained a large tract on its S side to the Thames in 1245, and was one of the earliest settlers in it; the bishops and other ecclesiastical dignitaries numerously followed him, insomuch that nine bishops had mansions on its S side at the time of the Reformation; and nobles, contemporaneously or afterwards, settled in such numbers as eventually to give their names to most of the numerous streets which now run from the Strand to the river. Essex House stood at the E extremity of the S side. Essex-street, named from that mansion, and running to the S, contained the residence of Lady Primrose, where the young Pretender lay concealed in 1750. Devereux-court, further W, contained the Grecian coffeehouse. Arundel House stood further E. Somerset House, erected in 1776-86, and occupied chiefly as government offices, is on the site of Protector Somerset's palace. The building No. 141 occupies the site of Tonson's Shop. The Savoy was the site of the Earl of Savoy's palace, and the place of the famous coniferous for the revision of the Liturgy at the restoration of Charles II.; and it still has the Savoy chapel, which was attached to the hospital of St-John the Baptist, and which was burnt in 1864, but so interested the Queen that she undertook to have it restored at her own expense. The Beaufort buildings occupy the site of Worcester House. Cecilstreet was the site of the New Exchange, and adjoins the site of Salisbury House. The Adelphi-terrace, facing the Thames, and reached through Adam-street, was the deathplace of Garrick. A spot between Adam-street and Buckingham-street was the site of Durham House, and the residence of Sir Walter Raleigh. Buckingham-street and Villiers-street are on the site of the Duke of Buckingham's mansion and gardens; and a house in one of them was the birthplace of Lord Bacon. Northumberland House, at the W extremity of the S side, was originally built by Henry Howard, Earl of Northampton; passed, in 1614, to Thomas Howard, Earl of Suffolk, and then took the name of Suffolk House; went, in 1642, to Algernon Percy, tenth Earl of Northumberland, and then took the name of Northumberland House; passed afterwards to Algernon, Earl of Hertford, and seventh Duke of Somerset, -and again to Sir Hugh Smithson, who was, in 1766, created Duke of Northumberland; and it now retains only a small portion of the original building. Southampton-street, off the N side of the Strand, adjoins the site of Bedford House. Maiden-lane, running westward from Southampton-street to Bedford-street, was the residence of Andrew Marvell, and the lodging-place of Voltaire.

Charing-cross was the last place at which the coffin of Eleanor, queen of Edward I., rested on its way to Westminster abbey; was the site of the last of the splendid crosses erected by Edward to her memory; and was the place of the execution of the regicides of Charles I. Whitehall, going southward from Charing-cross, was the site of Cardinal Wolsey's York House,-afterwards the Whitehall royal palace, from the time of Henry VIII. till that of William III.; was the site also of Cockpit, in which Oliver Cromwell resided; and was the scene, in front of Whitehall banqueting-house, of the execution of Charles I. Richmond-terrace, off the E side of the foot of Whitehall, was the site of the Duchess of Portsmouth's lodgings. King-street, deflecting south-south-eastward from the foot of Whitehall, was the death-place, in deep poverty, of the poet Spencer. Parliament-street, St. Margaretstreet, and Old Palace-yard, southward on a line with Whitehall, abound in historical associations, connected with governmental occurrences, Westminster-abbey, Westminster-hall, and the old houses of parliament. A room in the Colonial office, in Downing-street, was the place where Nelson and Wellington had their casual and only meeting. Palace-yard was the place of Sir Walter Raleigh's execution. Westminster-hall was the place of the trials of Earl Strafford, Charles l., and Warren Hastings. The new houses of parliament cover the site of the Star chamber, the Painted chamber, and Guy Faux's cellar. The Almonry, in Westminster, was the place where Caxton erected his printing-press.

Pall-Mall, communicating through Cockspur-street with Charing-cross, and going west-south-westward to the foot of St. James'-street, took its name from a game introduced to England either in the time of James I. or in that of Charles I.; and contains a house on the site of that in which Nell Gwynn died,-Schomberg House, in the W wing of which the painter Gainsborough lived,- and Marlborough House, the death-place of the great Duke of Marlborough, the residence for a time of Prince Leopold, the residence of the Dowager-Queen Adelaide, and now the residence of the Prince of Wales. St. James'-square, off the N side of Pall-Mall, is notable for Johnson and Savage having often walked throughout the night in it for want of a bed; and contains the house in which Lord Castlereagh resided, and Norfolk House in which George III. was born. St. James'-street, going north-north-westward to Piccadilly, was the scene of Blood's attempt on the Duke of Ormond; and contains the house in which Lord Byron lodged in 1811, the site of the house in which Sir Richard Steele lived, and the site of that in which the historian Gibbon died. St. James'-place, off the W side of St. James'-street, contains the house in which the poet Rogers lived. St. James palace, near Marlborough House, a little to the SW of Pall-Mall, occupies the site of an hospital, founded about 1190 for lepers, and purchased in 153 2 by Henry VIII.; and now retains little of the structure erected by HenryStafford House, in James' Palace-court, stands partly on the site of Queen Caroline's library; was built, under the name of York House, for the Duke of York, son of George III., but was unfinished at his death; and went by sale, in 1841, to the Marquis of Stafford. Bridgewater House, a little to the N of Stafford House, and facing the Green Park, occupies the site of Berkshire House, which was bought by Charles II. for the Duchess of Cleveland, and then called Cleveland House, and which went by sale, in the early part of last century, to the Duke of Bridgewater. Regent-street, commencing in Waterloo-place in the E part of Pall-Mall, and going north-north-westward, through the Quadrant and across Oxford-street, into junction with Portland-place toward the Regents' Park, was designed and constructed by the architect Nash, during the regency of George IV.; formed much the grandest improvement in the metropolis after the time of Wren; and served as a strong stimulus to quicken the migration of the higher classes to the WestThe corner of Suffolk-street, a little further E, was the scene of the savage assault on Sir John Coventry, which gave occasion for the famous statute against cutting and maiming.

Piccadilly, going from Regent-circus at the intersection of Regent-street, west-south-westward, to Hyde-parkcorner, was long a short and indifferent street, extending no further than to the foot of Sackville-street; appears first on record, under its present name, in 1673; is supposed to have got that name from the sale in it of stiff collars, called pickadilles, much worn from 1 605 to 1620; and became eventually a place of costly mansions, and a centre for the radiation of numerous streets. The part of it from Sackville-street to Albeinarle-street was originally called Portugal-street; and took that name from Catherine of Braganza, queen of Charles II. Burlington House, and Burlington arcade, at its N side, between Sackville-street and Bond-street, were named after Boyle, Earl of Burlington. Clarendon House, between Albemarle-street and Dover-street, belonged to the great Lord Clarendon; was sold by his son, the Earl of Rochester, in 1675, to the second Duke of Albemarle; was sold by the Duke, a little before his death, to Sir Thomas Bond of Peckham; and is now represented by only some remains at Three Kings' stables. Devonshire House, between Berkeley-street and Satiation-street, occupies the site of Berkeley House, which belonged to Lord Berkeley of the time of Charles II., and in which the first Duke of Devonshire died. Bath House, at the corner of Bolton-street, occupies the site of a mansion of the statesman William Pulteney, Earl of Bath; and is noted for frequent meetings of Moore, Rogers, Chantrey, Wilkie, Hallam, and Sydney Smith. Coventry House, at the corner of Engine-street, occupies the site of an old inn, called the Greyhound; and was the death-place, in 1809, of the sixth Earl of Coventry. Apsley House, at Hydepark-corner, took its name from Baron Apsley, Earl Bathurst; was built in 1785, near the site of a once famous inn, called the Hercules Pillars; and was purchased and reconstructed by the great Duke of Wellington, and statedly occupied by him during the last 32 years of hi s life. A house opposite St. James' church was the deathplace, in 1687, of Sir William Petty. Another house there was the residence, in 1675, of the painter Verrio. The W corner house in Stratton-street was the deathplace of the Duchess of St. Albans, previonsly Mrs. Coutts. The house at the E corner of Half Moon-street was the residence of Madamed' Ardlay. The house at the W corner of White-horse-street was the residence of M.Dumergue, the friend of Sir Walter Scott; and was long Sir Walter's own retreat at his visits to LondonHertford House, at the Corner of Engine-street. was built in 1850-3 by the Marquis of Hertford; but occupies the site, and retains much of the facade, of the Pulteney Hotel, where the Emperor of Russia resided during his Visit to London in 1814, and where his sister, the Duchess of Oldenburgh, introduced to each other Prince Leopold and the Princess Charlotte. The house immediately E of Hertford House was the death-place of Sir William Hamilton, whose wife figures in the biography of Lord Nelson. The house at the corner of Hamilton Place was the death-place of Lord Chancellor Eldon. The house No. 139, between Park-lane and Hamilton-place, was the residence of Lord Byron; and formed part of the residence of the Duke of Queensberry, familiarly known as ' ' Old Q. ''A house two doors from Apsley house was the residence of Beckford, author of ' ' Vathek. ''A house adjacent to St. James' church occupies the site of one in which the Rev. Dr. S. Clarke lived from 1709 till his death in 1729, in which he wrote his work ' ' On the Being and Attributes of God, ''and other works, and which was taken down in 1848. The house No. 80 was the residence of Sir Francis Burdett, and the place where he was arrested to be taken to the Tower. The house No. 94 was successively Egremont House, Cholmondeley House, and Cambridge House; and was the death-place of the Duke of Cambridge, youngest son of George III., and the residence of Viscount Palmerston. A house opposite Old Bond-street covers the site of the bookseller Wright's shop, where Gifford assaulted Peter Pindar.

Bond-street was named after Sir Thom as Bond of Peckham; Albemarle street, after the second Duke of Albemarle; Dover street, after Lord Dover, who died in 1708; Berkeley-street and Stratton-street, after Lord Berkeley of Stratton, the lord deputy of Ireland in the time of Charles II.; Clarges-street, after Sir Walter Clarges, the nephew-in-law of General Monk; Half Moonstreet, after the Half Moon tavern; Whitehorse-street, after the White Horse tavern, which was on its site in 1720; Hamilton-place, after James Hamilton, the ranger of Hyde-park in the time of Charles II.; Jermyn-street, after Henry Jermyn, Earl of St. Alban's, who died in 1683; Arlington-street and Bennet-street, after Henry Bennet, Earl of Arlington, one of the Cabal. Coventrystreet, on a line with Piccadilly eastward, took its name from Coventry House, the residence of Secretary Coventry in the time of Charles II.; and was the site of a building known as the Piccadilly gaming-house. Haymarket, going southward from Coventry-street to Pall-Mall, took its name from a market for hay formerly held in it; and was the scene of the murder of Mr. Thynne by hirelings of Count Koningsmarck. Panton-street, off Haymarket, contains a house in which Addison wrote his ' ' Campaign. ''Constitution Hill, leading from Hyde Park corner to St. James' park, was the place where Sir Robert Peel got his fatal fall from his horse. Grosvenor Place, confronting Buckingham Palace gardens, takes its name from the Grosvenor family, the owners of the ground; and was edificed during the Granville administration, when Granville, in opposition to George III., refused to purchase the site. Grosvenor-square, nearly ¾ of a mile to the N, takes its name also from the Grosvenor family; and was the residence of Lords Rockingham and North when they were prime ministers. Hyde Park, entered at the W end of Piccadilly, was part of the ancient manor of Hyde, belonging to Westminster abbey; was enclosed by Henry VIII.; was noted, in the time of Elizabeth, for royal deer hunts,-and in the time of Charles I., for foot, horse, and coach races; figures as the scene of Oliver Cromwell's driving six horses presented to him by the Earl of Oldenburgh, and of his being thrown from his seat, with the effect of a pistol going off from his pocket; and was the scene of a doubly fatal duel, in 1712, between the Duke of Hamilton and Lord Mohun. Parklane, running along the E side of Hyde Park from Piccadilly to Oxford-street, contains Camelford House where Prince Leopold and Princess Charlotte resided.

Covent-garden was built, in 1630, by Inigo Jones; and has at one corner the site of Will's coffee-house, in another place the site of Button s coffee-house, and in another the house where Dr. Johnson and Boswell first met. Covent-garden theatre is the third theatre on the same spot; and occupies the site of places inhabited by Dr. Radcliffe, Wycherley, and many other wits, from 1646 till 1735. Bow-street takes its name from curving in the form of a bent bow; and has the police office where Fielding wrote his ' ' Tom Jones. ' The house at the corner of King's Arms-court was the residence of Grinling Gibbons. The space between Bow-street and the Piazza was occupied by the two gardens noted for Dr. Radcliffe's retort to Sir Godfrey Kueller. Rosealley, off King-street, Covent-garden, was the scene of the beating of Dryden by hirelings of the Earl of Rochester. Berkeley-square was the death-place of Horace Walpole, the great Lord Clive, and Lady Ann Lindsay. A detached house at Berkeley-street was the residence of Mrs. Montagu, and the place of her blue-stocking parties. Hanover-square was the death-place of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. Holles-street was the birthplace of Lord Byron, and the residence of the painter Romney, and of Sir M. Archer She. Leicester-square was the residence of Hogarth, Sir Joshua Reynolds, and Dr. John Hunter; and has the site of Leicester House, the "pouting-place ''of two princes of Wales. St. Martin's-court contained the house and the observatory of Sir Isaac Newton. Soho-square was originally occupied, along all its S side, by the palace of the Duke of Monmouth. Bloomsbury-square contained Lord Mansfield's house, demolished in the riots of 1780,-and Bedford House, taken down in 1800; and was the residence of Isaac Disraeli. Russell-square was the death-place of Sir Thomas Lawrence, and the residence of Justice Talfourd and Lord Chancellor Loughborough. Duke-street, off Lincolns-Inn fields, contain ed a Roman Catholic chapel which was the first building demolished in the riots of 1780. A house off Tavistock-place, adjacent to Tavistock-square, was the place where Francis Bailey weighed the earth. A house in South Audley-street was the residence of Alderman Wood, where Queen Caroline lodged in 1820. A house in Portsmouth-street, Clare Market, was the resort of Joe Miller, and the scene of a famous escape of Jack Sheppard from the emissaries of Jonathan Wild. Mark-lane was frequented by Cyriac Skinner, the friend of Milton, and was a preaching-place of Isaac Watts. A house in Ireland-yard, Blackfriars, was purchased in 1612 by Shakespeare; and the deed of it is preserved at Guildhall. Many other historical localities are noticed in the articles on Limehouse, Bow, Stepney, Bethnal-Green, Shoreditch, Poplar, Mile-End, Spitalfields, Whitechapel, Hackney, Bromley, Finsbury, Clerkenwell, Bloomsbury, Islington, St. Giles-in-the-Fields, Stoke-Newington, Highgate, Hampstead, Marylebone, Paddington, St. Pancras, the parishes of Westminster, Westminster itself, Knightsbridge, Kensington, Chelsea, Hammersmith, Battersea, Lambeth, Kennington, Camberwell, Clapham, Southwark, Bermondsey, Rotherhithe, Deptford, Greenwich, Blackheath, and other sections, portions, and suburbs of the metropolis. Some also, of a personal kind, will be mentioned in the next section of the present article; and a number, of varions kinds, in connexion with notices of public buildings.

Eminent Persons.—The distinguished natives of London count by the thousand. A tolerably full list of them would both tire our readers and exceed our available limits. We shall give only a select list; and give it briefly, and in alphabetical order:-H. Aldrich, Westminster; E. Alleyn, the actor, Bishopsgate; Bishop Andrews, near Tower-street; Arne, Westminster; Lord Bacon, Buckingham-street; J. Bacon, the sculptor, Lambeth; Banks, the sculptor, Lambeth; Joseph Barnes; Barrow; James Basire; Earl Bathurst, Westminster; Thomas Becket, or Thomas-á-Becket, the Poultry; Admiral Benbow, Rotherhithe; Betterton, the actor, Westminster; Dr. Birch; Bird, the sculptor; Blackstone, Cheapside; Lord Bollingbroke, Battersea; Archbishop Boulter; Sir F. Bourgeois, the founder of Dulwich gallery; Bowyer, the printer, Whitefriars; Dr. Boyce, Joiners' Hall; Sir T. Brown, Cheapside; W. Burton, the antiquary; the Duke of Buckingham, who died in 1 688: Lord Byron, Holles-street; E. Calamy; R. Cambridge; W. Camden, author of "Britannia," Little Old Bailey; E. Campion, the Jesuit; George Canning, Marylebone; Carter, the antiquary; Caryl, the commentator; R. Cecil, Chiswell-street; Sir T. Chaloner; Charnock, the theologian; the Earl of Chatham, St. James-Westminster; Chaucer, the father of English poetry; the Earl of Chesterfield, who died in 1773; Churchill, Westminster; Colley Cibber, Westminster; Cocker, the schoolmaster; Dean Colet, near Budge-row; J. J. Conybeare, the Saxon scholar; Cooke, the actor, Westminster; Lord Cornwallis, Grosvenor-square; Cowley, Fleet-street, near Chancerylane; Archdeacon Coxe, Westminster; Crashaw; Culpeper, the herbalist; Bishop Cumberland, Aldersgate; Day, the author of" Sandford and Merton,'' Whitechapel; Dee, the astrologer; Defoe, the author of" Robinson Crusoe; ''John Dennis; Dr. Doddridge; Dollond, Spitalfields; Donne, the poet; Archbishop Drummond; Dyer, the author of ''the History of Cambridge University; ''Edward V.; Bishop Egerton; G. Ellis; the Earl of Essex, who died in 1646; Etherege, the wit; Farnaby, the scholar; Nicholas Ferrar, Mark-lane; Bishop Fleetwood; Fletcher, the dramatist; Folkes, the antiquary, St. Giles; Forbes, the traveller; Fosbrooke, the antiquary;J. Fox, Conduit-street, off Bond-street; Gale, the theologian; Gale, the antiquary; Gataker, the theologian, Lombard-street; George III., Norfolk House; G. Gibbons, Westminster; A. Gill, Milton's teacher; Glover, Westminster; Mary Godwin or Wolstonecroft; R. Gough, Winchester-street; Gray, Cornhill; Matthew Green, author of" the Spleen; ''Maurice Greene, the musician; Sir Thomas Gresham; Bishop Hacket, Westminster; E. Hall, the chronicler; Halley, Haggerstone; Hamilton, known as ''Singlespeech Hamilton,,, Lincoln's Inn; Hampden; Bishop Hare; R. Harley, Earl of Oxford; Sir J. Hawkins; S. Hearne, the traveller; Archbishop Heath; W. Heberden; J. Henderson, the actor; Philip Henry, Westminster; R. Herrick; J. Heywood, the poet; Highmore, the painter; A Hill; Bishop Hinchcliffe; B. Hoadley, the physician; Hogarth, Bartholomew-close, Smithfield; Holcroft; T. Hollis, the antiquary; T. Holloway, the engraver; T. Hood, Poultry; T. Hook, Bloomsbury; J. Hoole. Moorfields; J. Hoppner; Bishop Horsley; J. Howard, Enfield; Abbot Ingulphus; Jane of the Tower, daughter of Edward II.; S. Jenyns, Bloomsbury; Inigo Jones, in or near Cloth-fair, Smithfield; Sir W. Jones; Ben Jonson, Haitshorne-lane, near Charing-cross; Dr. Jortin, Westminster; J. Keats, Moorfields; Edmund Kean; W. Kitchiner; the Duke of Kent, father of Queen Victoria; Anne Killigrew, Westminster; S. Knight, the theologian; N. Langhorne; Archbishop Leighton; J. Leland, the antiquary; D. Levi, the hebraist; Lewis, the author of the "Monk; ''G. Lillo; R. Lloyd; M. Lowman, the theologian; Bishop Maddox; Sir J. Marsham, the author of "Canon Chronicus; ''Martyn, the botanist, Queen-street; Queen Mary, St. James'; Maskelyne; R. Masters;Mathews, Westminster; W. Melmoth, the translator of ''Pliny's Letters; ''Joe Miller; Milne, the engineer; Milton, Bread-street, Cheapside; W. Mitford; Dr. Mead, Stepney; Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, the Piazza, Covent-garden; Sir Thomas More, Milk-street, Cheapside; G. Morland; Munden, the actor, Holborn; D. Neal, the author of the ''History of the Puritans; ''H. Neale, Westminster; Needham, secretary to the Royal Society; R. Nelson; John Newton; Nicholls, the physician of George II.; Nicholls, the antiquary, Islington; Nicholson, the mathematician; Nollekens, Westminster; Dr. J. North; General Oglethorpe; Anne Oldfield; John Palmer, the actor; Parkhurst, the lexicographer; Parkinson, the botanist; Parsons, the bibliographer; Bishop Pearce, Holborn; Dr. Pemberton; W. Penn, Great Tower-hill; Catherine Philips; E. Phillips, the nephew of Milton; Sir R. Phillips; Pope, the poet, Lombard-street; P. Pott, Lombard-street; J. Pridden; Prior the poet; H. Pye, the poet-laureate; Quin, Westminster; Rainbach, the engraver; Anne Radcliffe; J. Rastall, the lawyer; Rawlinson, the lord-mayor; Redgrave the painter; J. Reed, the critic, Stewart-street; J. Reeve, the actor, Ludgate-hill; D. Ricardo; J. Riley, the painter; W. Ryland, the engraver; W. Seward; W. Sharp, the engraver, Minories; the Earl of Shaftesbury, who died in 1713; Bishop Sherlock; J. Shirley, the dramatist; W. Sotheby; Smith, the actor, known as "Gentleman Smith;'' J. and H. Smith, authors of the "Rejected Addresses, ''Basinghall-street; Sir S. Smith, Westminster; Spencer, author of the" Fairie Queene," East Smithfield, near the Tower; J. Spiller, the sculptor; G. A. Stevens; S. Storace; Stewart, the Pretender, St. James'; J. Stowe, the antiquary, Cornhill; Stuart, known as" Athenian Stuart; ''W. Suett, the actor; Taylor, known as ''Platonist Taylor; ''Jane Taylor; Sir W. Temple; A Tooke, the scholar; J. H. Tooke; Newport-street; J. Toulmin, the theologian; J. Townley, the dramatist; A. Tucker; R. Uvedale; Admiral Vernon; G. Vertue, Westminster; Queen Victoria, Kensington palace; Dean Vincent; Horace Walpole, Arlington-street; J. Ward, the author of ''Lives of Gresham Professors; ''Bishop Warner, Westminster; Thomas Wentworth; Earl of Strafford, Chancery-Lane;Wheatley, the theologian, Paternoster-row; Whitbread; P. Whitehead, Holborn; Judge Whitelocke; John Wilkes; Helen M. Williams; Windham; Bishop Wren.

Distinguished residents in London also count by the thousands. We can give only a select list of those of them who have been buried in it, and in the suburbs; and we shall give the list in a classified form. Among royal persons there bave been Hardicanute, Edward the Confessor, Edward I., Edward III., Henry V., James IV. of Scotland, Anne Boleyn, Lady Jane Grey, Elizabeth, Mary of Scotland, and Charles I. Among martial men have been Aymer de Valence, Sir Francis Vere, Lord Herbert of Cherbury, Prince Rupert, Oliver Cromwell, Ireton, the Earl of Essex, Monk, Wolfe, Sir Thomas Picton, and the Duke of Wellington. Among naval heroes have been Sir Walter Raleigh, Nelson, and Collingwood. Among statesmen have been Sir Thomas More, Sir William Temple, Lord Halifax, Lord Clarendon, Lord Bolingbroke, the Earl of Chatham, Pitt, Fox, Canning, and Lord Palmerston. Among state figurants have been Thomas Cromwell, Protector Somerset, the first Duke of Buckingham, the second Duke of Buckingham, Selden, Cleveland, Pym, Brome, Bradshaw, Rushworth, Blake, May, Lilburn, Fleetwood, Sir John Eliot, and the Duke of Monmouth. Among lawyers have been Attorney General Noy, Sir William Follett, and Plowden. Among theologians have been Miles Coverdale, Bishop Andrews, Fuller, Barrow, South, Bishop Burnet, John Bunyan, Richard Baxter, Edmund Calamy, Nelson, George Fox, John Wesley, Isaac Watts, John Newton, Baron Swedenborg, and Cardinal Wiseman. Among medical men have been Sir Hans Sloane, Dr. Mead, Cheselden, John Hunter, and Sir Astley Cooper. Among scientific men have been not a few, but mainly Sir Isaac Newton. Among historians have been Fox, Camden, Stow, Spelman, Archbishop Usher, Oldys, Ritson, Strutt, and Lord Macaulay. Among poets and litterateurs have been Chaucer, Gower, Spenser, Sir Philip Sydney, Chapman, Ben Jonson, Beaumont, Fletcher, Massinger, Kit Marlowe, Cowley, Milton, Butler, Otway, Dryden, Pope, Congreve, Gay, Prior, Addison, Thomson, Dr. Johnson, Chatterton, R. B. Sheridan, Lamb, Campbell, Rogers, Sydney Smith, and Tom Dibdin. Among novelists have been Defoe, Richardson, Sterne, Goldsmith, and Thackeray. Among painters have been Holbein, Vandyck, Sir Peter Lely, the Vanderveldes, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Hogarth, Gainsborough, Stothard, Sir Thomas Lawrence, and Turner. Among engravers have been Hollar, Woollett, Strange, and Sharp. Among architect's have been several of note; but chiefly Inigo Jones and SirWren. Among sculptors have been G. Gibbons, Roubiliac, and Flaxman. Among philanthropists have been William Caxton, Sir Thomas Gresham, John Howard, and many more. Among distinguished foreigners have been Casaubon, St. Evremont, and General Paoli. Among persons distinguished chiefly by notoriety have been Will Somers, Old Parr, Hakluyt, Pepys, Andrew Marvell, Roger Ascham, Dr. Busby, Nell Gwynn, the Duchess of Cleveland, Judge Jeffreys, Colonel Blood, Dr. Sacheverel, Ludowick Muggleton, Joe Miller, Jack Sheppard, Cocker, Hoyle, John Wilkes, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, Lord George Gordon, Joanna Southcott, and John Horne Tooke. Many places of residence and death of eminent persons have been indicated in our section on historical localities; and a few more may here be added. Sir Thomas More resided near the site of Battersea Bridge, in Chelsea; Horace Walpole, in Arlington-street, and in Berkeley-square; Archbishops Land, Sancroft, and Tillotson, in Lambeth-palace; Oliver Cromwell, in LongAcre, in Kingstreet-Westminster, in the Cockpit, and at Whitehall; the Duke of Schommberg, in Schomberg House, Pall Mall; Lord Chancellor Thurlow, in Great Ormondstreet; Lord Chancellor Cowper, in Great George-street, Hanover-square; Lord Chancellor Shaftesbury, in Shaftesbury House, Aldersgate-street; William Penn, in Norfolkstreet, Strand; Sir Isaac Newton, in St. Martin's-street, Leicester-square; Locke, in Dorset-court, Fleet-street; Harvey, the discoverer of the circulation of the blood, in Cockaine House, in the City; Shakespeare, on the Bankside in Southwark, near the Globe theatre; Milton, at the places previonsly noted, and in York-street, Westminster; Prior, in Duke-street, Westminster; Addison, prior to his marriage, in St. James'-place, St. James,street; Dr. Arbuthnot, in DoVer-street, Piccadilly; Dr. Jenner, in Hertford-street, May Fair; Dr. Mead, in Great Ormond-street; Linacre, in Knightrider-street, Doctors Commons; Fielding, in Bow-street, Covent-garden; Benjamin Franklin, in Bartholomew-close, Smithfield, and in Craven-street, Strand; the younger Vandervelde, opposite St. James' church, in Piccadilly; Hogarth, in Leicester-square; G. Gibbons, in Bow-street, Coventgarden; Sir Joshua Reynolds, also in Leicester-square; Wilkie, in Upper Portland-street, and in Lower Phillimore-place, Kensington; Turner, in Queen Anne-street, Cavendish-square; Gainsborough, in part of Schomberg House, Pall Mall; Dr. Priestley, in Lansdowne House, Berkeley-square; Sir Joseph Banks, in Soho-square; Handel, in Burlington House, with the Earl of Burlington, Piccadilly, and afterwards in Brook-street, Hanoversquare; the historian Gibbon, in Bentinck-street, Manchester-square; the poet Moore, in Bury-street, off St. James'-street; the poet Keats, in Cheapside; the poet Campbell, in Victoria-square, Pimlico; Lord Byron, in the Albany, Piccadilly; Mr. Murray, afterwards Lord Mansfield, in King's-Bench-walks, Temple; Lord Chancellor Eldon, in Bedford-square, and at the corner of Hamilton-place, Piccadilly; Edmund Burke, in Gerardstreet, Soho; Jeremy Bentham, in Queen-square House, Westminster; Lord Nelson, in New Bond-street; Sir Thomas Picton, in Edward-street, Portman-square; the martial Lord Hill, in Belgrave-square; Lord Lynedoch, in Stratton-street, Piccadilly; Mrs. Siddons, in Great Marlborough-street, and in Upper Baker-street, Regent's Park; Edmund Kean, in Clarges-street; the poet Lamb, in Inner-Temple-lane; Jenny Lind, in Brompton-lane, Old Brompton; Louis Kossuth, in Alpha-road, Regent's Park; Sir Robert Peel, in Privy-gardens, Whitehall. Peter the Great lodged in Buckingham-street, Strand; Southerne, in Tothill-street, Westminster; Voltaire, in Maiden-lane; Charles X. of France, in South Audleystreet; Joseph Buonaparte and Lucien Buonaparte, in Park-crescent, Portland-place; Oiléans Egalité, in Southstreet, Grosvenor-square; Louis Philippe, at Cox's hotel, Jermyn-street; Louis Blanc, in Piccadilly; Guizot, in Pelham-crescent, Brompton; Talleyrand, in Manchestersquare; Ledru Rollin, in South-street, Thurloe-square; Louis Napoleon, in King-street, St. James'-square; Don Carlos, in Welbeck-street; Blucher, in a house between St. James' Palace and Stafford House; Watteau, in Great Ormond-street; Madame de Stael, in Argyll-street, off Regent-street; Daniel O'Connell, in Bury-street; Shelley, in Hans-place, Sloane-street; Crabbe, in Bury-street; Sir Walter Scott, in Whitehorse-street, Piccadilly, and in Sussex-place, Regent'S-Park. Butler, author of Hudibras, died in Rose-street, Covent-garden; Bishop Burnet in St. John's-square, Clerkenwell; the Earl of Chesterfield, in Chesterfield House, May Fair; R. Brinsley i Sheridan, in Saville-row, Burlington-gardens; Addison, in Holland House, Kensington; Dryden, in Gerardstreet, Soho; Goldsmith, in Brick-court, Temple; Boswell, in Great Portland-street; Sterne, in Old Bondstreet; Flaxman, in Buckingham-street, Fitzroy-square; Chantrey, in Eccleston-street, Pimlico; Sir Thomas Lawrence, in Russell-square; Stothard, in Newmanstreet, off Oxford-street; Vandyck, in Blackfriars; Sir Astley Cooper, in New-street, Spring-gardens; Dr. Baillie, in Cavendish-square; Abernethy, in Bedfordrow; Sir Samuel Romilly, in Russell-square; Sydney Smith, in Green-street, Grosvenor-square; General Paoli, near Edgware-road; Carl Maria von Weber, in Upper Portland-street.

Topography.—The site of the metropolis is chiefly low ground, along both sides of the Thames, between the high grounds of Middlesex on the N, and the hills of Surrey and Kent on the S. It includes swells and gentle rising-grounds, but is mostly flat or very little diversified; and, except in the outermost suburbs, was all, at a comparatively recent geological period, covered by sea, or by wide-spread estuary. The principal part of it, on the S side, lies from 2 feet below high-water mark to 22 feet above; on the N side, rises from 2 to 90 feet above. A portion on the S side is protected from inundation by artificial embankments; and a considerable area there consists of an alluvial formation, which extends thence in a narrow belt down to Sheppey isle, and overlaps the N bank down to Tilbury-fort. The rest of the area, on both sides, consists of the lower eocene formation called London clay, which is associated with plastic clay, the Woolwich beds, and the Thanet sand. This formation extends southward to Croydon; northward to the vicinity of Ware; westward to the neighbourhood of Hungerford; eastward, on the S side of the river, beyond Herne-bay; and east-north-eastward, across all Essex, and into the borders of Suffolk. It has been found to contain about four hundred species of shells, and fifty species of fish; it includes, immediately under the metropolis, great diluvial deposits, which chronicle vast action of deluge-waters,. and contain bones of the hippopotamus, the rhinoceros, and the elephant; and it there overlies beds of sand, reservoirs of pure water, trickling or flowing into it from the circumjacent higher strata, and yielding, through artesian wells, a daily supply of about twelve million gallons of water. The surface, before being worked or. altered by man, must have been nearly all marsh or jungle-forest. The appearance of it, in the early periods of the City, could not have been pleasant; and the character of it was such as evidently required much and prolonged labour to bring it into fair condition. The appearance of it now, either in the edificed areas or in the open environs, presents little or no remains of its ancient state. The very elevation of the City-proper, or at least of the older portions of it, has been raised to the aggregate of from 15 to 20 feet. Rubbish acuminated on the pristine thoroughfares; debris accumulated from crumbling edifices; successive foundations, on the space of provious ones, were laid at the higher level of the raised surface; and the original floor of the City, or the floor of it in the Roman times, came gradually to be buried from 15 to 20 feet below the pavement of the present streets. The swamps in the NE, over Moorfields and elsewhere, were drained and consolidated during the periods of progress which followed the Restoration; and swamps in the W, such as that now covered by the grand suburb of Belgravia, were drained and consolidated after the commencement of the present century. The metropolis, not only as to its buildings, but likewise as to its site, has an entirely new face, and exhibits one of the most wonderful transformations by art ever seen on the Earth's surface.

The tracts on the N side of the Thames, from the eastern extremity to the vicinity of the Tower, and thence to the N, are in general flat, and lie exposed to easterly winds. The tracts from the vicinity of the Tower to the vicinity of Tothill-fields, and thence to the N, rise in a sort of slightly amphitheatrical form, and are protected from northerly winds by rising-grounds about Highbury and Islington, and by the hills of Higligate and Hampstead. The chief swell within the City rises towards St. Paul's churchyard; and even that, at the base of St. Paul's cathedral, has a height of only 52 feet above high-watermark. The ground rises to the NW toward Islington; and attains, at the N side of the aqueduct over the Regent's canal, a height of 102½ feet. Fine hills, with charming views, diversify the N and NW suburbs, about Hornsey, Highgate, and Hampstead; and those, at the last of these places, have an altitude of about 400 feet. Most of Westminster, except the site of the abbey and part of Horseferry-road, lies very slightly above highwater-mark. Great George-street, opposite the S end of King-strect, lies 5½ feet above; the N end of Northumberland-street, Strand, 19½ feet; Essex-street, 27 feet; Wellington-street, Strand, 35½ feet; St. James'-street, 46 ½ feet; the S part of Stratford-place, 59¼ feet; the N part of Drury-lane, 65 feet; Gloucester-place, 70 feet; part of Regent-street, 76 feet; the centre of Regentcircus, 77¼ feet; Cleveland-street, 80¾ feet. The tracts on the S side of the Thames, with few exceptions, are low and flat; but they merge into the pleasant suburbs and environs around Blackheath and Denmark-hill, and toward Wimbledon and Richmond. The mean temperature ranges between an average of 360 in January and an average of 630 in July. The mean fall of rain is from 23 to 24 inches.

The metropolis, as defined by the Registrar-General, comprises 32,455 acres in Middlesex, 22,951 in Surrey, and 22,591 in Kent; extends from Highgate to Streatham and Sydenham, and from Plumstead to Hammersmith; and measures about 11 miles from N to S, and 14 from E to W. But the strictly compact portions probably do not occupy above half of this area; while considerable suburbs, or places which might be justly reckoned suburbs, extend far beyond it. The metropolis, as defined by the Local Management Act of 1855, or as within the scope of the Metropolitan Board of Works, differs from that as defined by the Registrar. General, only in excluding the hamlet of Penge. The police bounds are much more extensive; they comprise, inclusive of the City-proper, which has a separate police establishment of its own, 439,770 acres; and they include all Middlesex, and as many parishes of Surrey, Kent, Essex, and Herts, as lie within from 12 to 15 miles in a straight line of Charing-cross. The included parishes of Surrey, beyond the registration boundaries, are Addington, Banstead, Barnes, Beddington, Carshalton, Cheam, Chessington, Coulsdon, Croydon, Cuddington, East Moulsey, Epsom, Ewell, Farley, Ham-with-Hatch, Hook, Kew, Kingstonupon-Thames, Long Ditton, Malden, Merton, Mitcham, Morden, Mortlake, Petersham, Richmond, Sanderstead, Sutton, Thames-Ditton, Wallington, Warlingham, West Moulsey, Wimbledon, and Woodmansterne; those in Kent are Beckenhani, Bexley, Bromley, Chislehurst, Crayford, Down, East Wicklham, Erith, Farnborough, Foots-Cray, H ayes, Keston, North Cray, Orpington, St. Mary Cray, St. Paul Cray, and West Wickham; those in Essex are Barking, Chigwell, Chingford, Dagenham, East Hain, Little Ilford, Loughton, Low Leighton, Waltham-Abbey, Walthamstow, Wanstead, West Ham, and Woodford; and those in Herts are Aldenham, Bushey, Cheshunt, Chipping-Barnet, East Barnet, Elstree, Northam, Ridge, Shenley, and Totteridge.

The divisions of the metropolis for the registration of marriages, births, and deaths, and for the administration of the poor law, cut it into twenty-five districts in Middlesex, nine in Surrey, and two in Kent. The Middlesex districts are classified into East, Central, North, and West. The East districts are Shoreditch, Bethnal-Green, Whitechapel, St. George-in-the-East, Stepney, Mile-EndOld-Town, and Poplar; the Central districts are East London, London City, West London, St. Luke, Clerkenwell, Holborn, St. Giles, and Strand; the North districts are Hackney, Islington, Pancras, Hampstead, and Marylebone; and the West districts are St. Martin-in-the-Fields, Westminster, St. James-Westminster, St. GeorgeHanover Square, Kensington, and Chelsea. The Surrey districts are Rotherhithe, Berinondsey, St. Saviour Southwark, St. Olave-Southwark, St. George-Southwark, Newington, Wandsworth, Camberwell, and LambetliAnd the Kent districts are Greenwich and Lewisham.- The divisions under the Local Management Act, or for the Administration of the Board of Works, cut the metropolis into thirty-eight sections. One of these is the City-proper, which sends three deputies to the Board; and the others consist severally of either one large parish or a group of mutually contiguous parishes, and send each either one or two deputies to the Board.- The divisions for parliamentary representation exclude considerable portions of the metropolis as defined by the Registrar-General, and cut the rest into the sections of the City-proper, Westminster, Tower Hamlets, Finsbury, and Marylebone in Middlesex; and those of Southwark and Lambeth in Surrey. The City-proper, Westminster, and Southwark, have sent representatives to parliament from early times; but the other four sections acquired their franchise by the reform bill in 1832. The City sends four members to parliament; and each of the other sections sends two.

The social divisions, or those which arise from the occupations and rank of the people, are not marked by definite boundaries, and sometimes blend into one another or have capricious overlappings; yet they exhibit as distinctive characters as if they stood hundreds of miles asunder. The section on the N bank of the Thames, from the eastern extremity to the vicinity of the Tower, is crowded with wharfs, docks, ship-building yards, manufactories, and warehouses; and inhabited by dockmechanics, lightermen, sailors, labourers, slop-sellers, and dealers in marine stores. The section N of this, including Spitalfields, Bethnal-Green, and part of Shoreditch, is crowded with the dwellings of silk-weavers. The City-proper is the main seat of commercial transactions; ranges, in character, from the business of the wharves and the custom-house at the river, through that of the Banks and the Exchange at the centre, to that of all sorts of merchants in the radiating streets; and, over much of its extent, presents the strange alternating spectacle of a loud strong whirl of men and vehicles during business hours, and of almost complete silence and solitude at other times. Clerkenwell, immediately NW of the City, is densely peopled with the class of well-skilled and well-paid artisans. Islington, to the N of Clerkenwell, is inhabited mainly by the various grades of the middle classes. The Bloomsbury and Bedford-square region, to the SW of Clerkenwell, is occupied chiefly by lawyers and merchants; and, prior to the great migration toward the West about 1828, was a fashionable quarter. The Covent-garden and Strand region, to the S of this, is, in large degree, occupied by shops and lodginghouses. The Leicester-square region, to the W of the preceding, is noted for the residence of foreigners. The Regent's Park region, extending northward from Oxfordstreet to Camden-Town and Somers-Town, was once all fashionable; retains a considerable dash of its quondam character; and is largely and rapidly merging into the occupancy of the middle classes. The Hyde Park region, with Tyburnia on the N and Belgravia on the S, is now the fashionable quarter, and mainly a blaze of maginficence-Westminster-proper, adjoining the SE side of Belgravia, was anciently the seat of the royal court, but has sunk most deeply in the social scale, and is largely overrun by penury and disease. Brompton, ad joining the opposite side of Belgravia, is, in great degree, the retreat of wealthy invalids. The portions of the Surrey side nearest to the river are, to a great extent, seats of manufacture, with numerous pottery, glass, engineering, and chemical works; but the portions further off and toward the outskirts rise in amenity, and are largely occupied by the middle classes and by opulent merchants.

Temple Bar is the recognised or conventional point of separation between the E and the W, -between the scenes of trade and the scenes of luxury; and, at the same time, marks the boundary between the City and Westminster. Charing-cross is the focus of cabs, and one of the great foci of railway communication; and also is the topographical centre of the great metropolitan police territory. Shoreditch, Spitalfields, BethnalGreen, Hackney, Stoke-Newington, Islington, Charing, Paddington, Kensington, Chelsea, Lambeth, and Clapham all were originally villages or manors, situated in the country, at marked distances from London. Dense portions to the E and the N of the City, and within the City itself, are almost a labyrinth to strangers. The streets there, to a vast amount, are short, bent, and narrow, diverging at all angles, and running in all directions; and, to say nothing of their disagreeableness or repulsiveness, can be known to few persons except natives or settlers. Even the comparatively modern sections, such as Clerkenwell and Islington, though they have streets much better arranged, often in straight lines or at right angles, have few of considerable length or airiness. The very streets around the boundary-line between the City and Westminster, bounded on the N by Holborn, and on the S by Fleet-street and Strand, form somewhat of a puzzle. A stranger, far from being unfamiliar with large towns, and after carefully consulting a map, has entered one of these streets from Strand with the view of taking the shortest course to Holborn; has begun, after a time, to think the distance unexpectedly long; and has ended by emerging on a broad thoroughfare which he felt confident to be Holborn but which proved to be the Strand. Some of Westminster itself is little else than a maze of short streets and alleys. But most of the W of the metropolis, with these exceptions, is well aligned, with straight streets, mostly connected at right angles; and all the newest portions of it, as well as many of the less new, have some long wide thoroughfares, many spacious streets, and a considerable aggregate of squares, parks, or other open places, to act as lungs in the capital's vitality. One of the longest single streets in the West bearing one name is Oxford-street, which is fully 1¼ mile long. No one thoroughfare, on a straight line, goes from end to end or from side to side of the metropolis; nor does any such go from end to end or from side to side even of the City. The main thoroughfares, as compared with the main mass of either the entire metropolis or London proper, are few; and the crowdedly frequented ones bear successions of names, and run in somewhat sinuous lines. The chief one from end to end commences in the E at the Grove; goes west-south-westward, but not in strictly straight line, under the names of MileEnd-road, Mile-End, Whitechapel-road, and Whitechapel-High-street, and Aldgate-High-street, to an acute angle at the junction of Leadenhall-street and Fenchurchstreet; proceeds thence, a little south of westward, under the names of Leadenhall-street and Cornhill, to the front of the Bank of England; goes thence, a little to the north of westward, under the names of Poultry and Cheapside, to the N end of St. Paul's churchyard; proceeds westsouth-westward, through the churchyard, to the head of Ludgate-hill; goes in a curve from the direction of W by N to that of WSW, under the names of Ludgate-hill and Fleet-street, to Temple Bar; proceeds in the direction of SW by W, under the names of Strand and West Strand, to Charing-cross; curves there, and goes westnorth-westward, under the name of Cockspur-street, to Pall-Mall; proceeds north-north-westward, along either Haymarket or Regent-street, to Piccadilly; goes westsouth-westward, along Piccadilly, to Hyde-Park corner; and proceeds thence, nearly westward, along Knightsbridge and Kensington-Gore, to a curving outlet through Kensington. A main line through much of the E, commences about ¼ of a mile N of the Thames, and nearly a mile S of the Grove; goes upwards of 1½ mile, in the direction of W by N, under the name of Commercialroad; and makes a junction of about 200 yards in length, north-north-westward, with the great main line at Whitechapel-High-street. A main line within the City commences at the Tower; goes west-north-westward, under the names of Great Tower-street, Eastcheap, Cannonstreet, and West Cannon-street, to the SE corner of St. Paul's churchyard; has a curve at Eastcheap, but otherwise is not far from parallel with the Cornhill, Poultry, and Cheapside line; and runs, through the S side of St. Paul's churchyard, into line with Ludgate-hill and Fleet street. A main line through the W portion of the City, and thence to the W suburbs, commences by slight deflection from the W end of Cheapside; goes in the direction of N W by W, under the names of Newgate-street and Skinner-street, to an intersection with the thoroughfare northward from Blackfriars bridge; proceeds thence in a gentle curve, from the direction of WNW to that of W by S, under the names of Holborn-hill, Holborn, and High Holborn, to a bend of the last toward Broad-street: takes there the name of Oxford-street; and proceeds, under that name, and afterwards under the name of Uxbridge-road, west-south-westward, to an outlet at Kensington-terrace. One main line from the northern suburbs goes somewhat sinuously, first southward, next south-south-westward, under the names of Kingslandroad, Shoreditch, Norton-Falgate, Bishopsgate-street, Gracechurch-street, and King William-street, to London bridge; another goes from Pentonville, first southeastward under the name of the City-road, next southsouth-eastward, under the same name, -next nearly southward under the names of Artillery-place, Finsburysquare, Finsbury-place, and Moorgate-street, -next south-eastward, under the names of Prince's-street and King William-street, -and thence southward, under the name of King William-street, to London bridge; another, starting from the same point, goes chiefly southsouth-eastward, but with curves and deviations, under the names of Owen's-place, Alfred-place, Goswell-street, Aldersgate-street, and St. Martins-le-Grand, to the N end of St. Paul's churchyard; another, leaving Pentonville, at a point nearly ½ a mile further W, goes bendingly southward, south-eastward, south-south-eastward, and southward, under the names of Bagnigge-Wells-road, Guilfordplace, Coppice-row, Victoria-street, Faringdon-street, and Bridge-street, to Blackfriars bridge; another, commencing at King's-cross, goes south-south-eastward, under the names of Constitution-row, Gray's-Inn-road, Gray'sInn-terrace, and Gray's-Inn-lane, to Holborn; another, commencing at Camden-Town, goes first southward under the name of Hampstead-road, then southsouth-eastward, under the name of Tottenham-Courtroad, to the E part of Oxford-street; another, commencing at Park-crescent near Regent's park, goes chiefly south-south-eastward, under the names of Portlandplace, Langham-place, and Regent-street, to Pall-Mall, but makes curves in Langham-place and at the Quadrant; and another, proceeding from the extreme NW suburbs, and bearing the name of Edgeware-road, goes south-eastward to the W end of Oxford-street, at the Cumberlandgate of Hyde-park. Six main thoroughfares, on the S side of the river, go from six of the bridges to a convergence at the tavern known as the Elephant and Castle, situated about a mile more or less from each of the bridges; and three diverge thence, in different directions, toward Kent, Camberwell, and Kennington.

The total of streets, supposing them all arranged in one line, would extend upwards of 3,000 miles; but, in consequence of the narrowness and packedness of most of them, they occupy remarkably small space. The parks, the squares, and the other open places, especially those in the West and in the suburbs, occupy comparatively a larger area. The parks are the Victoria, at BethnalGreen, about 300 acres; the Regent's, at the New-road, 450 acres; St. James' and the Green park, behind Whitehall, about 90 and 60 acres; Hyde park, 388 acres; Kensington-gardens, 356 acres; Battersea park, about 2 miles long; Alexandra park, at the northern outlets, formed in 1864, with an Exhibition building of later years; Southwark park, at Rotherhithe, formed in 1865-70; Finsbury park, formed in 1864-70: and Peckham Rye grounds, purchased by Camberwell parish in 1868. Other great open spaces of park-like character, in the suburbs and outskirts, are Primrose-hill, Hampstead-heath, Blackheath, Woolwich-common, Greenwich park, and Plumstead-heath. The chief squares and other open places, within and near the City, are Trinity-square, Finsbury-circus, Finsbury-square, Artillery-ground, Smithfield, Bartholomew-close, Charterhouse-square, Falkland-square, Bridgewater-square, Temple-gardens, Grays-Inn-gardens, and Lincolns-InnfieldS; in Westminster, Soho, Golden, Leicester, Trafalgar, St. James', Hanover, Berkeley, and Grosvenorsquares; in Stepney, Arbour-square, Albert-square, York-square, and Stepney-green; at Mile-End, Beanmont, Trafalgar, and Tredegar squares; at Whitechapel, Goodmans-fields, Haydon-square, Wellclose-square, and Prince's-square; in the NE and N, Bethnal-green, Clapton-square, De Beauvoir-square, Hoxton-square, and Stoke-Newington-green; in Islington, Highburycrescent, Islington-green, and Barnsbury, Thornhill, Lonsdale, Cloudesley, Milner, Gibson, and Canonbury squares; in Clerkenwell, Holford, Myddelton, Claremont, Wilmington, Granville, Lloyd, Northampton, King's, and Bartholomew-squares; in Bloomsbury, Red Lion, Bloomsbury, Russell, Torrington, Woburn, and Bedford. squares; in Marylebone, Blandford, Harewood, Dorset, Montague, Bryanston, Portman, Manchester, and Cavendish-squares; in St. Pancras, Euston, Tavistock, Harrington, Clarendon, Clarence, York, Fitzroy, Argyle, Gordon, Oakley, Regent, Brunswick, and Mecklenburgh-squares; in Paddington, Sussex, Gloucester, Connaught, Oxford, and Cambridge-squares; in Kensington, Kensington-square; in Brompton, Montpellier, Trevor, Lowndes, and Cadogan-squares; in Belgravia, Eaton, Chester, Ebury, Eccleston, Warwick, and St. George's-squares; in Chelsea, Sloan, Trafalgar, and Oakley-squares; in Lambeth, St. Mary and West squares; in Kennington, Prince's-square, Kennington-park, and Kennington-oval; in Southwark, Nelson-square; in Newington, Trinity, Surrey, and Grosvenor-squares, the Newington orchard and gardens, and the Surrey zoological gardens; in Camberwell, Addington-square.

Many of the present names of streets and other localities are corruptions of ancient names. Dowgate was anciently or properly Dwrgate or Dourgate, signifying water-gate. Mincing-lane was Mincheon-lane, named from property of the Mincheons, or nuns of St. Helen, whose convent stood in Bishopsgate. Gutter-lane was Guthurim's-lane, named from its first owner, a wealthy citizen. Finch-lane was Finke's-lane, named from a family who owned it or resided in it. Billiter-lane was Belzetter's-lane, named from its first builder or owner. Blackwall-hall was Bakewell's-hall, named from one Thomas Bakewell. Crutched-friars was Cross-friars or Crossed-friars, named from a monastery founded in 1298. Bridewell was St. Bridget's-well, from a spring dedicated to St. Bride or Bridget. Greek-street was Grig-street, named either from the little vivacious eel, or from the merry character of the original inhabitants. Lad-lane was Lady's-lane, named from some image or oratory of the Virgin Mary. Holborn was Old Bourne, named from a" bourne, ''burn, or rivulet which ran through it. Smithfield was Smoothfield, named from the flatness of the place as an open public ground. Cree-church was Christ-church. Bloomsbury was Lomsbury. Duckstreet was Dance lane. Tripe-court was Stripe's-court. Nightingale-lane was Knightenguild-lane. Mark-lane was Mart-lane. Snow-hill was Snore-hill. Channelrow was Canon-row. Deadman's-place was Desmond'splace. Cannon-strect was Candlewick-street. Tooleystreet was St. Olave-street. Fetter-lane was Fewtorlane, named from" fewtors, ''faitowrs, or defaulters who haunted it. Marylcbone was Mary-on-the-Bourne, named from a church on a bourne or rivulet.

Structure.—The walls around the ancient City, though they did not prevent the erection of suburbs, or curb their extension, or control their form, had a strong, stringent, permanent effect on the City itself. They exactly defined its limits; they restricted its proper growth entirely to its own area; they compelled its increase of bonse accommodation to press inward and upward; they occasioned it, when it became very populous, to have narrow streets and lofty houses; they made it, like all other old, great, growing walled towns, a densely packed mass now human abodes. They were restored, rebuilt, and somewhat extended at different periods, particularly in the times of Alfred and Henry III.; but they never enclose d a larger space than 373 acres. The present reckoning of the City within the walls, indeed, assigns to it 428 acres; but this includes 55 acres of water in the Thames. Gates pierced the walls on the lines of the principal thoroughfares; and, in some instances, were surmounted or overhung by public buildings. Posterngate stood on Tower-hill, and communicated with the Tower. Aldgate was originally Roman, was rebuilt so late as 1601, and was taken down in 1761. Bishopsgate was restored or rebuilt before 685; was rebuilt so late as 1731; was taken down in 1760; and occupied a site which is still indicated on masonry near Wormwood, street. Cripplegate also was taken down in 1760. Moorgate led into Moorfields; was built in 1415, and rebuilt in 1472; and was taken down in 1672. Aldersgate was originally Roman; was rebuilt in 1617 and in 1670; and was taken down in 1761. Newgate stood near the present Newgate prison; was itself surmounted by a prison for felons; was restored in 1422, in 1631, and in 1672; and was taken down in 1760-61. Ludgate was originally Roman; was rebuilt in 1215 and in 1586; was surmounted by a prison for debtors, built by Richard II., and enlarged in 1454 by Dame Forster; was eventually adorned with a statue of Elizabeth; and was taken down in 1761-2, when the statue of Elizabeth was removed to a niche in St. Dunstan's. Dowgate stood originally at the mouth of the Walbrook rivulet; was rebuilt on an adjoining site; and communicated with a ferry over the Thames. A band of the suburbs immediately outside of the walls came under the City's jurisdiction, and was subject to its tolls; and the bounds of this, on the lines of the great thoroughfares, were marked by bars, such as Whitechapel, Smithfield, and Temple bars. The last of these is the only bar now standing; was originally a timber gate; was reconstructed of stone, by Wren, in 1670-2; has statues of Elizabeth, James I., Charles I., and Charles II.; was the place of the hideous exposure of the heads of the chief persons executed on account of the rebellion in 1 745; and is ceremonially shut and opened on occasion of a state progress of the sovereign to the City.

The greater part of the City-proper, of the sections to the E of it, of the sections to the N, of the sections on the S side of the river, and even of some sections to the W, has a mean, dingy, brick-built appearance. The houses are usually three or four stories high; they present fronts of the plainest kind, often mere weather-worn brick, sometimes inelegant daubings of plaster and stucco; they are numerously cut into mere slips of building, disposed in dwellings of only two small rooms on the floor; and they swarm with a crowded and seething mass of human beings. The sanitary conditions are far from favourable; and the vital features are too prevailingly squalor, disease, and vice. N or is the metropolis, as a whole, quite redeemed in aspect by consideration of the airiness, wealth, and splendour of the West end and of the best suburbs. The very public buildings, though aggregately magnificent and most imposing in themselves, rather shame the general mass of masonry than set it off, or figure more as contrasts to it than as aggrandizing elements. Strangers used to admire London as compared with the great cities of the Continent; but they did so chiefly under the dazzling effect of its magnitude, its business activity, and its stores of wealth. Von Raumer, for example, says ''The City is really immense; and, though there may be no point of view so rich and varied as the Pont des Arts in Paris, or the Linden in Berlin, we are continually presented with new rows and masses of houses, palaces, shops, ''' ''Extent and quantity alone, indeed, are certainly no standard of value and excellence, either in state, arts, or science; yet here quantity, which surpasses all the capitals of Europe, nay, of the world itself, is extremely remarkable and imposing. To this must be added that, in London, quantity is obvionsly associated with quality; for wealth is evidently flowing from the most varied activity, which claims the utmost exertions both of body and mind to survey and to comprehend."" In Paris things appear, at first sight, more splendid, elegant, ingenious, and attractive than in London; but that impression is, to the one made hero. as a shadow to the substance, as the shining plated-ware to the genuine metal, which, in consciousness of its intrinsic value, needs no washing and polishing. Here, behind the dark walls, there is far more wealth, perhaps, too, indifference to all the petty arts by which the less wealthy endeavours to diffuse around him the appearance of elegance, opulence, and taste. The noise and bustle in the streets, too, is altogether of a different character. In London, it is ever the cry of activity; in Paris, of obtruding and assuming vanity; in Naples, generally, that of idleness; in Berlin, that of little children. "But foreign visitors have latterly changed their tone. Intelligent Englishmen also, who have seen the great cities of the Continent, even intelligent Londoners themselves, who have seen these cities, are not so proud of the English capital as they used to be. While some of the great Continental cities, particularly Paris, have been making vast advances in architectural improvement, London has, to a great extent, either remained stationary, or been undergoing changes mixedly good and bad. While Paris has been mainly putting on a beautiful new garment, London has been here patching brilliant strips on the old garment and there rending it into rags. And since Paris has assumed her new aspect, with her wellclad working-classes, her finely reconstructed streets, her splendid houses, her rows of palaces, and her magnificent new boulevards, a general cry has arisen that she is a standing reproach to London. Some partial apologists, indeed, have said that Paris, after all, is only a gilded sty; but other less partial persons have retorted that, by the same rule, London is a sty without the gilding.

Yet the architecture of very much of London is either convenient, curious, pleasing, or ornamental. The causeways and the pavements are excellent. The lines of houses, in all the business-streets, stand close upon the pavements; so that the thoroughfares there are out impeded by sunk areas or railings. The quondam mansions of the great old merchants within the City, though now converted into counting houses and warehouses, and though sometimes situated in retired and gloomy courts, still display features of almost palatial grandeur. Multitudes of houses, both in the City and in the old suburbs, exhibit the styles which prevailed between 1666 and 1750. Well built houses, in well arranged streets and squares, erected between 1790 and 1810, characterize the Bloomsbury region and some other parts. Palatial-looking houses, in spacious streets and noble squares, erected from 1826 till the present time, fill Belgravia, Tyburnia, and some other parts of the West. But picturesqueness or beauty, except for public buildings and for some recent reconstructions, is utterly wanting in the old parts; and variety or striking feature is nearly as much wanting in the new. Regularity and largeness, rather than any artistic excellence, characterize even the best portions of the West end; and so extreme is the regularity that the eye becomes tired and bewildered with the endless repetitions of" compo ''decorations. The great breaks made by the squares and parks, however, afford a very grand relief. A remark made by Von Raumer, true in his time, is much truer now. "A great and peculiar beauty of London, ''he said," are its many squares. They are not, as in Berlin, abandoned to pedlars and soldiers, horse-breakers and post-boys; but the large open space is left free for passengers, and the inner part is enclosed with light iron-railings, and the bright green sward laid out with walks, and planted with shrubs. The squares are exceeded only by the parks. Regent's-park alone, with its terraces and palaces, is of the utmost extent and magnificence; and the "nil admirari" can be practised here only by the most senseless stockfish. ''

The course of the Thames through the capital, also, discloses very interesting views. It, indeed, has drawbacks, is of mixed character, presents spots and reaches far from agreeable; but it, nevertheless, abounds with the picturesque. A sail on the stream, from Chelsea down to the Tower, was striking in the times of William and Mary; and is much more striking now. The series of bridges, so different from one another, yet all so interesting, -the gate of York House, -the Adelphi-terrace,- the facade of Somerset House,-the Temple-gardens,- the grove of spires and the dome of St. Paul's, soaring above the houses,-the stir of all sorts of small craft on the river's bosom all above London bridge, -the crowd of ships, with the square and massive structures of the Tower below,-and the countless diversity of objects and groupings over the entire distance, have long been interesting features; and the new houses of parliament, standing in strong contrast to the opposite palace of Lambeth, form a very grand recent addition. One comprehensive and momentous feature, however, was a wanting. The terrace-form of street-line, which gives such superb effect to the banks of the Liffey through Dublin and to those of the Clyde through Glasgow, was not on the Thames through London. But something like this, in the shape of great artificial embankments, over considerable parts of the distance, was originated in 1863, and was approaching completion in the early part of 1869The principal embankment is on the N side; commences in a junction with a previonsly formed embankment for the houses of parliament; extends, in a slightly curved line, to the northern brick pier of the quondam Hunger-ford bridge; goes thence to the first pier of Waterloo bridge; ceases to have a solid form at the eastern side of Temple-gardens; proceeds upon columns, to the level of Chatham-place, at Blackfriar's Bridge; consists, throughout its solid portions, of a front wall of masonry strengthened by counterforts, a backing of brick work, and a bedding or packing of ballast; has, at regulated intervals, substantial and ornate landing piers for steamboats; is traversed, from end to end, by a road 1 00 feet wide, disposed in a carriage way 70 feet wide, and two path-ways each 15 feet wide; includes, inward from the road, over most of the distance, a further width of from 100 to 330 feet, which may probably be all occupied with ornamental edifices; communicates with the old thoroughfares through new streets and new approaches; and was estimated to cost, inclusive of the approaches, £1,973,510. One of the approaches is a crescent to the foot of Norfolk, Surrey, and Arundel streets, in the Strand; another is a new street from the vicinity of Northumberland wharf to Wellington-street, with prolongation to Whitehall-place; others are radiations from that street to Cecil, Salisbury, Buckingham, and Villiers streets; and another is a street from the embankment road, through Whitehall-stairs and Whitehall-yard, to Whitehall, opposite the Horse Guards. Another feature of the embankment is a" subway ''along its entire length, for the gas and water pipes; another is the planting of it with trees, begun in Jan. 1 869; and another is an underground railway, distant about 250 feet from its frontage wall at Richmondterrace, 120 feet at Charing-cross railway bridge, about 50 feet at Waterloo-bridge, about 270 at the Temple, and leaving the embankment at Bridewell-wharf. A second embankment, of similar character, is on the S side, along Lambeth; extends from Westminster-bridge to Vauxhall; was advanced to fully one half extent in 1869; was then in course of being flanked, by the long fine suite of buildings for St. Thomas' hospital, noticed in our article LAMBETH; and was estimated to cost £909,000. A third embankment w as about to be commenced in 1869 at Chelsea, and was estimated to cost £206,000.

The forming of some new streets in the old parts of the metropolis, and the altering of some levels, lanes, and streets there, with the view of improving the communications, were in progress during a series of years till the end of 1869, and are still going forward. One great series of these works makes sweeping alterations in the Holborn valley and places adjacent; and is notice in our article HOLBORN. Another work is a short street from King-street, Covent-garden, to the end of St. Martin's. lane, formed by the demolition of houses which were purchased for £92,849. Another is a new street from Blackfriars to Southwark, called the Westminster and Southwark communication, formed by demolition of very many houses, and estimated to cost £596,706. Another is a new approach to Victoria park, more a work of amenity in the outskirts than one of improvement in the interior, estimated to cost £43,430. Another is a new street, in connexion with the Thames embankment, from Blackfriars to the Mansion house; commenced, by demolitions and clearances, in 1867; formally op-ened, as a thoroughfare, in Oct. 1869; estimated to have cost £1,299,260; and likely to require many years for being all edificed. Another is Commercial-street, from the London docks to the Great Eastern railway, completed in 1862. Another is a tubular bridge across the Limehouse cut of the river Lea, and was completed in 1860. Two others are Garrick-street and Whitechapel-street, estimated to cost £125,446 and £175,000. Another is the widening of Ludgate-hill, completed in 1869. Two others are the widening of High-street, Kensington, and the widening of Park-lane, estimated to cost £88,000 and £105,000. Others are the widening and improving of numerous narrow streets and lanes in many parts of the City, and at Rochester-row, Westminster. One feature of the new streets is the construction of" subways ''under them, for gas and water pipes, similar to the subway under the Thames embankment. Others much wanted and talked about are a new street from Holborn to Lincoln's-Innfields, commencing with demolition of the houses on the W side of Great Turnstile; a new broad street from Charingcross to the corner of Oxford-street, opposite Tottenham court-road; a new route, by the widening of St. Martin'slane and the intersecting of the miserable streets and alleys of Seven-dials, into the line of Crown-street; a direct and easy communication from West Strand to Piccadilly; and improved communications in connexion with the extension of the Metropolitan railway to Finsbury-circus, and with the carrying of the North London railway from Kingsland to Liverpool-street. An extension, not for mere amenity or for sake of intrinsic growth of population, but for supplying in part the destruction among the smaller houses in London, was commenced at Battersea in 1865; and comprises a series of streets, on both sides of a main road, containing between 2,000 and 3,000 houses, chiefly from £35 to £65 in rental. A subway under the Thames, from Deptford-Green to the Isle of Dogs, 582 yards long, was authorized in 1866. A subway between Scotland-Yard and the Waterloo railway station was in course of formation in 1867. A subway from Tower-Hill to Bermondsey was formed in 1869, at a cost of less than £20,000.

The railway works within the metropolis have made amazing changes, and produced many an eye-sore. Their viaducts are far from elegant, and form long intersections through the lines of houses; their tubular bridges or iron-girder bridges are ungainly or positively ugly, and spoil or block the vistas of broad streets; and their works, in general, plunge through the capital in all directions, form lines of gap any how or at any angle through compact blocks of streets, run now beneath thoroughfares and now over them, give many a region a torn and patched appearance, and have effected such a structural revolution as neither London nor any other great city ever before underwent. The earlier lines-the London and Greenwich on the SE, the Croydon running thence to the Brighton and the Southeastern, the Thames-Junction curving from the docks to the Croydon, the Bricklayers' Arms-Extension going west-north-westward from the Greenwich and the Croydon, the Southwestern running through all Lambeth, the Blackwall running westward on the N side of the Thames to the Minories, the Eastern Counties running westward to Bishopsgate, the North London sweeping through the entire range of the N suburbs, the Great Northern running southward to King's-cross, and the Northwestern running south-eastward to Euston-square-made a wonderful aggregate of change; but all they did was small compared wit what followed the maturing of the Charing-cross scheme, from Charing-cross over the Thames to the Southeastern at London-bridge, authorized in 1859, and opened on the Surrey side in 1864. The railway-works and the railway schemes, at the commencement of 1864, may be said to have constituted a crisis. The Charing-cross station was nearly completed: that station was contemplated as likely to become the centre of numerous lines, radiating to all points of the compass, and crossed, at intervals of about a mile, by other lines; the Metropolitan railway, all the way from Paddington to Finsbury-circus, was near completion,-and from Paddington, along the New road, to Faringdon-street, had been opened in 1863: new railway bridges at Blackfriars and at Southwark, were in course of erection; power had been obtained for a line to come down, from the N, upon the Strand; the Tottenham and Hampstead-Junction company proposed to construct a line, and had already got power to make part of it, from St. John's church in Holloway, by way of Euston-road, Gower-street, Bloomsbury-street, and Bowstreet, across the Strand to the Thames' end of Villiersstreet; another line was contemplated from the Seven Sisters'-road in Holloway, through Islington, Shoreditch, Stepney, Spitalfields, and Whitechapel, to Cannon-streetroad; the Great Eastern company wished to extend their line from Bishopsgate, through a crowded part of the City, to Finsbury-circus; the new terminus of the Metropolitan railway in Finsbury was nearly completed; a ' ' high level line "was contemplated thence, by way of Moorgate-street, New Broad-street, Bishopsgate-street, and the Tower, across the Thames, into junction with the Southeastern railway at Bricklayers' Arms station; a" low level line ''also was contemplated from the Finsbury terminus to the Thames tunnel, through that tunnel, and through Rotherhithe marsh and fields, to the South Coast station at Deptford; a line was contemplated, by the North and South London company, to connect Hammersmith, by Chiswick, with Wimbledon and Croydon; another line was proposed to be formed direct from Kensington to Richmond; a line, additional to that from Villiers-street to Holloway, and for the most part subterranean, was proposed to be formed from the Charingcross station to King's-cross and Euston-square, with stations at Long Acre, Holborn, and Burton-crescent; another line, also partly subterranean, was proposed to be run from the same point, under Whitehall, and under or through St. James'-park, the Green-park, and Hyde-park, to Paddington; a line was projected, by the Metropolitan company, to connect Paddington with the Victoria station, Pimlico, by running from the Great Western hotel, under Kensington gardens, to Kensington palace, and thence by the site of the International Exhibition, and by Brompton-road; a scheme was projected by the same company, to link together the entire railway system of London, by adding to the previous line, and to the lines from Paddington through Finsbury and through the City, a line from the Victoria station through Westminster, by the Abbey and the Parliament Houses, into Blackfriars, by the new Mansion House, to Cannonstreet, the Tower, and Blackwall; projects were a foot for railway stations in Leicester-square, at Regent-circus, in the Quadrant, and in Haymarket; a company had been formed to construct an aerial line from Westminster-bridge to London-bridge; and another company proposed, even though some five miles of embankment and viaduct should be required for their project, to construct a railway bridge across the Thames, below the docks, with a height of 150 feet above high-water level, so as to allow the loftiest masted ship to pass. Other railway schemes than those we have mentioned, but affecting chiefly the suburbs, had previonsly been authorized or executed; some entirely new schemes, or some modifications of previous ones, have subsequently been started; and portions of some of those we have mentioned were in progress of execution in 1866. All the schemes we have mentioned, indeed, are not likely to be carried out; several of them also were too visionary to receive countenance beyond the circle of enthusiastic speculators; yet, though partly abortive, especially when viewed in connexion with the numerous and stupendous schemes which have been successful, all the more that some of the boldest portions of themselves have been authorized, they strongly indicate, and have been noticed here mainly for their indicating, how ruthlessly and deformingly the metropolis is becoming shattered and intersected by railway works. We have here been speaking only of the structure of the metropolis, and have made mention of the railway works mainly as affecting that The railways themselves will be noticed in their own proper places.

The erection of dwellings for the working-classes, consequent on the demolition of houses by the street improvements and by the railway operations, has been going vigorously forward, and is generally done in a manner of most pleasing contrast to that of the old abodes. Two advertisements in one day's newspaper in 1863 announced for sale the materials of 138 doomed houses in Agar-Town, and about 180 near Kingsland-road, which had been inhabited chiefly by the poor; a statement by Lord Shaftesbury in the House of Lords said that, during the year 1865,20,000 persons had been unhoused by railway operations; and other authorities show that, for a series of years, in all parts of the metropolis affected by the street improvements and by the railway operations, the process of unhousing the population, particularly operatives and the poor, has been as sweeping as in the two localities we have named, or as in the year 1865. The difficulty of providing suitable dwellings for the unhoused working classes, and still more for the very poor, was alike urgent and excessive; and, at the same time, was increased by the necessity of providing homes for the constant influx of new labourers attracted by the extensive works in progress. Ordinary or private enterprise would not meet it, or at best would meet it very inadequately, for the reason that houses of the kind required are less profitable to builders than houses of other kinds. Philanthropy, or public spirit, required to deal with it; and this happily came forward, not in the niggard fashion of attempting to provide merely what might give bare shelter, but in the noble manner of adding to the shelter both appliances of comfort and features of modest decoration. The new erections, up to the end of 1869, were very far from being numerous enough to receive all the unhoused and inflowing families, -still less to relieve general over-crowding throughout the poorer parts of the metropolis; but they were in such hearty demand, at remunerating rents, as to be likely to incite associations and even private speculators to multiply rapidly similar elections; and they are in styles of fitting and of arclutecture which give them a decided claim to rank as a fine new feature in the structure of the capital. Experimental lofty blocks were built, in 1863, by Alderman Waterlow, in Paul. street, Finsbury; all with neat and even cheerful looking exterior; each block with a recessed centre, with balconies to each floor, and with a staircase common to all the floors; the interiors carefully fitted with every appliance for health and comfort; the floors divided into groups of rooms, each complete in itself, strictly separated from the adjoining ones, and adapted to larger or smaller families; and the whole computed to yield a clear profit of from 6 to 8 per cent. Buildings similar to these, with capacity for 200 families, were estimated to cost £25,000; and blocks of them, under the names of Tower Buildings, Cobden Buildings, and Stanley Buildings, were erected, before the end of 1865, by a company under Alderman Waterlow's auspices, in Wapping, King's Cross-road, and Old St. Pancrasroad. A vast pile was erected in 1863, at the corner of Commercial-street and White-Lion-street, Spitalfields, by the trustees of Mr. Peabody's gift of £150,000," for the benefit of the honest and industrious poor of the metropolis; "has frontages of 215 and 140 feet; is in a variety of the domestic pointed style; is mainly disposed, throughout the ground and first floors, in shops, with their stores and dwellings; and contains, throughout the second and the third floors, 54 well-contrived dwellings, at rentals suited to the labouring classes. Four other piles, of similar character, by the same trustees, were erected in 1 865-7, in Essex-road, Islington, and in Lovelane, Shadwell, and Commercial-street, Shoreditch. Still other piles, from a further gift of £100,000 by Mr. Peabody, were to be erected by his trustees, in any suitable localities, after 1869; and still more piles, from a bequest of £150,000 by Mr. Peabody, were to be erected after 1873. A great block was erected in 1865-6, in Faringdon-road, by the City corporation, on a plot of their own ground, with £120,000 voted from the funds; and presents a general resemblance to Alderman Waterlow's block in Paul-street, Finsbury, but in a richer style. Two blocks were formed out of large quondam hotels, at the new Cattle-market, in 1867, by the City corporation. A large block, called Coleridge Buildings, was built near the Highgate railway station, in 1867, by a local improvement society. Blocks also were erected, in 186770, by the company under Alderman Waterlow's presidency, at Hoxton, Greenwich, Bethnal-Green, and Lambeth. Other blocks or groups, smaller but more ornate, have been built by Miss Coutts; others, by the Metropolitan company; and many more, by other parties.

Reconstruction of buildings in the principal business streets has, for several years, been very extensive. More than half of Lombard-street, and large reaches or pieces of many other streets, in 1864-7, were filled with scaffold poles and hoarding. New shops, warehouses, commercial offices, banks, insurance offices, club houses, hotels, halls, and public buildings, are amazingly numerous; and, at the same time, exhibit great ambition, remarkable diversities, and startling features of style. The business street architecture, in fact, has been undergoing a revolution; and, as in every other revolution, it has been throwing all sorts of odd things to the surface. ' ' Certainly since the years following the great fire, ''remarks a skilful writer in 1866," London never saw anything like the amount of costly and sumptuous building now going on. To one returning to it after ain absence like that of the mythical sleeper, the heart of the City might seem to have become the head-quarters of some huge building corporation, with its agents and operations radiating in all directions, pulling down and building up at will, uncontrolled by public or private convenience, and unrestrained by fear of expense. But a glance at the new and unfinished edifices would speedily dissipate any such fantasy. Every man, it would be evident, is doing that which is good in his own eyes. There can be no central controlling power where all the parts are incongruous, where each appears not only in rivalry but antagonism with the other. Later thoughts might suggest that a building mania had taken possession of the wealthy inhabitants, affecting alike individuals, and firms, and companies; and, on the whole, this would not be the most irrational way of accounting for the phenomena. ''Many critics, with Mr. Ruskin at their head, see in the new architecture little else than a progress to utter confusion; while others, more tolerant and hopeful, regard it both as exhibiting many excellencies, and as likely to lead to something better. The aspect of it aggregately exhibits" a heterogeneous, obtrusive, and pretensions admixture of many styles, all exotic, and belonging to widely separated times as well as places; ''and yet, in the case of numerous individual buildings, is at once consistent, beautiful, and highly artistic. Both the pillared and the pointed types are extensively followed; but they are rather assimilated than imitated. A building not only shows the characters of a Grecian order, an Italian model, or a Gothic specific form, but has internal construction suited to convenience, and makes external expression of its paiticular use. The adaptations from the model-forms and features are so free and numerous, and even the interminglings of cognate styles are so unsparing and plentiful, as almost to indicate a hopeful struggle toward the formation of entirely new styles. The passion for ornament, however, is excessive. Carving and sculpture, in some instances, are not only exuberant but extravagant; and polychromy, in an endless variety of manner, is painfully abundant." Shafts of polished red granite or dull red Mansfield stone, of marbles of varied tints, of serpentine, or terra cotta,-bands, squares, and specks of coloured stones or bricks,-tiles, incised work, and different kinds of coloured ceramic wares, are introduced in all sorts of places, sometimes with good effect, more commonly with the reverse, - sometimes appearing tawdry, often eccentric, occasionally grotesque, and now and then ludicrous. ''The polychromy, too, does all the worse for the effect upon it of atmospheric erosion, "which is already making havoc with the polished sur face of marbles and granite, and smudging over the brightest colours with unanticipated bands and stripes of black and dirty green. ',-We shall now notice a few of the best or most striking of the new buildings. The London and Connty bank, in Lombard-street and Nicholas-lane, was built in 1861; is in the Italian style, of Portland stone, with well executed details; and presents to Lombard-street a front of four stories, with rusticated Doric columns, a sculptured frieze, and a steep dormer-windowed roof. Roberts, Lubbock, and Co. 's bank, in Lombard-street, was built in 1863; and is less showy than solid and stately. Barclay, Bevan, and Co. 's bank, on the other side of Lombard-street, was built in 1865; has a frontage of nearly 100 feet, and a height of 60 feet; and is massive and ornamental. The Union bank, in Carey-street and Chancery-lane, was built also in 1865; has a frontage of 143 feet to Carey-street, and of 50 feet to Chancery-lane; is constructed throughout of Portland stone, excepting columns of polished red granite at the entrance; displays the Doric or Tuscan order in the first story, the Ionic in the second, the Corinthian in the third; and admirably combines solidity, stateliness, chasteness, and ornature. Another building of the same bank, on the site of the old one of Sir William Lubbock, in Mansion-House-street, was erected in 1866; and is in similar style to the Carey-street and Chancery-lane one, but scarcely so noble. The National Provincial Bank of England, at the corner of Threadneedle-street, adjoining the old South Sea House, was built in 1865-6; is in the Roman Corinthian style, with Lofty fluted columns; and makes a rich display of allegorical sculpture, boldly and tastefully executed. The London, Bombay, and Mediterranean bank, in Clements'lane, was built in 1865; has a front of three bays and four stories; and is in the Venetian style of the 16th century. The building for the Agra and Masterman's bank, in Nicholas-lane, was for sale in Sept. 1866, and had but recently been completed; is of four bays and three stories, besides dormers; and shows a composite character of Greco-Italian and French-Italian. Alexander, Cunliffe, and Co. 's bank, in Clement's-lane and Lombard-street, was built in 1865-6; is in a mixed Gothic style, but without the Gothic characteristic pointed arch; has arches of other kinds, oversailing the shafts of coupled columns; and abounds in features of elaborate detail. The London Discount Co. 's office, in Abchurchlane., was built in 1866; has a frontage of three bays and four stories; and shows iron columns supporting arches in the ground-story, and polished red granite jambs and lintel in the doorway. The General Credit and Finance Co. 's office, at the entrance of Tokenhouse-yard, with a front in Lothbury, also was built in 1866; and is a highly decorated structure, in close reproduction of the Venetian pointed style. The Union bank, opposite the Mansion House, was built in 1868; and is a stately edifice in the Italian style, chiefly of the Corinthian order.

The Promoter Life office, in Fleet-street, was built in 1860; has a front only 20 feet wide, but entirely covered with ornamentation; is a quaint but very striking example of Italo-French renaissance; and sparkles all over with shafts, pilasters, or panels of polished granite and coloured marbles, and with fanciful, elaborate, and grotesque carving. The National Provident Life Assurance office, at the corner of Gracechurch-street and Eastcheap, was built in 1862; is in a modification of the 17th century, Italian, of fine Portland stone; and abounds, to excess, in very elaborate ornamentation. The Ocean Marine Insurance office, in Old Broad-street, was built also in 1862; is in similar renaissance to the Provident, but French rather than Italian; and is more showily ornate than that edifice, but less artistic and refined. The Royal Insurance office, at the corner of Clement'slane and Lombard-street, was built in 1865; is in the popular Italian style, with free treatment and much decoration; has polished red granite, with an incised pattern, at the principal entrance; substitutes a slightly raised leaf-pattern for the ordinary rustication; and, as a whole, is very lofty, massive, and imposing. The North British and Mercantile Insurance office, in Thread needle-street, on the site of the well known Cock-tavern, was built also in 1865; is in a free variety of the Italian style; and consists of Portland stone, with polished granite shafts. The Crown Life Assurance office, in Fleet-street, by St. Dunstan's church, was built also in 1865; is strictly in the Venetian Gothic style, with close rendering of that style's details; makes a strong display of polychromy; and consists of Portland stone in the main masonry and the capitals, and of red Mansfield stone, Forest of Dean stone, blue Warwick stone, and Sicilian marble in the polychromatic parts. The London and Lancashire Insurance office, at the corner of Bishopsgatestreet and Leadenhall-street, was built in 1866; and is an exceedingly elaborate structure, in a semi-Italian style. Westminster chambers, opposite the Westminster Palace hotel, were built in 1865-6, at a cost of about £150,000; and consist of two parallel ranges, each 430 feet long, and five stories high. A vast pile of colonial offices, on the W side of Mincing-lane, was built in 1860; and is of Palladian character, with ornate coupled windows, and with a large, boldly-carved, central shield of arms. Hyam's warehouses, in Cannon-street West, were built also in 1860; are 110 feet long, 76 feet wide, and 66 feet high; and have a classic facade. Jones' warehouse, in Wood-street, was. built in 1864; is 110 feet long, and six stories high; and displays some originality and force of character; but is marred, in its effect, by profusion of stripe-like buttresses. Hunt and Crombie's warehouses, in Eastcheap, were built also in 186 4; and are remarkable for effective use of terra cotta; but have a detrimental excess of colour. A pile of warehouses, on the S side of the new Southwark-street, was erected in the same year; is in a sort of Gothic style; and consists of bricks, polychromatically yellow, red, and black. Two stacks of offices, by one architect, in Mark-lane and Mincing-lane, were built also in 1864; and are remarkable for having their frame-work almost entirely of iron, and for having fronts of Portland stone diversified with incised ornament and coloured inlays. The London Printing and Publishing Co. 's offices, in St. John-street, were built in 1860; are in a domestic Gothic style, of German character, and of somewhat peculiar aspect; are very large and very lofty; and consist of red brick, with black bands and stone dressings. Longman's publishing offices, in Paternoster-row, were built in 1863; are in the renaissance style, somewhat grandiose, yet chastely ornamented; and are of Portland stone, three stories high, with dormers.

The New City club, in George-yard, Lombard-street, was built in 1866; is in a style of somewhat florid renaissance, large and very striking; presents a peculiar appearance, occasioned by the irregularity of its site; and has a showy entrance-portico, with polished red granite columns. The Whitehall club, in Parliament-street, was built also in 1866; is likewise in a style of florid renaissance, three stories high; and has Ionic columns in the ground floor, Corinthian columns in the first or Iprincipal floor, and a variety of decorations above. The New University club, in St. James'-street, was built in 1868; and is in the Gothic style, with projecting centre. A new building, intended for a club-house, but at first disposed as chambers, in St. James'-street, on the site of the Old Thatched House, was built in 1865; is a handsome and coStly edifice; and displays a large amount of well-executed carving of foliage and birds. The Westminster hotel was built in 1860-1; was so far completed in 1860 that about half of its W portion was then let to the government, to be used as the Indian office; and is in the French renaissance style, of very striking appearance; but has a façade of cement, and is so vast as to look monotonous. The Gloucester hotel, on the N side of Piccadilly, was built in 1861, partly to anticipate the expected great concourse at the Exhibition of the following year; but arrests attention only by its great magnitude. The Bath hotel, on the S side of Piccadilly, nearly opposite the Gloucester hotel, was built in the same year; is of brick with stone dressings, very lofty, and crowned with picturesquely grouped chimney-shafts; and has, over the ground floor, (which is strangely fitted up as a stable) a very ornamental balcony. The London-bridge hotel, adjoining the London-bridge railway terminus, was built also in 1861; is 130 feet long, 97 feet wide, and seven stories high; presents a substantial but not elegant appearance, with heavy cornice and mansard roof; and consists of white brick, with Portland stone dressings. The Grosvenor hotel, adjoining the Victoria railway terminus in Pimlico, was built in 1862, at a cost of considerably more than £100,000; measures 262 feet in length, 75 feet in width, and 150 feet in height to the top of the roof; is in a very elaborate variety of the renaissance style, offive unequal stories, with massive towers at the ends, and a lofty roof attic; consists of Bath stone rusticated in the ground floor, and white Suffolk brick in the upper stories; and displays great profusion of skilful carving, including colossal festoons of flowers, representations of the four quarters of the globe, and medallions of the Queen, the Prince Consort, many contemporary statesmen, and other celebrities, and many distinguished personages of past times. The Charing-cross hotel, at the Charing-cross railway terminus, was built in 1864-6, at a cost of not much short of £200,000; presents a principal front to the Strand, and a front nearly as long to Villiers-street; is in a style which may be roughly termed Italian, with Corinthian details; has five unequal stories to the entablature, with both an attic and a dormer roof above, and with massive tower-structures at the ends; shows polished granite columns and carved tympanums at the principal entrances, a good deal of carving and some moulded stuccO in the front, and red terracotta in the chimney stalks; is appropriated, in the basement, to the railway-booking offices; and derives some picturesquen ss, in the outward view, from a free reproduction there of the Eleanor cross which formerly stood at Charingcross. The City Terminus hotel, in Cannon-street, was built in 1867, at a cost of more than £100,000; and strongly resembles the Charing-cross hotel. A great hotel of palatial character was projected at the Midland railway terminus, but was in doubtful progress in 1869. The Langham hotel, in Portland-place, was built in 1865; rivals the Charing-cross hotel in at once size, cost, and magnificence; and contains ab out 40 drawing-rooms and private sitting-rooms, and 300 bedrooms. The Inns of Court hotel, extending from Holborn to Lincolns-Innfields, was built in 1867; is in the Italian style, of Portland stone, with columns of polished granite and serpentine; and includes a large central covered court. The Agricultural hotel, in Salisbury-square, Fleet-street, was built in 1865; and presents a frontage of 98 feet to Salisbury-square, one of 100 feet to Dorset-street, and one of 100 feet to Primrose-hill. The Palmerston Buildings, extending from Bishopsgate-street to Old Broad-street, were erected in 1 867, at a cost of more than £80,000; and have rich Italian facades. Three ornate Vestry halls, in Piccadilly, in Bancroft-road, and at Mile-End, were built in 1862.

The price of land, in connexion with street improvement, railway. operation, and house reconstruction, has risen very high. Two instances of sale, which occurred in July and Sept. 1865, may be mentioned as illustrations. The one was a piece of freehold ground, comprising an area of 2,500 feet, in Cannon-street, at the corner of Swithin's-lane; and was sold at auction for £30,600. The other was the freehold site of the Weighhouse chapel, which was required by the Metropolitan District Railway company; and was sold by arbitration for £28,0 00, besides £10,000 for the buildings which were on it, and a life annuity of £500 as compensation to the minister of the chapel.

Public Buildings.—We do not here notice ecclesiastical, institutional, educational, or benevolential buildings within the City; for these will be noticed in subsequent sections. Nor, except in one or two instances, do we here notice public buildings of any kind in the parts of the metropolis beyond the City; for these are noticed in other articles. We here notice chiefly governmental, municipal, commercial, and miscellaneous public buildings within the City.

The Tower stands on a gentle eminence, contiguous to the Thames, outside the line of the City walls, nearly 1¼ mile ESE of St. Paul's. It is not one building, but a group of buildings, with some open spaces, surrounded by a fortification wall; and occupies an area of about 12 acres. It was described by Stowe as" a citadel to defend or command the City, a royal palace for assemblies or treaties, a prison of state for the most dangerous offenders, the only place of coinage for all England at this time, the armoury for warlike provisions, the treasury of the ornaments and jewels of the Crown, and the general conserver of most of the records of the King s courts of justice at Westminster. ''The oldest extant portions of it are of the time of William the Conqueror; other portions are of varions dates; and the latest portions are quite recent. Tradition, followed by the poets Gray and Shakespeare, assigns its origin to Julins Cæsar; but fair criticism can allow no original of it to have been probable before at least the later period of the Roman possession; and authentic record makes no mention of anything of it for many centuries after the time of CÆsar. A deep, broad ditch, long encompassed the completed citadel; became eventually noisome and pestiferous, resembling more a sewer than a moat; and, in 184 3, was drained, and converted into pleasure-ground, adorned with trees, and traversed by walks. The encincturing walls form a regular pentagon, with the longest side parallel to the Thames, and the two shortest sides meeting in a point toward the N; and they have been so often repaired with brick that a question might be raised whether any portions of them, except the turrets, ever were of stone. Four gates formerly afforded the only access; the Lions'-gate, on the W side, still the principal entrance, and named from its vicinity to the site of a royal menagerie; the Iron-gate, a great and strong one, opened only on signal occasions; the Water-gate, used for business communication for boats and small vessels; and the Traitors'-gate, a small postern with a draw-bridge, fronting the Thames, and used for receiving state criminals brought to the fortress by water. The detached towers, in the interior, are the Lion tower, named from the same circumstance as the Lions'-gate; the Middle tower, named from its position on the side toward the Thames; the Bell tower, said to have been the prison of Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, and of the Princess Elizabeth, afterwards Queen Elizabeth; the Bloody tower, named from a tradition that here the young sons of Edward IV. were murdered by order of Richard III., and pronounced by the Duke of Wellington the strongest fortress within the citadel; the Beauchamp tower, on the W side, named from having been the prison of Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, in 1397, -more remarkable for having been the prison of Anne Boleyn, -and so thoroughly restored in 1853 as to present a modern appearance; the Develin tower; the Bowyer tower, on the N side, containing a dungeon where tradition asserts the Duke of Clarence to have been drowned in a butt of Malmsey; the Brick tower, on the NE side, said to have been the prison of Lady Jane Grey; the Martin tower, near the Jewel-house; the Salt tower, on the E side, noted for a curious astronomical drawing made, in 1561, by Hugh Draper, who was then a prisoner here under charge of sorcery; and the Keep, or White tower, in the centre, 116 feet long and 96 feet wide, the oldest structure within the fortress, and containing St. John's chapel, a curious specimen of Norman architecture, long used as a deposit for records. The residence of the governor stands between the Bell tower and the Bloody tower, is a structure of the time of Henry VIII., and contains the room in which Guy Fawkes and his accomplices were examined. The Horse armoury stands along the S side of the White tower; was built in 1826; is a gallery l50 feet long and 33 feet wide; and contains a rich and well arranged collection of armour, in the varions styles from the 13th century till the 17th. Queen Elizabeth's armoury is within the White tower, but is approached by a narrow staircase from the Horse armoury; has walls 14 feet thick; was cased with wood, a few years ago, in the Norman style; includes a small dark cell, said to have been the prison of Sir Walter Raleigh: was once a deposit of curi osities, called the Spanish collection; and is still a museum of military and other antiquities. The Jewelhouse stands in the NE; and contains, within a glazed iron cage in the centre of a well-lighted room, St. Edward's crown, Queen Victoria's crown, the Queen Consort's crown, the Queen's diadem, the Prince of Wales' coronet, St. Edward's staff, three sceptres, two orbs, three swords of state, the coronation bracelets, the royal spurs, the ampulla, the coronation spoon, the state saltcellar, the royal baptismal font, and the silver wine fountain. The church of the Tower liberties, or church of St. Peter ad Vincula, stands in the NW, on the site of two previous ones, the latter of which was erected by Edward I.; and it contains the remains of Anne Boleyn, Catherine Howard, Lady Jane Grey, and a number of other distinguished persons who were executed in the Tower. The Waterloo barracks stand across the N side; were founded, in 1845, by the Duke of Wellington; and are an extensive structure, in a questionable style of architecture, serving as barracks and armoury, loop-holed, and capable of defence. An armoury, or grand storehouse, 345 feet long, and built by William III., occupied the site of the Waterloo barracks; and, with 280,000 stand of arms, was wholly destroyed by fire in 1841. A statue of the Duke of Wellington, and some remarkable cannons and mortars, are on the parade. The royal menagerie, adjacent to the Lion tower, was one of the great curiosities of London from the time of Henry III. till that of William IV.; contained lions, which were named after the reigning kings; and was disused in 1834, when the few animals which remained in it were removed to the Zoological gardens in the Regent'S park. A refreshment room now occupies its site. The value of the ordnance stores in the Tower was estimated, in 1849, at £640,023. A battalion of the Guards usually forms the garrison of the Tower, and furnishes the guard at the Bank of England.

The old Mint stood within the Tower, near the Lions' gate. The present Mint stands on Tower hill; occupies the site of an ancient Cistertian monastery, called the Abbey of St. Mary of the Graces; was preceded, on that site, by the Victualling office for the navy; was erected in 1811, after designs by Mr. Johnson, with superintendence by Sir Robert Smirke for the ornamental parts and for the entrances; is a three-story edifice of centre and wings, adorned with columns and pilasters; and possesses machinery for all sorts of coins, capable of striking off a quarter of a million of silver coins in one day. -The Record office stands on the Rolls estate, between Chancery-lane and Fetter-lane; was built in 1856, of extent to contain 80 compartments, with design to add, when required, two wings containing 148 compartments; is all fire-proof; superseded the record-rooms in the Tower, the Chapter-house, Westminster-abbey, the Rolls chapel in Chancery-lane, and Charlton-ride in St. James'park; and contains Domesday book, the deed of resigning the Scottish crown to Edward II., the treaty of peace between Henry VIII. and Francis I. of France, the documents of surrender of all the English and Welsh monasteries to Henry VIII., and a multitude of interesting state papers.-The Prerogative will office is in Doctors' Commons, Blackfriars; and contains the wills of Shakespeare, Vandyck, Inigo Jones, Sir Isaac Newton, Dr. Johnson, Izaac Walton, and many other distinguished men.-The Heralds' college is at Bennet's-hill, Doctors, Commons; was founded in 1484, but now includes no masonry older than the time of Charles II.; contains some curious relics and a vast number of ancient records; and numbers among eminent men who have belonged to it Camden, Dugdale, Ashmole, Austin, Vanbrugh, Grose, and Lodge.-The East India House, in Leadenhallstreet, was erected on the site of a previous India House, in 1799, after designs by R. Jupp; was subsequently enlarged after designs by Cockerel and Wilkins; had a frontage of 200 feet in length; was adorned with a pedi; ment, containing symbols of Britannia, Europe, and Asia, by the younger Bacon; contained an oriental library, an oriental museum, statues of Clive, Hastings, Cornwallis Marquis Wellesley, and the Duke of Well ington; and was taken down in 1862, with transference of its contents and its business to a new office in the neighbourhood of Whitehall, and to give place to a vast pile of offices on its own site.-The Artillery barracks and drill-ground, at the Artillery-ground, W side of Finsbury-square, are well suited to their military uses, and have latterly attracted attention in connexion with the Volunteer rifle corps. The Hon. Artillery company was established by patent in the time of Henry VIII., and incorporated by James l.; superseded the City trainbands, which were established in 1585; is notable for having, by prompt action, preserved the Bank of England, in 1780; had, for its colonel, the late Prince Consort; and usually consists of about 600 men, many of them sons of gentlemen.

The Mansion House stands at the E end of the Poultry, on the site of the ancient Stocks market, near the ancient course of the Wallbrook rivulet; rests on an artificial foundation of piles, rendered necessary by the saturation of the ground with springs; was erected in 1739- 1753, after designs by George Dance, at a cost of £71,000; consists of Portland stone; has a tetrastyle Corinthian portico, with symbolic sculptures on the pediment; is the official residence of the lord mayor, the locality of the city police court, and the place of many City banquets and balls; and contains a state room, called the Egyptian hall, from the style of its architecture, designed by the Earl of Burlington, and capable of accommodating 400 persons at dinner. The foundation was discovered in 1865 to be settling down; a vote of £500 was then passed to restore it; and an apprehension was entertained that a further vote might be required.-The Guildhall stands at the foot of King-street, Cheapside; superseded a previous hall in Aldermanbury; was built in 1411; suffered much injury from the great fire; retains little of the original structure except the packing of the walls, two mutilated windows, and a crypt; has a front of 1789, designed by George Dance; contains the principal public offices of the City corporation; and includes a great hall, 153 feet long, 50 feet wide, and 55 feet high, used by the citizens at elections and for public meetings, and used also for the lord mayor's banquet at his accession to office. The corporation-offices contain numerous portraits, memorials, and busts; the library, entered through a passage in the porch, contains many rare books relating to the City's history; and the great hall contains the giant figures called Gog and Magog, statues of Edward VI., Elizabeth, and Charles I., and monuments to the Earl of Chatham, William Pitt, Lord Nelson, and the Duke of Wellington. The Guildhall was the scene of the advocacy of Richard III. 's claims to the throne, of the trial of Anne Askew on a charge of heresy, and of the impeachment of the Earl of Surrey, Lady Jane Grey, and the Jesuit Garnet for treason; and it was the place of the great dinner, in 1814, to the Prince Regent, the Emperor of Russia, and the King of Prussia, when plate was used to the estimated value of £200,000.

The halls of the ' ' Twelve Great Companies, ' or the twelve most notable of the City guilds, possess considerable interest. Mercers' hall, in Cheapside, between Ironmonger-lane and Old Jewry, stands close to the site of the house in which Thomas à Becket's father lived; has a decorated front exemplifying well the ornate architecture of the time immediately following the great fire; includes a beautiful chapel on the site of the ancient hospital of St. Thomas of Acon; and contains portraits of Dean Colet and Sir Thomas Gresham. Grocers, hall stands in the Poultry; was built in 1427, rebuilt after the great fire, and built again in 1802; and was the place of the City dinners to Cromwell and the Long Parliament, and the place of the Bank of England's courts from 1694 till 1734. Drapers' hall stands in Throgmorton-street; was originally the mansion of Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex, purchased by the drapers from Henry VIII.; was rebuilt immediately after the great fire; had gardens which extended to London Wall, and were used as a fashionable promenade; and contains a curious picture of Mary, Queen of Scots, and a portrait of Lord Nelson. Fishmongers' hall stands on the W side of Adelaide-place, at the N foot of London-bridge; was built after the great fire, and rebuilt in 1831; and contains a statue of Sir William Walworth, who slew Wat Tyler, and portraits of William III. and Mary, George II. and Caroline, the Duke of Kent, Earl St. Vincent, and Queen Victoria. Goldsmiths' hall stands in Fosterlane, Cheapside; was rebuilt in 1835, after designs by Hardwicke; has a rich, bold, well-proportioned front, with sculptures of armour, banners, cornucopiæ, and musical instruments; has an interior of equally ornate character; and contains a Roman altar found at the digging of its foundations, a gold cup said to have been used by Queen Elizabeth at her coronation, busts of George III., George IV., and William IV., and portraits of George III. and Charlotte, George I V., William IV. and Adelaide, Queen Victoria and the Prince Consort. Skinners' hall stands in Dowgate-hill; was destroyed by the great fire and rebuilt immediately afterwards; has a front, added in 1808; and contains a portrait of Lord Mayor Sir Andrew Judd of 1551. Merchant Tailors' hall stands in Threadneedle-street, behind an ornamental row of merchants' houses; was purchased by the Tailors in 1331; superseded an earlier hall in Basing-lane.; suffered severe injury in the great fire, insomuch that only a small portion of the old structure now exists; was rebuilt immediately after the great fire; is the largest of the Companies' halls; was the scene of two great dinners to all the conservative members of the House of Commons in 1835 and 1851; and contains portraits of Henry VIII., Charles I., Charles II., James II., William III., George III. and his queen, the Duke of York, the Duke of Wellington, and Sir Thomas White, the founder of St. John's college, Oxford. Haberdashers' hall stands in Staining-lane, Cheapside; was rebuilt after the great fire, and again in 1855; and was destroyed by fire in 1864. Salters' hall stands in Oxford-court, St. Swithin'slane; occupies the site of first the town-house of the priors of Tortington, afterwards of a mansion of the Earls of Oxford; and was rebuilt in 1827. Ironmongers' hall stands on the N side of Fenchurch-street; was rebuilt in 1748; has a highly decorated interior, in the Tudor style; and contains a portrait of Admiral Lord Hood. Vintners, hall stands in Upper Thames-street; is a plain modern edifice; and contains portraits of Charles II., James II., and Prince George of Denmark. Clothworkers' hall stands in Mincing-lane, Fenchurch-street; is a small edifice, chiefly of red brick; and contains a silver ' ' loving-cup, ''given by Pepys, who was master of the company in 1677.

The halls of some of the other City companies or guilds also possess interest. Apothecaries' hall stands in Water-lane,. Blackfriars; is a plain brick and stone building of 1670; figures in Garth's satirical poem of "the Dispensary;'' has connexion with a botanic garden at Chelsea; and contains a portrait of James I., and a statue of Delaune. Stationers' hall stands in Stationers-hallcourt, Ludgate-hill; was destroyed in the great fire, when the Stationers lost property to the value of about £200,000; was afterwards rebuilt; possessed long the right of having every sort of publication ''entered at it;'' is still the place of registration of new books for protection under the copyright act; and contains portraits of Prior, Steele, Richardson, Alderman Boydell, and Vincent Wing. Painters-Stainers' hall stands in Little Trinity-lane; is a gloomy-looking edifice; makes an annual free exhibition of specimens of the decorative art; and contains portraits of Charles Il., William III., Anne, and the antiquary Camden, and a ' ' loving-cup ''given by Camden, and used at the annual feast on St. Luke's day. BarberSurgeons hall stands in Monkwell-street, on the site of a bastion of the ancient City wall; has an elaborately executed door-way; and contains a gilt cup presented by Henry VIII., another cup presented by Charles II., a portrait of Inigo Jones, and a famous picture by Holbein of Henry VIII. bestowing the charter on the barber-surgeons. Carpenters, hall stands at Carpenters' Buildings, London Wall; has been converted into a printing-office; and was found, during repairs in 1845, to have four frescoes of the 15th century, all on Scripture subjects, and three of them referring to carpenters' work. Weavers' hall stands in Basinghall-street; and contains an old picture of William Lee, a scholar of Cambridge, the inventor of the stocking-loom, representing him pointing out that loom to a female knitter-Armourers' hall stands in Coleman-street; and contains a very fine collection of mazers, hanaps, and silver-gilt cups. Saddlers' hall stands in Cheapside; and contains a fine funeral pall of the 15th century.

The Bank of England occupies an irregularly quadrangular area of nearly 4 acres, immediately N of the junctions of Poultry, Cornhill, Lombard-street, and King William-street; presents its four fronts to Threadneedle-street, Prince's-street, Lothbury, and Bartholomew-lane; measures, along these fronts, respectively 365, 440,410, and 250 feet; and includes eight open courts. The oldest part of it was built in 1733, on the site of the house of Sir John Moulton, the first governor; parts adjoining Threadneedle-street were afterwards built by George Sampson; enlargements of these parts were made, and E and W wings of them were erected, in 1766-1786, by Sir Robert Taylor; the other parts, with slight exception, were built by Sir John Soane, who also took down or altered some of the older parts; and copings above the cornice were added by Cockerell, after a temporary fortification of the structure against an apprehended attack of the chartists in 1848. The structure, as a whole, does not possess much architectural elegance; yet portions of it, particularly in the interior, are admirable. The principal front, seen from the corner of Cornhill, shows a long line of wall, in the Grecian style, with fluted pillars, cornices, and other ornaments; but has blank windows, and looks flat and heavy. The front toward Lothbury was copied from the temple of Tivoli; and is very beautiful. The cashier s office was modelled after the temple of the sun and moon at Rome; the ante-room of the discount office, after the villa of Adrian; and the entrance to the bullion court, after the arch of Constantine. The central court, planted with shrubs and trees, and ornamented with a fountain, was formerly the churchyard of St. Christopher. The parlour is the room in which the directors meet; and the lobby of it has a portrait of Abraham Newland, who rose from a low condition to be chief clerk of the bank. The ruling-room is the place where the paper for the books is cut and ruled by machines; the binding-room, where the pages of the ledgers are numbered by machinery; the printing-room, where the common bank papers are printed; the bank-note printing-room, where cheques are numbered by a machine, and 15,000 notes are printed daily; the old note office, where the paid notes are accumulated for ten years: the weighing office, where the light sovereigns are separated from the full-weight ones by very ingenious pieces of mechanism; the bullion office, where the coin is kept in iron safes; and all these may be seen by an order from a director. Only 54 clerks were employed at first; but about 900 are employed now; and they receive salaries rising from £50 to £1,200, and amounting aggregately in the year to about £210,000.

The Royal Exchange occupies an area of 51,000 square feet; presents a S front to Cornhill, a W front toward the Poultry, a N front to the Bank of England and Threadneedle-street; measures 293 feet by 175; includes a central quadrangle of 114 feet by 57; and is the third Exchange-building on the site. The first was erected by Sir Thomas Gresham, and destroyed in the great fire; the second was erected in 1668, after designs by Wren, at a cost of £80,000, and was destroyed by fire in January 1839; and the present was erected under the direction of William Tite, at a cost of £180,000, and opened in October 1844, by Queen Victoria. The exterior, contrary to the strongly expressed wishes of the architect, has been much disposed in shops; yet, in spite of that disfigurement, makes a most imposing appearance. The W front has an octostyle Corinthian portico, 96 feet wide and 76 feet high; with a pediment designed by the younger Westmacott, and richly adorned in the tympanum with seventeen emblematic statues. The W gates are of cast iron bronzed, 22 feet high and 16 feet wide;, and bear the arms of the twelve great City companies. The E tower has a statue of Sir Thomas Gresham, 14½ feet high, by Behnes; and is surmounted by the old grasshopper Vane, 11 feet long. The S side has a row of pilasters, and three sets of armorial sculptures; and the N side has statues of Gresham and Middleton. The central quadrangle is surrounded by a colonnade, and has a marble statue of Queen Victoria.-The City offices, with the Lombard Exchange and News-Room, stand at the corner of Lombard-street and Gracechurch-street; were built in 1868, at a cost of about £70,000; measure 120 feet by 80; and are in a very ornate Italian style.-Lloyd's Rooms, the seat of marine insurance business, and the centre of commercial and shipping news, are approached by stairs at the E end of the Royal Exchange; and have a handsome vestibule, with marble statues of Huskisson and the Prince Consort. 'The Stock Exchange stands in Chapel-court, fronting the Bank of England; and was rebuilt in 1853.

The General Post office stands in St. Martin's-le-Grand, near Cheapside, Newgate-street, and St. Paul's churchyard; occupies the site of an ancient college and church dedicated to St. Martin; and was built in 1825-9, after designs by Sir R.. Smirke. It measures 389 feet in length and 80 feet in width; is in the Ionic style, simple, but massive; has a hexastyle portico, copied from remains of two ancient temples; consists of granite in the basement, and of brick, faced with Portland stone, in the superstructure; and includes a central vestibule, or great hall, 80 feet long, 60 feet wide, and 53 feet high. A supplement to it, on ground in Newgate-street purchased for £3,000, was authorized by an act of 1865. The postoffice was kept, in 1635, at Sherbourne-lane; next at Dowgate; next at the Black Swan, Bishopsgate-street; next at the Black Pillars, Brydges-street, Covent-garden; next at what had been Sir Robert Viner's house, in Lombard-street; and was removed thence to the present building. Ten head-offices are now in the metropolis, as defined by a circle drawn on a radius of 12 miles from the General Post office; and they serve for ten sections in nearly the same manner as if these were ten towns, all at considerable distances from one another. The sections were marked off, and constituted, in 1856; they are all designated London, with the adjuncts of respectively E C, W C, N, N E, E, S E, S, S W, W, and N W; and they are shown in a map constructed for the purpose, but cannot be clearly delineated in words. The headoffice of the E C section is the general post office itself, with a branch in Lombard-street; of the W C section, is in High Holborn, with a branch at Charing-cross; of the N section, is in Essex-road, Islington; of the N E section, is in Church-street, Bethnal-Green; of the E section, is in Nassau-place, Commercial-road East; of the S E section, is in High-street, Southwark; of the S section, is in York-place, Lambeth; of the S W section, is in Buckingham-gate, Pimlico; of the W section, is in Vere-street; of the N W section, is in Eversholt-street, Camden-Town. Nearly 700 receiving-offices, the majority of them with money-order, savings-bank, and insurance and annuity apartments, are dispersed throughout the sections; postal-pillars and wall letter-boxes are proportionally numerous; and, since 1859, no house in London has been more than ¼ of a mile distant from a moneyorder office, or more than &hy. of a mile from a receivingoffice or a postal letter-box.

The Custom-House stands in Lower Thames-street, along a terrace fronting the river; and is the fifth custom-house structure on the site. The first was built, in 13 85, by John Churchman; the second was built in the time of Elizabeth, and destroyed by the great fire; the third was designed by Wren, and was destroyed by fire in 1714; the fourth was built by Ripley, and was burnt in 1814. The present structure was erected in 1814-7, after designs by Laing; rests on piles driven to the depth of 30 feet, rendered necessary by the substrata having once been covered by the river; proved insecure throughout the centra portion; was rebuilt, throughout that portion, in 1825, under the direction of Sir R. Smirke; measures 480 feet in length, and 100 feet in width; is in the Ionic style, of centre and two wings, with bold and massive aspect; and contains what is called the long-room, 190 feet long, 66 feet wide, and 55 feet high, together with a multitude of offices. Upwards of 2,230 persons are employed in connexion with it, at an annual cost of about £275,000.-Trinity House stands on the N side of Tower-hill; was built in 1793, under the direction of Samuel Wyatt; superseded immediately a previous house in Water-lane, Thames-street, and remotely an ancient one at Deptford-strand; is in simple Ionic style, of Portland-stone; has, on the front, several ornamental sculptures; contains busts of Admirals St. Vincent, Howe, Duncan, and Nelson, and portraits of James I. and his queen, James II., Sir Francis Drake, and Sir John Leake; and includes a model-room, with interesting plans for lighthouses and life-boats.-The Excise Office stood in Broad-street; but the business of it was transferred to the Inland Revenue Office, Somerset House, Strand.

The Corn Exchange stands in Mark-lane; was first opened in 1747; was enlarged, and partly rebuilt, in 1827; was enlarged again in 1853; is surmounted, in the centre, by a dome, resting on Doric columns; and has counters, along the sides, for the corn-dealers. The market-days are Monday, Wednesday, and Friday; and the hours of business are from 10 till 3. The Kentish ' ' hoynien ' ' have stands free of expense, and pay less amount of dues than others.-The Coal Exchange stands in Lower-Thames-street, nearly opposite Billingsgate; was erected in 1847-9, to afford convenience for conducting the coal trade; and was opened by the Prince Consort. Its interior is highly interesting. Three galleries encircle it, and a lantern surmounts it. The floor consists of upwards of 40,000 pieces of wood, and is laid in the form of the mariner's compass. The walls are painted with representations of the coal fossils, pictures of colliers' implements and tackle, and portraits of men who have rendered service to the coal trade. A Roman hypocaust was laid open at the digging of the foundations; and it was arched over, and can still be seen.- Newgate market is situated between Newgate-street and Paternoster-row; was originally a meal-market; became a carcase market after the suppression of the stalls and sheds in Butcher-Hall-lane and the places adjacent to the quondam church of St. Nicholas-Shambles; and long afforded the main supply to the carcase butchers even at the W end; but will be superseded by the metropolitan meat and poultry market.-Leaden-Hall market is situated between Gracechurch-street and the quondam East India House; was originally a granary, formed, in 1445, in what had been the large leaden-roofed mansion of Sir Hugh Neville; was afterwards, in the 16th century, a market for meal and wool; escaped injury from the great fire; and is now a large market for butchers' meat, poultry, bacon, fish, leather, hides, and vegetables.- Billingsgate market is situated in Thames-street, a little below London bridge; was constituted by Elizabeth a general market, and by William III. a market for all sorts of fish; was enlarged and improved in 1852, at a cost of about £20,000; is a structure of red brick, with stone-dressings; contains a store warehouse for dried fish, a special quarter for shell-fish, and machinery for ventilating and cleansing its area; and is supplied, not only from the fishing-grounds of England, but also from those of Scotland, Ireland, and Holland.-The Cattle market was long an open area in Smithfield, comprising 5¾ acres in the form of an irregular polygon, surrounded by bone-houses, catgut manufactories, public-houses, and knackers' yards; but is now a very spacious structure, noticed in our account of ISLINGTON.-The Metropolitan meat and poultry market occupies the site of the old cattle market; was authorised in 1862, and completed about the end of 1868; forms a parallelogram 631 feet long and 2 46 feet wide; is in a modified Italian style, with octagonal cupola-crowned towers at the angles; contains nearly 200 shops; stands over stations and depôts of the great railway companies, giving it direct communication with its country supplies; and cost about £200,000 for construction, and a still larger sum for correlative outlay. A general market, on a site of about 7 acres, near Sloane-square in Chelsea, with underground railway communication, was projected in 1869. -Faringdon market is situated in Faringdon-street; was opened in 1826; and is the great water-cress market of London, and a market also for other vegetables and for fruit. Covent-garden market, the chief vegetable and fruit one in the metropolis, will be noticed in the article WESTMINSTER.-The new Hop and Malt Exchange stands at the London-bridge end of Southwarkstreet; was opened in 1867; is ten stories high and 340 feet long; looks as if nearly all windows and ironcolumns; includes a hall 80 feet long, 50 feet wide, and 115 feet high, and cost about £50,000.

The Central Criminal court, or Old Bailey sessionshouse, adjoins Newgate prison; presents no architectural feature of any interest; has a dining-room, where the judges dine when the court business is over; was established, in its present character, in 1834; is the place of trying prisoners for grave offences committed within 10 miles of St. Paul's; and has courts for trying them twelve times a year. The Bankruptcy court is in Basinghall-street. The Insolvent Debtors' court is in Portugal-street, Lincolns-Inn-fields; and has jurisdiction over all places within 20 miles of London. The Sheriffs' court is held in the court-house, Basinghallstreet; and the Lord Mayor's court is held in the Guildhall. Clerkenwell sessions-house, on Clerkenwell-green, ranks next in importance to the Central Criminal court; and has been noted in the article CLERKENWELL.-The police courts for the City are held at the Mansion-house and the Guildhall; and those for the metropolitan police territory are held at Bow-street, Vincent-square, Marlborough-street, High-street-Marylebone, Bagniggewells-road, Worship-street, Shoreditch, Arbour-streetStepney, Lower Kennington-lane-Lambeth, Blackmanstreet-Southwark, Blackheath-hill, Brick-lane-Hammersmith, and Love-lane-Wandsworth. The present metropolitan police system was established in 1829, and superseded a previous system of constables and watchmen. The arrangements and number of its force will be noticed in the subsequent section on Statistics.-Newgate prison stands in the Old Bailey, near the site of the ancient City gate whence it has its name; was founded, in its present form, in 1770, as an addition to a previous old prison; was but partially constructed in 1780, when the old prison underwent demolition in the Gordon riots of that year; advanced thence rapidly to completion in 1782; was used for debtors, as well as for felons, till 1815; has been used thence for felons only; possessed, till recently, proper capacity for no more than 133 male and 60 female prisoners; has been enlarged by a new wing, containing 156 cells, and affording scope for an improved system of discipline; is often packed, before the meeting of the sessions, with upwards of double the number of prisoners for which it is fairly adapted; and was formerly notorions for its fearful jail distemper, and for the number of executions before its walls. Lord George Gordon, the leader of the riots which destroyed the old prison, died in the new one in 1793 of the jail distemper.-Bridewell stood in Bridge-street-Blackfriars, immediately behind the church of St. Bride, Fleet-street; was originally a manor-house, given by Edward VI. to the City, to be used as a house of correction and a workhouse ' ' for the strumpet and idle person, for the rioter that consumeth all, and for the vagabond that will abide in no place; ''was afterwards used as the City prison and reformatory for persons sentenced to short terms of imprisonment; gave its name, for many years, as a common name, to every house of correction in the kingdom; and ceased to be used in 1855, at the completion of the City house of correction in Holloway. The scene of the fourth plate of Hogarth's ' ' Harlot's Progress ''is laid in Bridewell.-The Debtors' prison for the City and for Middlesex stands in Whitecross-street; was built in 1815; and has capacity for 338 male and 27 female prisoners.-The other metropolitan prisons are Millbank prison in St. John-the-Evangelist-Westminster; the house of correction in Tothill-fields, St. Margaret-West minster; the Pentonville or model prison, in Islington parish; the City house of correction, in Holloway; the Middlesex house of detention, in Clerkenwell; the ColdBath-Fields prison, or house of correction, in Clerkenwell; the Surrey county jail, in Horsemonger-lane, Newington; the Surrey county house of correction, in Wandsworth; the Brixton-Hill prison, for female convicts, in Brixton; and the Queen's prison for debtors, formerly known as the King's Bench, in Borough-road, Southwark. All these are noticed in other articles. Reformatory and industrial schools will be noticed in a subsequent section.

The Holborn theatre-royal was built in 1866; has a narrow and poor exterior; and measures internally, exclusive of the stage, 70 feet in length, 54 in width, and 35 in height. The new amphitheatre, in Holborn, was opened in 1867; and contains about 1,600 seats. The new East London theatre was opened in 1867; has a taverned front in Whitechapel-road; and contains seats or standing-places for about 4,000 persons. The Standard theatre, in Shoreditch, was burnt in 1866; was rebuilt in 1867-8; and contains accommodation for nearly 5,000 persons. The principal other theatres, in the metropolis, are the new Globe theatre, Newcastle-street, Strand, built in 1869; the Gaiety theatre, on the site of the Strand Music-hall, and built in 1869; the new Queen's theatre, Longacre, opened in 1867, and containing 1,984 seats; Her Majesty's theatre, Haymarket, burnt in 1867, and rebuilt in 1868-9, at a cost of about £50,000; Haymarket theatre, Haymarket; Covent-garden theatre, or Royal Italian opera, Covent-garden; Drury-lane theatre, Drury-lane; the Lyceum, or English opera-house, Strand; Princess's theatre, Oxford-street; St. James' theatre, St. James'-street; the New Adelphi theatre, Strand; the Olympic theatre, Wych-street, Drury-lane; Strand theatre, near St. Clement's church, Strand; Marylebone theatre, Church-street; Sadler's Wells theatre, St. Johnstreet-road, Islington; the Britannia saloon, Hoxton; the Queen's theatre, Tottenham-court-road; the Surrey theatre, Blackfriars-road; the Victoria theatre, formerly the Cobourg, Waterloo-road; Astley's amphitheatre, Westminster-bridge-road; and the Grecian saloon, at the Eagle tavern, City-road.-The principal other places of amusement are the Alhambra palace, formerly the Pauopticon, Leicester-square, for equestrian performances; Exeter Hall, Strand, for occasional oratorios; Hanoversquare-rooms, for concerts of the Philharmonic society; St. James' hall, Piccadilly, for popular concerts; St. George's hall, built in 1867, for concerts; Willis' rooms, formerly Almack's, King's-street, St. James's, for balls and concerts; Evans's music-room, Covent-garden, for concerts; Surrey music-hall, at the Surrey gardens, for concerts; Burford's panorama, Leicester-square; the Colosseum, with diorama, Regent's-park; Cremorne-gardens, Chelsea, for concerts, dancing, short plays, fireworks, and other entertainments; the Gallery of lllustration, Regent-street, for special entertainments; the Egyptian hall, Piccadilly, for special entertainments; Wyld's great globe, Leicester-square, exhibiting a concave model of the world, 60 feet in diameter; the Polytechnic institution, Regent-street and Cavendish-square, exhibiting many curiosities of scientific character; Madame Tussand's wax-works, Baker-street, Portmansquare, a grand saloon full of model figures; and the German gymnasium, St. Old Pancras-road, for athletic feats. These, and some less prominent places of amusement, are noticed in other articles; and some places mixedly recreational and scientific, will be mentioned in the section on Institutions.-Freemason's' hall stands in Great Queen-street, Holborn; occupies the site of a row of small houses called Queen's-place, and part of the site of the quondam Freemasons' tavern; comprises a masonic portion, completed in 1866, at a cost of £24,170, -and a tavern portion then in progress of erection, to cost £19,919; and presents a handsome frontage, with Corinthian decorations, four emblematic statues, and some masonic emblems.-The Hall of Commerce stands in Threadneedle-street; occupies the site of a French church and of St. Anthony s hospital on ground which contained a Roman pavement; was built in 1840-3, for a club; has decorations in bas-relief; and is used for public meetings.-The New City club-house stands in George-yard, between Lombard-street and Cornhill; was erected in 1866, at a cost of about £50,000; and is an elegant structure of basement and three stories.-The Cornhill chambers have frontages to Cornhill, Bishopsgate-street, and White Lion-court; were erected in 1866, at a cost of £14,417; and have an elegant façade in the renaissance style, of Tisbury stone, with polished granite shafts and pilasters.

The Thames tunnel may be noticed here introductorily to a notice of the bridges. It was designed to serve as a substitute for a bridge to the extreme E-parts of London; it connects Wapping, on the left bank, with Rotherhithe, or Redriff, on the right, at a line about 2 miles below London-bridge; and, though all underground, it is one of the most remarkable works in the metropolis. A project for something similar between Gravesend and Essex, was undertaken in 1798, but failed; and a project for the Thames tunnel itself was entertained so early as 1802, and vainly attempted in several subsequent years. The work was eventually begun in 1825, under the direction of Brunel; was repeatedly interrupted by formidable obstacles; was entirely suspended from Aug. 1828 till Jan. 1835 by irruption of the river; was resumed after thousands of sacks of clay had been thrown into the river-bed above it, to stop the great orifice through which the water had burst; was thenceforth carried forward by means of a powerful shield of 36 cells, piercing its way through clay and sand, somewhat as the teredo eats through the hardest wood, the miners working in the cells, with protection of the shield in front and above; and was completed, and opened to the public, in 1843. It consumed about 72,000,000 of bricks, and cost about £614,000. It consists of two roadways or two cylinders, separated from each other by a wall pierced at intervals with arches; passes at a depth of about 75 feet below high-water level; and is 38 feet wide, 22½ feet high, and 453 feet long. A cylindrical stairway, of 100 steps, leads to it at each end; and an inclined spiral roadway for carriages, with a gradient of about 1 in 25, was intended also to lead to it at each end, but never was formed. The work, for all useful purposes, proved substantially a failure; it could not be made accessible to carriages, without incurring much greater cost for the approaches than could be ventured; it was available for foot passengers, niore as a curiosity than for the purposes of business or of ordinary transit; and the yearly revenue of it, derived from a toll of one penny for each passenger, amounted to less than £5,000, and was found barely sufficient to keep the work in repair. The tunnel, therefore, was sold to the East London Railway company in 1865; was closed as a public footway in July 1869; and began to be traversed by railway trains from Wapping to New Cross in Dec. 1869.-The old London-bridge stood immediately below the new one. It was preceded, on or near its own site, by at least three wooden bridges; it was itself built mainly in 1176; it had twenty narrow arches, and rose considerably in the middle; it was surmounted early by a chapel, and afterwards by a dense mass of timberhouses; it was the scene, in Elizabeth's time, of a romantic event which founded the fortunes of the ducal family of Leeds; it was taken down in 1832, after completion of the new bridge; and it was found to cover or to embody a number of objects very interesting to antiquaries.-The new London-bridge was built in 1825-1831, after designs by Rennie; was publicly opened by William IV. and Queen Adelaide; comprises five elliptic granite arches,-the central one 152 feet in span, and rising 29½ feet above high-water mark; and is 928 feet long from the extremities of the abutments, and 54 feet wide. Large spaces were cleared away, on both sides of the river, for making the approaches; and contiguous rectilinear spaces were opened for the construction of new street-lines of buildings. The cost of the bridge, together with that of making the approaches, was £2,566,268. The number of carriages and equestrians passing along. in the course of twenty-four hours, ex ceeds 20,000; and that of pedestrians is not less than 107,000.-Southwark-bridge connects Queen-street in the City with Bridge-street, Southwark; stands about &ht. of a mile above London bridge; was erected in 1 815-9, after designs by Rennie; comprises three cast-iron arches, resting on stone piers; has a span of 210 feet in each of the side arches, and of 240 feet in the central arches; is 708 feet long; consumed about 5,780 tons of iron; and cost, inclusive of approaches, about £800,000. It was erected by a company; and a penny toll was imposed. But the company found it unremunerating, and were willing, a number of years ago, to sell it for £300,000.- Blackfriars-bridge connects Bridge-street in the City with Blackfriars-road, Southwark, at a line about ½ a mile above Southwark-bridge; was originally built in 1760-9, at a cost of £152,840; consisted of nine arches; measured 995 feet in length, and 42 feet in width; underwent alterations in 1837, lowering it, and removing its open balustrade; and has given place to an entirely new bridge, funded in Dec. 1865. This is in a modified VenetianGothic style; measures 922 feet in length and 85 feet in width; has piers of granite, surmounting columns of polished granite, and ornate arches of wrought iron, from 155 feet to 185 feet in span; cost about £650,000; and was opened by the Queen on 6 Nov. 1869.-The bridges further up the Waterloo, the Westminster, the Lambeth, the Vauxhall, the Battersea, and the Chelsea-are noticed in other articles; and the railway ones will be noticed in the section on Railway Works.

The monument commemorative of the great fire, stands on Fish-street hill, 202 feet distant from the house in which the fire originated, and not far from Londonbridge; was constructed in 1671-7, after a design by Wren, at a cost of £13,700; comprises a pedestal 28 feet square and 40 feet high, a Doric column 15 feet in diameter, and a surmounting gilded blazing urn 42 feet high; has a total height of 202 feet; is hollow, and contains a staircase of 345 steps; has sculptured figures on the pedestal, carved byG. Cibber, and emblematic of the ruin and restoration of the City,-and four dragons at the four angles, carved by Pierce; and had formerly an inscription attributing the fire to the treachery and malice of the Popish faction,-an inscription not originally on it, but added in 1681, obliterated in the time of James II., re-cut in the time of William III., and finally erased in 1831. Six persons, from 1750 till 1842, threw themselves from the top of the monument; and, to prevent any more such suicides, a disfiguring cage-like balcony was formed on the summit. A monument of Queen Anne stands in St. Paul's churchyard, before the W door of the cathedral; was erected in 1708, by F. Bird; and is a standing statue, on a pedestal, bearing emblems of England, Scotland, Ireland, and France. A statue of William IV. is in King William-street, near Londonbridge. A bronze equestrian statue of the Duke of Wellington, by Chantrey, is in front of the Royal Exchange. A monument of Queen Elizabeth is at St. Dunstan's, Fleet-street. A memorial fountain, in honour of the benefactors of St. Lawrence-Jewry and St. Mary Magdalene-Milk-street parishes, was erected in 1 866, in Guildhall-yard; is in the pointed style of the 14th century, 9 feet square at the base, and 32 feet high; consists of Portland stone and Bath stone, with polished granite shafts; and includes two statues of the patron saints, and a bronze bas-relief of Moses striking the rock.-The chief monuments in other parts of the metropolis, and mostly noticed in other articles, are of Charles I., at Charingcross; Charles II., in Soho-square; James II., in Whitehall-yard; William III., in St. James'-square; Queen Anne, in Queen-square, Bloomsbury; George I., in Leicester-square; George II., in Golden-square; George III., in Cockspur-street; George IV., in Trafalgar-square; Queen Victoria, in Pimlico; the Prince Consort, in Hydepark; William Duke of Cumberland, in Cavendish-square; the Duke of York, in Carlton House-gardens; Lord Nelson, in Trafalgar-square; the Duke of Wellington, at Hyde-park-corner; Generals Napier and Havelock, in Trafalgar-square; Pitt, in Hanover-square; Fox, in Bloomsbury-square; Canning, in Palace-yard; Richard Cœur de Lion, in New Palace-yard; the Duke of Bedford, in Russell-square; the Duke of Kent, in Portland-place; Major Cartwright, in Burton-crescent; Lord George Bentinck, in Cavendish-square; Dr. Jenner, in Trafalgarsquare; George Stephenson, at Euston-square station; Capt-Coram, at the Foundling hospital; the Guards who fell in the Crimea, in Waterloo-place, at the foot of Regent-street; Sir James Outram, on the Thames embankment; Sir John Franklin, erected in 1866, in Waterlooplace; Lord Herbert, in 1867, in Pall Mall; and Lord Clyde, in 1867, in the United Service Club gardens.

Railway works.—The railways immediately affecting the metropolis, as they stood either complete or progressing in 1869, and including amalgamations, are the Crystal Palace and South London Junction, the East London, the Edgware, Highgate, and London, the Great Eastern, the Great Northern, the Great Western, the Hammersmith and City, the London and Blackwall, the London, Brighton, and South Coast, the London, Chatham, and Dover, the London and Greenwich, the London and Northwestern, the London and Southwestern, the London, Tilbury, and Southend, the Metropolitan, the Metropolitan District, the Metropolitan and St. John's Wood, the Midland, the North London, Highgate, and Alexandra Park, the Northwestern and Charingcross, the Southwestern, the Victoria Station and Pimlico, the Waterloo and Whitehall, the West London, and the West London Extension. Most of these, as railways, are separately noticed in articles of their own; so that they do not require to be further mentioned here. Portions of railway lines and works within the metropolis are also mentioned in separate articles, -as BATTERSEA, GREENWICH, KING'S-CROSS, LAMBETH, PADDINGTON, PIMLICO, SOUTHWARK, and others; so that these also do not require further mention. The portions of railway lines and works in the outskirts of the-metropolis, and in the outer suburbs, nearly resemble railway lines and works throughout the country generally; so that they, too, do not require to be. noticed here. What we have to do, in the present section, is to notice such railway works as make distinct features within the metropolis, and as are not noticed in other articles. Many of these are of the intersecting and unsightly character which we indicated, in the section on Structure, to be damaging or destructive to picturesqueness; and few are of a kind to be admired for either their grouping or their architecture; yet all figure so prominently, both in feature and for utility, that they challenge attention as strongly as the public buildings.

The terminal stations, for the most part, are all similar to one another, varying chiefly in magnitude and in architectural pretensions; are remarkable for capaciousness, ample equipments, and fine adaptation to their special uses; and give to strangers a striking view of the prodigionsness of London traffic. The Fenchurch-street station was originally the small terminus of the London and Blackwall railway; was built in 1841, and afterwards much enlarged; and became the terminns also of the North London railway, and of the Eastern Counties and London, Tilbury, and Southend lines, communicating through the Blackwall extension.-The Shoreditch or Bishopsgate station was built in 1844 as the terminus of the Eastern Counties railway; became also the terminus of a short line to North Woolwich, and of the numerous amalgamated lines and connexions of the Great Eastern; and will become a subordinate station on completion of works of the Great Eastern within the metropolis, authorized in 186 4 and 1865. These works include a new terminal station, and several short lines, on a capital of £1,559,000, with borrowing powers to the amount of £519,660. The new terminus is on the N side of Liverpool-street, Finsbury, immediately E of a new terminns of the North London line; and the space cleared for the two termini, before the close of 1864, was of great extent. A new line goes from the new terminus, for nearly ½ a mile, through back streets, across Bishopsgate-streetWithout, by White Lion-street and Commercial-street; proceeds thence, along the S side of the old main line to a point near the Bethnal-Green-road; quits there the main line; proceeds parallel with, and on the W side of, the Cambridge-road, to Hackney; is united there, by two short branches, with the North London line; proceeds northward, through Dalston; sends off there a branch north-eastward, across Hackney-downs and Upper Clapton, to the Leyton marshes; goes onward, across Newington-common and Stamford-hill; is united there, by three short loops, with the old Eastern Counties line, and with the Tottenham and Hampstead Junction; proceeds, through Tottenham, to Edmonton; and there joins the Enfield branch of the Great Eastern. The new terminus of the North London line was opened, though not completed, in Nov. 1 865; and serves also as a terminus for part of the traffic of the London and Northwestern. lt is a spacious brick structure, in the Italian style, with a central clock tower; presents a somewhat novel, yet pleasing and appropriate exterior; is interiorly light and commodious; and has the offices and platforms of the North London on one side, and those of the London and Northwestern on the other. New works, in connexion with it, were authorized in 1861,1864, and 1867; and the chief of these, designed to save the long journey by Hackney, Bow, and Stepney, is a direct line from Kingsland to Liverpool-street. This line crosses Kingslandroad, to the S of the old station; proceeds E of that road, nearly to Shoreditch; crosses again the main road; and proceeds, W of Shoreditch, Norton-Holgate, and Bishopsgate-street, to Liverpool-street. It interferes, in a remarkable degree, with the levels of the streets E of Kingsland-road; occasioned the demolition of about 900 houses; and has some bridges, particularly a skew bridge near Shoreditch church, of notable engineering character. -The North London, Higligate, and Alexandra Park railway, authorized in 1865, and 4½ miles long, leaves the North London line by the new cattle market; goes north-westward, through a corner of Camden-Town, and E of the church in Camden-square; proceeds at the back of Kentish-Town, across the Junction-road, and under Highgate-hill; and joins the Edgware and Highgate line at the foot of Mount Pleasant; but in consequence of the doubtful prospects of Alexandra Park, was not begun to be constructed at the beginning of 1868.

The Kings-Cross station was erected in 1850, as the terminus of the Great Northern railway, with accom modation also for the Midland railway traffic; is noted for a platform of 800 feet, for height of structure, and for roofs 105 feet in span without ties. A very spacious goods depôt connected with it, is situated to the NW, adjacent to Agar-Town; a tunnel occurs to the N of the passenger station, immediately E of the goods depôt; and new works, for facilitation of the traffic, were contemplated in 1865, adjacent to the new cattle market.-A terminal station for the extension of the Midland railway from Bedford to London occasioned vast preparatory demolitions in 1863-5. A large part of Agar-Town, including a newly erected church, was taken down by these demolitions; and most of the remainder of that place was destined to be removed by the new northward works of the Great Northern terminus. The Midland extension was authorized in 1863, on a capital of £1, 750,000, with borrowing powers for £583, 330; it was completed in 1868; and it approaches London through Hampstead, crosses Kentish-Town by the Junction-road, and traverses Camden-Town, Agar-Town, and Somers-Town. The terminus extends 340 feet along the Euston-road, from a line immediately W of the Great Northern terminus; is covered with an iron-girder roof 2 40 feet in span and 150 feet high; has vast underground arrangements, inclusive of connexions with the Metropolitan railway; and was not completed in 1869; but promised then to be the most magnificent railway terminns in the metropolis. The goods station is at Agar-Town; and has one warehouse upwards of two acres in area, and other warehouses and sheds of colossal size.-The Eustonsquare station was erected in 1838, as the terminus of the London and Birmingham railway; became the ter minus of the very numerous amalgamations and connexions of the London and Northwestern; and has a splendid Doric entrance, and a great hall, 125 feet long, with a statue of George Stephenson at the upper end.-The Northwestern and Charing-cross scheme, to construct a railway from the Hampstead-road to the Charing-cross bridge, with a branch to the London and Northwestern, and to form several new streets between Tottenham-court road and the Strand, was authorised in 1864 and abandoned in 1867; but was likely, in some respects, to be taken up by other parties. The line is underground; deflects from the Northwestern at Oakley-square; goes southward along the E side of Hampstead-road and Tottenham-court-road; proceeds through the Seven Dials, and along the line of Upper St. Martin's-lane; crosses King William-street; and descends, on a steep incline, under the Strand opposite the Lowther arcade, to the N abutment of the Charing-cross bridge. The principal surface change arising from this work is a very fine new street from the Strand, E of St. Martin's church, along St. Martin's-lane, through Seven Dials and W of St. Giles' church, to Oxford-street, opposite Tottenhamcourt-road.-The Great Western railway's terminus in Praed-street, Paddington, was erected in 1841; is a fine and very extensive structure; has four platforms, 700 feet long and 240 feet wide, with ten lines of rail coming to them; is covered with three admirably constructed iron roofs, the central one 90 feet in span, the side ones each 70 feet; and has attached to it a magnificent hotel.

The Victoria-road station, Pimlico, was erected in 1860, in terms of an act of 1858, for a line 1¼ mile long, with bridge over the Thames, to connect with the West End and Crystal palace at Battersea; became the station for the London, Chatham, and Dover railway, and for the Brighton and other lines and branches to the S of the Thames; became also a station of the Metropolitan railway, and a nexus of general railway communication round the metropolis; was found in 1865 to be so insufficiently commodious for the vast increase of traffic, that means were then devised, and new works constructed, to relieve the pressure on it; and has, in connexion with it, the remarkably large and splendid hotel noticed in our section on Structure.-The London, Chatham, and Dover company were authorized in 1860 to make three extensions in connexion with the metropolis; the first a railway 4 miles and 21 chains in length, from a junction at Beckenham with the Farnborough line to Herne-hill; the second a railway 4 miles and 32 chains in length, from Herne-hill, across the river Thames, at Blackfriars, to the E side of Faringdon-street, together with two short junctions into the Metropolitan near Victoria-street, and at Smithfield; the third a railway 2 miles and 65 chains in length, in prolongation of the first from Herne-hill to a junction with the Victoria station short line to Battersea, together with a short junction into the Southwestern at Battersea, and a short junction into the preceding line in Lambeth. The Company were authorized also, by several acts in 1861-6, to make alterations on these works, and important additions to them; including a junction of 1½ mile at Battersea, an extension from Peckham to Greenwich, and a new branch, from near Wandsworth station across the Thames, to the Victoria station. The works went vigorously forward till 1866; but they then received a shock from a rupture in the financial condition of the company. The portions of them through Southwark, past the Elephant and Castle, to the bridge across the Thames, are on a massive scale. A station, erected at the S end of the bridge, is a somewhat handsome structure of moulded bricks, capacious, lofty, and well arranged. The bridge across the Thames stands close to the new Blackfriars bridge; is 1,040 feet long between the abutments, and 55 feet wide; comprises a central span of 202½ feet, two end spans of each 176¾ feet, and two intermediate spans of each 192¼ feet; has a level of 32 ½ feet above high-water mark; consists, as to its frame-work, of three series of main lattice girders, at the sides and along the centre, each 15 feet high; and is borne on quadruple groups of huge cast-iron columns, resting on solid stone piers, which descend to a depth of 30 feet below the river's bed. This bridge and the new Blackfriars one closely resemble each other; have the same number of arches; are by the same engineer; and, however well suited to their uses in strength and stability, are certainly far from being ornamental. The line goes boldly from the bridge into the City, and is carried over Ludgate-hill by a viaduct. That viaduct has utterly spoiled one of the finest street-views in the metropolis; and is one of the most unsightly objects ever constructed, in any such situation, anywhere in the world. A great deal of surface ornamentation has been put on it, by way of mitigating the eye-sore; but even had the ornamentation been greater and better than it is, it would, on such an object, in such a place, have been little else than mockery. Better mitigations are that a light trellised foot-bridge is constructed on each side, to afford a safe means of crossing Ludgate-hill at the spot; and that operations have been done increasing the width of Ludgate-hill to 60 feet from the Old Bailey to Bridge-streetA station stands immediately beyond the viaduct; presents a principal front, of great length, toward Bridgestreet, but situated about 30 feet from it; and, in general character, resembles the Blackfriars' station, but is more ornamental. The goods station is on the site of the old Fleet prison. The junction-line with the Metropolitan, together with the formation of the connecting points, was completed in the early part of 1866. A junction with the Great Northern also was then in progress; and this is so deeply subterranean that the roof of its tunnel passes 15 feet below the floor of the underground Metropolitan. The aggregate disfigurement of the metropolis by the London, Chatham, and Dover railway, particularly by its viaducts and its bridges, is very great.

Waterloo station, on the S side of the river, near Waterloo bridge, was erected in 1 844, as the terminus of the London and Southampton railway; became the station for the numerous amalgamations and connexions of the London and Southwestern; and is a plain structure, but spacious and convenient. Two short lines bringing traffic to it. and affecting the outskirts of the metropolis, were completed in 186 8; the one a short additional line between Battersea and Clapham j unction; the other a line from Wimbledon, splitting into two curves round Merton, and going into junction with the South London, Tooting, and Sutton, and with the London, Brighton, and South Coast.-The Kensington, Hammersmith, and Richmond branch of the London and Southwestern also was completed in 1868; starts from the Kensington station of the West London; goes westward across Shepherds'-bush-lane; curves then to the south; crosses the Hammersmith and City line near Broadway, in Hammersmith, and proceeds first westward and then southward to Richmond.-The Hammersmith and City line goes from the Great Western, at Green Lane-bridge to Hammersmith, with a branch to Kensington; is 3 miles and 25 chains in length; and was opened over most of that length, in July 1864.-The London-bridge station at the S end of London-bridge, was erected in 1841; serves for the Southeastern, the Brighton and South Coast, the Greenwich, the North Kent, the Mid Kent, the Crystal Palace, the Charing-cross, and the London, Chatham, and Dover lines; forms a plain and irregular mass of building, on a great extent of space; and is remarkable chiefly for the enormous bustle attendant on its traffic. A line from it, with a bridge over the Thames, into the City and on to Cannon-street, was authorised in 1 861; and waS completed in Sept. 1866, with the effect of much demolition. The bridge crosses the Thames, midway between London and Southwark bridges, has two end spans each 135 feet, and three intermediate spans each 167 feet; rests its platform, at a height of 25 feet above high-water mark, on sixteen huge iron piers, or cylinders, and brick abutments; has the piers in rows of four, behind one another, so as to offer the least possible obstruction to the current; and was opened in 1866. Both it and the terminus, though greatly convenient, have injured the scenery of the Thames; and a huge and hideous roof on the latter has destroyed the fine city ward view from London bridge. The terminus presents a grand front to Cannon-street, consisting chiefly of the spacious hotel already noticed; and, together with its connected works, occupies a very extensive space. All the Old Steel-yard, which figures much in the early history of London, is taken up by it; and a broad line of brick arches goes thence to Cannon-street.-The Charing-cross line, from the London-bridge station to Charing-cross, is worked by the Southeastern company; and the portion of it from London-bridge station to the vicinity of the bridge across the Thames, is identical with the line into the City at Cannon-street. A huge iron bridge goes over the road way from the station; an enormous iron tube, long, high, and most ungainly, goes across Wellington-street, with severe injury to its formerly fine views; a struggling course follows, past the church of St. MaryOvery, across the Borough market, and through dense back-streets; another ungainly tube crosses the fine new street from Blackfriars into Southwark, utterly spoiling its handsome aspect; two more unsightly tubes cross Blackfriars' road, at awkward angles to each other and to the lines of houses; and another intersecting strugglethrough dense back streets goes onward to the site of the quondam beautiful Hungerford suspension bridge. A bridge, on that removed bridge's site, takes the railway across the Thames; presents a general resemblance to the two other railway bridges, already noticed; has, on each side, a pathway 7 feet wide for foot-passengers,.with ornamental balustrade; and opens, at the N end, immediately into the station. The station occupies all the quondam Hungerford market; extends from Cravenstreet to Villiers-street; has, in its locomotive part, a lofty, glazed, semi-circular, iron roof, of about 170 feet in span; and presents its superb hotel front to Villiersstreet and the Strand.

The Metropolitan railway, popularly called the Underground railway, was authorized in 1853, for a line of about 4 miles from the Great Western hotel at Paddington, along the New Road, to Faringdon-street; acquired powers of varions kinds, particularly for extensions, in subsequent years; was authorized especially, in 1861, for extension to Finsbury-circus, and in 1864, for one ex. tension to Notting-hill, Kensington, and Brompton, and for another extension from Finsbury-circus to Towerhill; and had expended on its works, at 31 Dec. 1866£4,668,760. The portion of it from Paddington to Faringdon-street was formed under many difficulties, and amid some disasters; occasioned, even in its subterranean progress, especially about Clerkenwell, much damage to houses; produced, in its open cuttings, ungainly gaps through streets and terraces; aggravated the disfigurements by having stations of tasteless character; and was opened for traffic on 10 Jan. 1863. That portion of the line gave communication with the Great Western at Paddington, and with the Great Northern at King's-cross, and was constructed to give communication also with the Midland; and the subsequent portions contemplated communication at varions points, or through intermediate links, with all the other lines entering or traversing the metropolis. The extension to Finsbury-circus passes through Smithfield, and communicates with the Metropolitan meat and poultry market; and, though executed under heavy difficulties, has not produced any such disfigurement to the streets as has resulted from the surface lines. The Finsbury-circus region, from the invasion of both the Metropolitan and the Great Eastern, undergoes a great revolution, passing from a state of quietude and religiousness, with the London Institution, the Missionary offices and museum, the famous Dissenting Tabernacle, the Congregational Ministerial library, and the Roman Catholic church and schools around it, into a state of the utmost secular noisiness and bustle. The Metropolitan station there is double; one section being reserved exclusively for the Metropolitan's own traffic; the other section devoted to the traffic of the Great Western, the Great Northern, the Midland, the London, Chatham, and Dover, and the other connected lines. The extension to Notting-hill, Kensington, and Brompton, was completed in 1868; goes across Leinster-gardens to Pembridge-square; turns there to the south; crosses the foot of Notting-hill; passes along Church-lane; crosses the Kensington-road to the Kensington Workhouse; passes there into the Metropolitan District railway; and is connected thence, by short branches, with the West London Junction, and, through that, with the Southern, Western, and Northern lines generally. The extension from Finsbury-circus to Towerhill, authorized in 1864, is about a mile in length, and was to be constructed on a capital of £700,000 in shares and £233,000 on loan. A considerable portion of the original line, between King's-cross and Faringdon-road, underwent widening in 1865-6, by the construction of a new tunnel alongside the old one; and, at the same time, a Very ample arrangement of tunnels, old and new, was being made at King's-cross. The number of passengers during the second half year of 1863, on the portion of the Metropolitan then opened, was 4,631,738; and the number during the first half year of 1867 was 11,488,358.

-The Metropolitan and St. John's-Wood railway was authorized partly in 1864, partly in 1865; starts from the Metropolitan station at Baker-street; goes along Parkroad, Wellington-road, and the E side of the Finchleyroad, to the Finchley-road station of the Hampstead Junction railway; and was completed in 1868. The Metropolitan District railway was authorized in 1864, for a series of lines, aggregately 8 miles long, on a capital of £3,600,000 in shares and £1,200,000 on loan, to complete an inner circle of railway N of the Thames, extending from Brompton, by Westminster bridge and the N bank of the Thames, to Fenchurch-street, with branches to Kensington. The line starts from the Metropolitan at Kensington workhouse; passes through South Kensington and Old Brompton, not far S of the site of the International Exhibition and the Kensington museum; goes thence south-eastward, through Chelsea, to the Victoria station in Pimlico; proceeds along the centre of Victoria-street, and by Tothill-street, to the foot of Westminster bridge; goes thence along the Thames embankment to Blackfriars bridge; has an exchange station, at Charing-cross bridge, with the Charing-cross and the Northwestern and Charing-cross lines; proceeds from Blackfriars bridge under the London, Chatham, and Dover line; goes thence eastward, for a short distance, along the new street from Blackfriars to the Mansion House; proceeds along Knightrider-street to the City terminus of the Southeastern line in Cannon-street; proceeds thence across King-William-street, by King William's monument; runs parallel to Eastcheap and Tower-street; goes by a curve to Trinity-square, Towerhill; bends round thence by the Minories; receives, soon afterwards, a short junction branch from the Blackwall line; crosses Aldgate High-street; turns then to the west; traverses the back streets E of Houndsditch; crosses Bishopsgate-street; passes along Liverpool-street, contiguous to the new termini of the Great Eastern and the North London lines; runs through the centre of Finsbury-circus; terminates in a junction with the Metropolitan at Little Moorfields; and thence to its starting-point has running powers on the Metropolitan. It does not run into any of the termini or main stations which it passes, but has only exchange stations contignous to them; and it is designed to be worked by trains running continuously round its circle, and stopping only to take up and set down passengers at the exchange stations. It is nearly all an underground work; and it therefore occasions a comparatively small demolition of houses; yet it shakes the surface over long and crowded reaches, occasioning great hindrance to street traffic during the process of its formation; and it also causes destruction of many of the sewers in its route, and an alteration, more or less, in the whole. The portion of it westward of Westminster bridge was nearly completed at the end of 1868; but the portion eastward of W. bridge was then very little advanced. - The East-London railway was authorized in 1865, for a line 8½ miles long, on a capital of £1,400,000 in shares and £466,600 on mortgage; and, by means of the Thames tunnel, to connect the railways, on the N and the S of the Thames, and to afford ready communication for traffic between the opposite sides of the river "below bridge. ' The line commences at a terminus in Liverpool-street, Finsbury, underneath the Great Eastern terminus, -the level of its rails there being 16 feet below the street, while that of the Great Eastern is 18 feet above it; and, both in the vicinity of the terminus, and in the neighbourhoods of the Thames tunnel, the line is subterranean. It goes under the line of the Great Eastern to the station at Shoreditch; curves thence round to a central station on the N of Whitechapel-road; is joined there by a branch leaving the New Tottenham and Enfield line of the Great Eastern at the Cambridge-road; goes from the Whitechapel-road station to the E of the London hospital, and under the Commercial-road, southward to the Thames tunnel; passes under the London Dock company's east dock, in approaching the tunnel; gives accommodation to the docks on the S side, on emerging from the tunnel; passes, by the Grand Junction dock, through Rotherhithe; and goes onward to junctions with the Brighton, the South London, the Southeastern and the North Kent railways, near New Cross.-The Blackwall and Isle of Dogs extension, 5¼ miles long, was authorized in 1865; goes from the Poplar goods station of the Blackwall railway; crosses the eastern entrance and the south and timber basins of the West India docks; and has curved branches, E and W, in the Isle of Dogs.-The Waterloo and Whitehall railway was authorized in 1865, on a capital of £100,000 in shares and £33,000 on loan, for a line ¾ of a mile in length, on the pneumatic principle, from Scotland-yard, Charing-cross, to a station in Vine-street, N of the Southwestern's Waterloo terminus. The line consists chiefly of a tube, capacious enough to admit the transit of a full-sized omnibus carriage; traverses the bed of the Thames a little above the Charingcross railway bridge; and is to be worked by atmospheric pressure.

An estimate was made by the Railway News, about midsummer 1865, that the railway works then in progress, or soon to be commenced, in and around London, on a moderate computation, comprised an aggregate length of 120 miles, and involved a cost of £30,000,000. Numerous new schemes, too, were started or matured before the close of the same year; and the extent to which five of these affected only Marylebone may be mentioned to exemplify once more, and very strikingly, the interference of the railway works with the street property. The Metropolitan railway desired additional powers, which would sweep away property by the mass along the Marylebone road; the Metropolitan and St. John's-wood railway, to extend its previous limits of deViation, with the effect of entirely removing Park-place, Blandford-place, and Taunton-place, and of taking all property in or fronting the Park-road; the Kilburn railway, to run a line from Baker-street by the side of the St. John's-wood line to St. John's-wood-road, with the effect of taking all the property on the W side of Upper Baker-street to Allsop-place, together with other property;-the Metropolitan railway, to make two collecting lines for its station, with the effect of taking a vast amount of property on the East side of Baker-street, on the E side of Orchard-street, and between Portland-road and Balsover-street; the Mid London, to form a line, with sweeping effect upon property, interfering with the carriage-way of Oxford-street, from Edgware-road to Hereford-street, and then going southeastward into the parish of St. George-Hanover-square.

St. Paul's Cathedral.—The original St-Paul's cathedral, on the same site as the present, was built in 604, by Ethelbert, uncle of King Sebert; and was burnt to the ground in 1087. A second cathedral, on the same site, was founded in 1087, by Bishop Maurice; was repaired in 1135, by Bishop Niger, after having been greatly damaged by fire; was not completed till 1 315; was partially restored, in the time of Charles I., by Inigo Jones; and was completely destroyed by the great fire lt consisted of nave, transept, choir, presbytery, lady chapel, two western towers, and a central tower; and had, connected with it, a double cloister and a chapter-house. The choir was completed in 1252, and was 188 feet long. The transept was completed in 1256, and was 130 feet long. The nave was completed in 1283, and was 102 feet high. The central tower was built in 1221, and was 260 feet high; and a spire was raised upon it in 1315, was 274 feet high, perished by fire in 1561, and was not rebuilt. The entire pile was 629 feet long; and, prior to the partial restoration of it by Inigo Jones, was all in the English pointed style. Jones' restoration consisted chiefly of a portico or W front, 200 feet in frontage, 50 feet in depth, and 40 feet in height, set between two western towers; and was in the Palladian style, utterly incongruous with the rest of the edifice. The choir had a splendid E marigold window. The nave, the transept, the choir, the presbytery, and the Lady chapel were all aisled, and had a uniform height of vaulting. St. Gregory's church was on the SW side of the nave; chantries occupied the E aisle of the transept; and St. Faith's church was the undercroft. The central tower had lofty triplets of lancets and eight unique flying buttresses, two at each angle. The cloister comprised two open alleys, the one below, the other above; and the chapterhouse stood in the centre, and was a very fine structure. A library was in the crypt of St. Faith's; contained books to the value of £150,000; and was utterly destroyed in the great fire. Some monuments in the crypt were preserved; particularly a bust of Dean Colet, founder of St. Paul's school, an effigies of Sir Nicholas Bacon, father of Lord Bacon, and monuments of Dr. Donne and Sir Christopher Hatton. Other monuments in the cathedral were destroyed; particularly those of Kings Seba and Ethelred, Lacy Earl of Lincoln, John of Gaunt, the Duchess of Bedford, Dean Nowell, Sir Philip Sidney, Sir Francis Walsingham, and the physician Linacre.

King John of France made an offering in the cathedral, at the shrine of St. Erkenwald. Henry III. gave to it 1,500 tapers, and dispensed food to 15,000 poor persons in its garth. Richard III. instructed Dr. Barnes, while ministering in it, to hail him as king at his entering it. Baldock, in 1299, cursed in it all persons who had searched for hidden treasure in St. Martins-le-Grand. A mob, in 1326, dragged Walter de Stapledon, bishop of Exeter, from its altar, to undergo death at Cheapside-cross. Jane Shore did penance in it. Wycliffe was tried in it for his doctrines. Dean Colet's boy bishop ministered in it. A choir of singers, on great festivals, in the time of Mary, sang anthems after vespers far aloft in its spire. Bankes and his famous horse mounted to the top of it in 1600. Some secular use of its aisles, especially as a thoroughfare, was made so early as 1400; and this became so great in the time of Mary that an order was then issued prohibiting hucksters, porters, and cattle from passing through. Further secular uses, of even an offensive or a scandalous kind, were afterwards made of its doors, its approaches, and its precincts. The first lottery known in England was drawn, in 1569, at its W door; advertisements of all sorts were posted on what was called its Si Quis door; loungers, money-changers, serving-men waiting to be hired, lawyers meeting with clients, ballad-mongers, quacks, rufflers, stale knights, captains out of service, and masked women thronged its precincts; usurers, simoners, and horse-dealers frequented its alleys; strikers of bargains made their payments of money to one another at its font. Protector Somerset took down its cloisters and its chapter-house, as a quarry for his palace in the Strand; the parliamentarians, in the civil war, made it a magazine of arms; and the authorities, in the great plagueyear, converted it into a pest-house, with about 300 pallets on its floors. Poets had sung its beauties; monarchs had gone to it in solemn procession; a long array of ministers of religions had held it sacred; and, after so much conversion of it to secular uses, some persons were not slow to think that the fiery desolation which eventually came down upon it was both a judgment and a purgation. Hence the lines,-

Nor could thy fabric, Paul's ! defend thee long,
Though thou wert sacred to thy Maker's praise,
Though made immortal by a poet's song,
And poets' songs the Theban walls could raise.
The daring flames peeped in and saw from afar
The awful beauties of the sacred choir;
But since it was profaned by civil war,
Heaven thought it fit to have it purged by fire.

The present cathedral was built in 1675-1710, at a cost of £736,752, equal to £1,222,437 of the present time; and was completed under one architect, Sir Christopher Wren, by one master-mason, Thomas Strong, and during the episcopate of one bishop, Dr. Henry Compton. It consists of Portland stone, of a quality much inferior to that now in common use; is all in the renaissance style, Corinthian and Composite; and comprises a magnificent W front, of portico and two towers, a W transept, a nave of five bays, a main transept of one bay in each wing, with semi-circular portico at each end, a central dome, and a choir of four bays with aisles, and with a terminal apse. The W front is 180 feet wide; the W towers are 220 feet high; the nave is 212 feet long, 102 feet wide, and 100 feet high; the main transept is 223 feetlong, 126 wide, and 100 feet high; the dome, with its supporting piers, covers upwards of ½ an acre, and is 365 feet high; the choir is 147 feet long and 100 feet high; and the entire pile is 84,025 square feet in area, and 462 feet long. The W front is approached by a double flight of steps of black Manx marble; and has a range of twelve coupled columns below, a range of eight above, and a pediment 64 feet by 17. Sculptures of St. Paul's acts are over the doors; sculptures of his conversion fill the tympanum; statues of St. Peter and St. James surmount the sides of the pediment; a statue of St. Paul surmounts the summit; and statues of the four evangelists are at the angles of the towers. The SW tower has a geometrical staircase of 110 steps; and contains the great bell, 10 feet in diameter, 4½ tons in weight, and tolled only at the death of a member of the royal family, the bishop of London, the dean of the cathedral, or the Lord mayor. The interior has no triforinm; and, as compared with that of most cathedrals, looks vacant and bald. Great efforts were made about 1865, to raise funds for profusely decorating it; but they have not as yet produced any very marked result. Mosaics have been executed by Dr. Salviati; and one of them, representing Isaiah writing his prophecies, was set up in 1864,-has a ground of bright gold,-and is thought to exhibit the prophet in too strained an attitude. An old work is a great circle of light and dark marble, arranged like the mariner's compass, in the centre of the space under the dome. Other old works, done by Sir James Thornhill, and restored in 1854, are eight pictures of the acts of St. Pau1, in the interior of the dome. Strangely inappropriate objects-flags captured in war by the Duke of York, Howe, Nelson, Duncan, and Keith,-were formerly hung round the dome, but were removed to Chelsea hospital. Von Raumer describes the cathedral as ' ' destitute of all internal variety, decoration, splendour of colour, a vast white solitude; ''and Addison made his Indian princes imagine that it was hewn out of a hill of stone. The NW transept contains the morning chapel, with screens and wood work; and the SW transept contains the consistory court, and above it the library. The choir contains fifteen stalls, the lord mayor's seat and the bishop's throne, with beautiful carvings of fruit and foliage by G. Gibbons. The organ stands on a Corinthian screen; was built in 1694, by B. Schmidt, at a cost of £2,000; was repaired in 1802; and was recently rebuilt, at a cost of £2,000, by Mr. Hill. The pulpit was designed by Mylne, carved by Wyatt, and set up in 1802. The dome rests on eight vast arches, with key stones carved by Gibbons; rises, in a cyclostyle of thirty-two pilasters, to what is called the whispering gallery; forms there an attic; ascends thence in an immense vault; and is crowned by successively a lantern, a ball, and a cross. The vault of the dome is inner-inner and outer. The inner vault consists of brick work, two bricks thick, with stone-bandings at every rise of five feet. The outer vault is of oak, covered with lead, and has a superficies of 16,087 square feet. The lantern rests on a concealed brick cone, constructed between the two vaults, and secured at the base by a wrought-iron chain of 95 cwt., cemented with lead into a course of Portland stone; and it weighs 700 tons. The present ball and cross were put up in 1824; and the former is 6 feet 2 inches in diameter, and weighs upwards of 5,000 lbs.; while the latter is 15 feet high, and weighs 3,360 lbs. There are three exterior galleries; first the stone gallery, next the outer golden gallery, next the inner golden gallery; and the last, on a clear morning, commands a map-like view of all the metropolis, with a panoramic view to Epping forest, Highgate, Hampstead, and Richmond, and the hills of Reigate and Wrotham. The ascent to the whispering gallery is by 260 steps; to the outer golden gallery, by 560 steps; to the ball, by 616 steps.

A crypt extends under all the cathedral; is the same crypt which existed under the former cathedral; retains the few ancient monuments which escaped destruction by the great fire; and contains the ashes of many distinguished persons both ancient and modern, together with some modern tombs and monuments. Here were buried Bishop B. Walton of Chester, Bishop T. Newton of Bristol, Bishop F. White of Ely, Sir Christopher Wren, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Dr. Boyce, Lord Nelson, Lord Collingwood, James Barry, John Opie, Sir Thomas Picton, the Earl of Rosslyn, Lord Northesk, H. Fuseli, R. Mylne, Benjamin West, J. Rennie, Sir Thomas Lawrence, J. M. W. Turner, and the Duke of Wellington. Lord Nelson's remains are in a coffin made out of the main mast of the ' ' l'Orient, "and enclosed in a marble sarcophagus made for Cardinal Wolsey; and those of Lord Wellington are in a mausoleum hewn out of a solid mass of chocolate-coloured Luxulyan porphyry, which weighed 70 tons. Here also, on the right side of the entrance to the Nelson and Wellington tombs, are bust and tablet memorial of Col. Sir D. M'Dougall, put up in 1865. The monuments in the cathedral itself are very numerous; and not a few of them are utterly unworthy of their position. The chief, together with the cost and the artist where these are known, are to the following persons, - John Howard, the first monument erected here, £1,365, by Bacon; Dr. Johnson, £1,575, by Bacon; Sir William Jones, by Bacon: Sir Joshua Reynolds, by Flaxman; Bishop Heber, by Chantrey; Capt. Westcott, £4,200, by Banks; Gen. Mackinnon, £1,200, by Bacon; Lord St. Vincent, £2,100, by Baily; Admiral Sir P. Malcolm, by Baily; Gen. Bowes, £1,575, by Chantrey; Gen. Le Marchant, £1,575, byRossi: Gen. Ross, £1,575, by Kendrick; Col. Hon. H. Cadogan, £1,575, by Chantrey; Lord Rodney, £6,300, byRossi; Gen. Mackenzie and Langworth, £2,100 by Manning; Lord Duncan, £2,100, by Westmacott; Capt. Mosse, £4,200, byRossi; Col. Sir W. Myers, £1,575, by Kendrick; Gen. Hoghton, £1,575, by Chantrey; Gen. Dundas, £3,150, by Bacon; Gen. Hay, £1,575; by Hopper; Gen. Gore and Skerrett, £2,800, by Chantrey; Sir W. Ponsonby, £3,150, by Baily; Sir T. Picton, £3,150, by Gahagan; Lord Heathfield, £2,100, by Rossi; Lord Howe, £6,300, by Flaxman; Capt. Faulkner, by Rossi; Capt. Miller, by Flaxman; Lord Collingwood, £4,200, by Westmacott; Gen. Sir E. Pakenham; Capt. G. N. Hardinge, by Manning; Gen. Sir J. Brock, by Westmacott; Gen. Gillespie, £1,575, by Chantrey; Sir John Moore, £4,200, by Bacon; Sir Ralph Abercrombie, £6,300, by Westmacott; Gen. S. Gibbs, £2,100, by Westmacott; Capt. Sir W. Hoste, by Campbell; Sir Astley Cooper, by Baily: Capt. Burgess, £5,210, by Banks; Dr. Babington, by Behnes; Marquis Cornwallis, £6,300, by Rossi; Capt. J. Cooke, £1,575, by Westmacott; Capt. Duff, £1,575, by Bacon; Lord Nelson, £6,300, by Flaxman; Gen. Sir T. Jones, by Behnes; Bishop Middleton, by Lough; Capt. M. Lyons, by Noble; the Coldstream Guards, by Marochetti; Gen. Sir W. Napier, by Adams: Lord Lyons, by Noble; Sir Henry Lawrence, by Lough; the historian Hallam, by Theed; the painter Turner, by Macdowell.

Wren's first plan for St. Paul's-a plan which he very reluctantly modified under pressure of authority-is preserved in the model room in the N gallery. The chap ter-house is in the N side of the yard. The yard was formerly open, but is now enclosed by an iron balus trade, 5½ feet high, cast at Lamberhurst in Sussex, designed by M. Tyrone, and set up at the cost of £11,202. Both the yard itself and an irregular circle of houses around it have changed their character since the Reformation, and especially since the great fire. The entire area, inclusive of the encircling houses, bears the name of St. Paul's churchyard; and the side of it towards the Thames is commonly called "the bow,''-the side toward Paternoster-row, "the string. ''No comprehensive or good view of the cathedral, in consequence of the close juxtaposition of the houses and streets, can be obtained in the neighbourhood; but a good view of the dome is got from the corner of Cheapside, the steps of the postoffice, or the upper end of Victoria-street; and a view of it, like a hemispherical hill, soaring above the vast outspread mass of the City, is got through several street vistas, and from many a suburban vantage-ground. An anniversary service is held in the cathedral on the first Thursday in June, when all the charity children of the metropolis are collected in it, and unite their voices in the psalmody; and this has been pronounced, by many persons, one of the most imposing spectacles in the world. Trumpets and drums, as well as the organ, are then in requisition; and Haydn is recorded to have said that he never felt the influence of music so powerful in any other combination.

Parishes.—The parishes in the metropolis, as that is defined by the registrar-general, exclusive of the City, are Paddington, Kensington, Hammersmith, Fulham, Chelsea, St. George-Hanover-square, St. John-the-Evangelist-Westminster, St. Margaret-Westminster, St. Peter-Westminster, St. Martin-in-the-Fields, St. James Westminster, St. Marylebone, Hampstead, St. Pancras, Islington, StokeNewington, Hackney, St. George-Bloomsbury, St. Gilesin-the-Fields, St. Anne-Soho, St. Paul-Covent-garden, St. Mary-le-Strand, St. Clement-Daues, St. Andrew-Holborn-above-the-Bars, Clerkenwell, St. Luke, Shoreditch, Bethnal-green, Spitalfields, Whitechapel, Minories, St. George-in-the-East, Stepney, Limehouse, Bow, BromleySt.Leonard, Poplar, Christchurch-Southwark, St.SaviourSouthwark, St. Olave-Southwark, St. Thomas-Southwark, St. John-Horsleydown, Bermondsey, St. Georgethe-Martyr, Newington, Lambeth, Clapham, Wandsworth, Putney, Lower Tooting, Streatham, Camberwell, Rotherhithe, St. Paul-Deptford, St. Nicholas-Deptford, Greenwich, Woolwich, Charlton-next-Woolwich, Plumstead, Eltham, Lee, Lewisham, part of St. Sepulchre, and all Battersea except Penge hamlet. There are likewise numerous liberties, extra-parochial places, and precincts, which do not rank fully as civil parishes, but lie within ecclesiastical jurisdictions. The larger parishes also are cut, some of them multitudinously, into ecclesiastical sections. All these parishes, with their civil and their ecclesiastical statistics, and with notes of their ecclesiastical subdivisions, are separately noticed in articles of their own. And as many of both the ecclesiastical subdivisions and the extra-parochial places as admit of description apart from the localities associated with them, also are separately noticed.

The parishes in the City within the walls, together with their respective pop. in 1861, are St. Alban, Woodstreet, 276; Allhallows, Barking, 1,679; Allhallows, Bread-street, 95; Allhallows-the-Great, 603; Allhallows, Honey-lane, 65; Allhallows-the-Less, 79; Allhallows, Lombard-street, 415; Allhallows, London-wall, 1,999; Allhallows, Staining, 358; St. Alphage, Sion-college, 699; St. Andrew, Hubbard, 205; St. Andrew, Undershaft, 1,071; St. Andrew-by-the-Wardrobe, 682; Sts. Ann and Agnes, Aldersgate, 362; St. Anne, Blackfriars, 2,615; St. Antholin, 263; St. Augustine, Watlingstreet, 110; St. Bartholomew-by-the-Royal Exchange, 236; St. Benet, Fink, 213; St. Benet, Gracechurchstreet, 278; St. Benet, Pauls-wharf, 537; St. Benet, Sherehog, 114; St. Botolph, Billingsgate, 222; Christchurch, Newgate-street, 1,975; St. Christopher-le-Stock, 23; St. Clement, Eastcheap, 198; St. Dionis, Backchurch, 534; St. Dunstan-in-the-East, 971; St. Edmundthe-King, 333; St. Ethelburga, 606; St. Faith-theVirgin, 761: St. Gabriel, Fenchurch-street, 178; St. George, Botolph-lane, 217; St. Gregory-by-St. Paul, 1,15 4; St. Helen, Bishopsgate, 558; St. James, Duke'splace, 851; St. James, Garlick-Hythe, 461; St. Johnthe-Baptist, Walbrook, 132; St. John-the-Evangelist, 27; St. John-Zachary, 132; St. Katherine-Coleman, 444; St. Katherine-Cree, 1,794; St. Lawrence, Jewry, 410; St. Lawrence, Pountney, 233; St. Leonard, Eastcheap, 111; St. Leonard, Foster-lane, 297; St. Magnus-theMartyr, 197; St. Margaret, Lothbury, 164; St. Margaret, Moses, 137; St. Margaret, New Fish-street, 317; St. Margaret, Pattens, 103; St. Martin, Ludgate, 1,080; St. Martin, Orgars, 296; St. Martin, Outwich, 165; St. Martin, Pomroy, 185; St. Martin, Vintry, 244; St. Mary, Abchurch, 264; St. Mary, Aldermanbury, 443; St. Mary, Aldermary, 232; St. Mary-le-Bow, 317; St. Mary, Bothaw, 161; St. Mary, Colechurch, 164; St. Mary-at-Hill, 738; St. Mary-Magdalen, Old Fish-street, 732; St. Mary-Magdalen, Milk-street, 125; St. Mary, Mounthaw, 474; St. Mary, Somerset, 271; St. Mary, Staining, 161; St. Mary, Woolchurch-Haw, 102; St. Mary, Woolnoth, 291; St. Matthew, Friday-street, 167; St. Michael, Bassishaw, 501; St. Michael, Cornhill, 371; St. Michael, Crooked-lane, 323; St. Michael-PaternosterRoyal, 169; St. Michael, Queenhithe, 548; St. Michaelle-Quern, 74; St. Michael, Wood-street, 214; St. Mildred, Bread-street, 86; St. Mildred, Poultry, 257; St. Nicholas, Acons, 168; St. Nicholas, Cole-Abbey, 230; St. Nicholas, Olave, 355; St. Olave-Hart-street-with-St. Nicholas-in-the-Shambles, 757; St. Olave, Old Jewry, 143; St. Olave, Silver-street, 527; St. Pancras, Soperlane, 76; St. Peter, Cornhill, 533; St. Peter-near-Paulswharf, 410; St. Peter-le-Poer, Broad-street, 540; St. Peter, Westcheap, 1 48; St. Stephen, Coleman-street, 3,324; St. Stephen, Walbrook, 300; St. Swithin, London Stone, 297; St. Thomas-the-Apostle, 112; Holy Trinity-the-Less, 553; and St. Vedast, Foster-lane, 278. The parishes, extra-parochial places, and precincts in the City without the walls, together with their respective pop. in 1861, are St. Andrew-Holborn-below-the-Bars, 6,337; Barnards-Inn, 69; St. Bartholomew-the-Great, 3,426; St. Bartholomew-the-Less, 849; St. Botolphwithout-Aldersgate, 4,744; St. Botolph-without-Aldgate, 9,421; St. Botolph-without-Bishopsgate, 11,569; StBride, 5,660; Bridewell precinct, 410; St. Dunstan-inthe-West, 2,511; St. Giles-without-Cripplegate, 13,498; Inner Temple, 148; Middle Temple, 81; Inn'-Inn, Fleet-street, 75; Thavies-Inn, 185; Whitefriars' precinct, 1,155; part of Furnival's-Inn, 50; and part of St. Sepulchre-without-Newgate, 7,475.

The livings within the City, together with the status, the value, and the patron of each, so far as reported, are St. Alban-Wood-street-with-St. Olave-Silver-street, a rectory, £333, * alternately the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's and Eton College; Allhallows, Barking, a vicarage, £956, the Archbishop of Canterbury; AllhallowsBread-street-with-St. John-the-Evangelist, a rectory, £264, alternately the Archbishop and the Dean and Chapter of Canterbury; Allhallows-the-Great-with-Allhallows-the-Less, a rectory, £458, the Archbishop of Canterbury; Allhallows, Lombard-street, a rectory, united in 1867 with the rectories of St. Benet-Gracechurch-street and St. Leonard-Eastcheap, £657, the Dean and Chapter of Canterbury; Allhallows, London-wall, a rectory, £477,* the Lord Chancellor; Allhallows, Staining, a vicarage, £624,* the Grocer's Company; St. Alphage. a rectory, £313, the Bishop of London; St. Andrew Holborn, a rectory, together with three vicarages and two other charges, all noticed in the article HOLBORN; St. Andrew-Undershaft-with-St. Mary-at-Axe, a rectory, £2,000,* the Bishop of London; St. Andrew-by-theWardrobe-with-St. Anne-Blackfriars, a rectory, £246,* alternately the Lord Chancellor and the Parishioners; StsAnne and Agnes-with-St. John-Zachary, a rectory, £270, alternately the Bishop of London and the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's; St. Antholin-with-St. John-theBaptist, a rectory, £222, alternately the Crown and the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's; St. Augustinewith-St. Faith, a rectory, £296, the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's; St. Bartholomew-the-Great, a rectory, £680, the Trustees of the late W. Phillips; St. Bartholomew-the-Less, a vicarage, £13,* the Governors of St. Bartholomew's Hospital; St. Benet-Pauls-wharf-withSt. Peter-near-Pauls-wharf, a rectory, £254, the Dean and Chapter of St. Pauls; St. Benet-Sherehog-with-St. Stephen-Walbrook, a rectory, £332,* alternately the Lord Chancellor and the Grocers' Company; St. BotolphBillingsgate-with-St. George-Botolph-lane, a rectory, £335, * alternately the Crown and the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's; St. Botolph-without-Aldersgate, a vicarage, £450 * the Dean and Chapter of Westminster; St. Botorph-without-Aldgate, a vicarage, £300, the Bishop of London; St. Botolph-without-Bishopsgate, a rectory, £1,650, * the Bishop of London; All Saints, an ecclesiastical section of St. Botolph-without-Bishopsgate, a vicarage, £550, the Bishop of London; St. Bride, a vicarage, £460, the Dean and Chapter of Westminster; Trinity-Gough-square, an ecclesiastical section of St. Bride, a p. curacy, £120, the Bishop of London; Christchurch-Newgate-street-with-St. Leonard-Foster-lane, a vicarage and a rectory, £476, alternately the Dean and Cheaper of Westminster and the Governors of St. Bartholomew's Hospital; St. Christopher-le-stock-with-St. MargaretLothbury-and-St. Bartholomew-by-the-Royal Exchange, a double rectory, £1,242, * alternately the Lord Chancellor and the Bishop of London; St. Clement-Eastcheap-with-St. Martin-Orgars, a rectory, £290, alternately the Bishop of London and the Dean and Chapter of St. Pauls; St. Dionis, Backchurch, a rectory, £439, * the Dean and Chapter of Canterbury; St. Dunstan-inthe-East, a rectory, £350, the Archbishop of Canterbury; St-Dunstan-in-the-West, a rectory, £490, * Simeon's Trustees; St. Edmund-the-King-with-St. Nicholas-Acons, a rectory, £306, * alternately the Crown and the Archbishop of Canterbury; St. Ethelburga, a rectory, £1,065, the Bishop of London; St. Gabriel-Fenchurch-street-withSt. Margaret-Pattens, a rectory, £214, * alternately the Lord Chancellor and the Corporation of London; St. Giles-without-Cripplegate, a vicarage, £1,580, * the Dean and Chapter of St. Pauls; St. Bartholomew-Little-Moorfields, an ecclesiastical section of St. Giles-withoutCripplegate, a p. curacy, £330, the Crown; St. Helen, Bishopsgate, a vicarage, £40, the Dean and Chapter of St. Pauls; St. James, Duke's-place, a donative rectory, £300, the Lord Mayor and Aldermen; St. James, Garlick-Hythe, a rectory, £310, the Bishop of London; St. Katharine-Coleman, a rectory, £550,* the Bishop of London; St. Katharine-Cree, £288, Magdalene College, Cambridge; St. Lawrence-Jewry-with-St. Mary Magdalene-Milk-street, a vicarage and a rectory, £300, alternately Balliol-College, Oxford, and the Dean and Chapter of St. Pauls; St. Magnus-the-Martyr-with-St. MargaretNew-Fish-street, and St. Michael-Crooked-lane, a triple rectory, £689, * alternately the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of London; St. Martin, Ludgate, a rectory, £266, the Bishop of London; St. Martin, Outwich, a rectory, £585, * the Merchant Tailors' Company; St. Mary-Abchurch-with-St. Lawrence-Pountney, a rectory and a p. curacy, £206, Corpus Christi College, Cambridge; St. Mary, Aldermanbury, a vicarage, £255, the Parishioners; St. Mary-Aldermary-with-St. Thomas-the Apostle, a rectory, £435,* alternately the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Dean and Chapter of St. Pauls; St. Mary-at-Hill-with-St. Andrew-Hubbard, a rectory, £387, * alternately the Parishioners and the Duke of Northumberland; St. Mary-le-Bow-with-St. PancrasSoper-lane-and-Allhallows-Honey-lane, a rectory, £459, the Archbishop of Canterbury two turns and the Grocers' Company one turn; St. Mary Magdalen-Old-Fish-streetwith St. Gregory-by-St. Paul, a rectory, £300, the Dean and Chapter f.St. Paul's; St. Mary-Woolnoth-with-StMary-Woolchurch, a rectory, £280, alternately the Crown and the Representatives of Sir G. M. Broke; St. Matthew-Friday-street-with-St. Peter-Westcheap, a rectory, £254,* the Duke of Buccleuch; St. Michael, Bassishaw, a rectory, £239, the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's; St. Michael, Cornhill, a rectory, £387, the Drapers' Company; St. Michael-Paternoster-Royal-with-St. MartinVintry, a rectory, £242, alternately the Dean and Chap ter of Canterbury and the Bishop of London; St. Michael-Queenhithe-with-Holy Trinity-the-Less, a rectory, £270, the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's; St. MichaelWood-street-with-St. Mary-Staining, a rectory, £260, alternately the Lord Chancellor and the Parishioners; St. Mildred-Bread-street-with-St. Margaret-Moses, a rectory, £287, alternately the Lord Chancellor and Mrs. Benson and Mr. R. Andrew; St. Mildred-Poultry-withSt. Mary-Colechurch, a rectory, £269, alternately the Lord Chancellor and the Mercers' Company; St. Nicholas-ColeAbbey-with-St. Nicholas-Olave, a rectory, united in 1867 with St. Mary-Somerset and St. Mary Mounthaw, £525,* the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's; St. Olave-Hart-street* with-St-Nicholas-in-the-Shambles, a rectory, £1,891, Five Trustees; St. Olave-Old-Jewry-with-St. MartinPomroy, a vicarage and a rectory, £410, * the Lord Chancellor; St. Peter, Cornhill, a rectory, £388, the Corporation of London; St. Peter-le-Poer-with-St-Benet-Fink, a rectory and a p. curacy, £1,160, the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's two turns and Eton College one turn; StPeter-ad-Vincula, a rectory, the Constable of the Tower; St. Sepulchre, a vicarage, £550,* St. John 's College, Oxford; St. Stephen, Coleman-street, a vicarage, £560, the Parishioners: St. Swithin-with-St. Mary-Bothaw, a rectory, £259, alternately H. G. Watkins, Esq., and the Dean and Chapter of Canterbury; St. Thomas, Liberty of Rolls, a vicarage, £145, Hyndman's Trustees; Holy Trinity, Minories, a vicarage, £69, the Lord Chancellor; and St. Vedast-Foster-lane-with-St. Michaelle-Quern, a rectory, £300, alternately the Dean and Chapter of Canterbury and the Dean and Chapter of St. Pau1's.

Churches.—The places of worship in the metropolis,within the registrar-general's-limits, at the census of 1851, were 458 of the Church of England, with 409,834 sittings; 5 of the Church of Scotland, with 3,866 s.; 14 of the Presbyterian Church in England, with 10,065 s.; 4 of the United Presbyterian Church, with 4,280 s.; 161 of Independents, with 100,436 s.; 3 of General Baptists, with 1,500 s.; 3 of New Connexion General Baptists, with 1,810 s.; 1 of Seventh Day Baptists, with 300 s.; 89 of Particular Baptists, with 37,488 s.; 34 of Baptists not defined, with 13,176 s.; 9 of Quakers, with 3,157 s.; 9 of Unitarians, with 3,300 s.; 2 of Moravians, with 1,100 s.; 98 of Wesleyan Methodists, with 44,162 s.; 5 of New Connexion Methodists, with 984 s.; 21 of Primitive Methodists, with 3,380 s.; 4 of Bible Christians, with 1,014 s.; 15 of the Wesleyan Association, with 3,243 s.; 11 of Wesleyan Reformers, with 1,615 s.; 3 of Welsh Calvinistic Methodists, with 800 s.; 8 of Lady Huntingdon's Connexion, with 5,498 s.; 1 of Sandemanians, with 200 s.; 3 of the New Church, with 880 s.; 3 of Brethren, with 230 s.; 48 of isolated congregations, with 8,526 s.; 6 of Lutherans, with 2,172 s.; 1 of French Protestants, with 280 s.; 1 of the Netherlands, Reformed Church, with 350 s.; 1 of German Protestant Reformers, with 200 s.; 1 of Italian Reformers, with 150 s.; 6 of the Catholic and Apostolic Church, with 2,700 s.; 20 of Latter Day Saints, with 2,640 s.; 35 of Roman Catholics, with 18,230 s.; 1 of German Catholics, with 300 s.; 2 of the Greek Church, with 205 s.; and 11 of Jews, with 3,692 s. The increase since 1851 has been very great. A project had been issued in 1836, by Bishop Blomfield, for building forty additional churches of the Establishment; had realized within twelve months, £90,000 in money and £30,000 in promise from subscription; and had issued in the erection of not merely fifty but seventy-five new churches. That example gave a powerful.stimulus to church-extension both among churchmen and among dissenters. An act of parliament was passed in 1859, empowering a transference of churches and of church-endowents from old, small, wealthy, thinly-peopled parishes of the City, to new, large, poor, thickly-peopled sections of the other parts of the metropolis; and that gave increased force to the stimulus of Bishop Bloomfield's successful scheme. Private munificence, parochial effort, and general enterprise, soon, in their several ways, gave origin to numerous new churches and chapels of the Establishment. A scheme for new churches, together with some collateral objects, all by subscription, was launched in 1862, by Bishop Tait; realized, before the beginning of 1865, £100,000 in money; and aimed to realize the same amount annually for ten years. Dissenters, proportionately to their numbers and their resources, have been to the full as active and successful. The Independents, the Methodists, the Baptists, and the United Presbyterians, in particular, have made a wonderful increase in both the number and the beauty of their places of worship. Nor have they erected churches merely, but other buildings of affiliated kinds. The Independents, for instance, resolved in 1865 to erect a memorial hall, at a cost of about £70,000. The amount of church-accommodation, both Established and dissenting, proportionally to the population, must have been fully more at the end of 1866 than it was at the census of 1851; and, on the whole, it was in considerably better distribution throughout the metropolis. The new churches, generally, have been set down in localities where they were most wanted; they were continuing to multiply, with increasing rapidity, in 1866-70; and, in general, they are capacious, convenient, and, as compared with the old city ones, well attended. The style of most of them is some variety or other, or some combination or other, of the pointed; but, viewed comprehensively, it approaches or even exhibits a mongrel character, avoiding simplicity and symmetry, abounding in irregularity of outline, and indulging in freaks of what are called Continental Gothic, French Gothic, French Flamboyant, Lombardic, and Byzantine. Many of the new churches, nevertheless, are either very beautiful or finely picturesque. But they all stand in parts of the metropolis beyond the City; and as many of them as specially challenge attention, or as form good specimens of groups, are individually noticed in our articles on the parishes and the chapelries.

The number of churches within the City, immediately before the great fire, was 98; and 85 of them were burnt down. Only 53 were rebuilt; and 35 were united, in charge, to other churches. The circumstances of the City, as to resident population, had become altered. Wealthy families had-removed to the suburbs; many houses, or sites of houses, originally occupied as residences, had been converted into places of business; and the aggregate area of the City, though as densely edificed as ever, had become considerably less populous. The same kind of change afterwards went on for many years, and issued in the conversion of a large proportion of the City into a mere seat of trade, thronged with men during the hours of business, but almost deserted by them at other times. The churches, in consequence, were less wanted than they had been before; wereless frequented; and had averagely much smaller congregations. They, therefore, did not multiply; or, at least, they gained but slight increase, and only in exceptional corners where population continued to be more dense. The places of worship within the City, at the census of 1851, were 73 of the Church of England, with 41,199 sittings; 2 of the Presbyterian Church in England, with 1,180 s.; 2 of the United Presbyterian Church, with 3,000 s.; 10 of Indexpendents, with 7,706 s.; 4 of Particular Baptists, with 1,932 s.; 2 of Unitarians, with 920 s.; 2 of Moravians, with 1,100 s.; 4 of Wesleyan Methodists, with 1,632 s.; 1 of Lady Huntingdon's Connexion, with 820 s.; 1 of Sandemanians, with 200 s.; 3 of isolated congregations, with 1,345 s.; 1 of Lutherans, with 520 s.; 1 of French Protestants, with 280 s.; 1 of the Netherlands' Reformed Church, with 350 s.; 1 of Roman Catholics, with 2,500 s.; 1 of German Catholics, with 300 s.; 1 of the Greek Church, with 105 s.; and 5 of Jews, with 2,487 s. Several of the parish churches, in result of the act of 1 859, either have been or are about to be demolished. An effort was made by the Institute of Architects, to prevent that act from interfering with any of the churches, or, at the worst, to obtain the insertion in it of a clause protecting ten or twelve of the finest of them, together with all the steeples; but the effort succeeded only so far as to procure the exemption of St. Stephen's-Walbrook. St. Martin's-Ludgate, St. Peter's-Cornhill, and St. Swithin's-Cannon-street. The demolition of all the rest, or of more than a few of such as are least wanted, does not follow, for the power of demolition given by the act is only permissive. The majority of the City parish churches sprang from the same architect as St. Paul's cathedral; and they form such a collection of modern ecclesiastical edifices, from a single mind, as no other country can show. They have been much depreciated by some critics, and much extolled by others. They have, on the one hand, been described as exhibiting a heavy uncouth mannerism, with hardly a redeeming beauty, - even derided as "Wren's paganisms; ''but they are, on the other hand, regarded as aggregately a characteristic and grand architectural feature of the City; and they, at least, display remarkable variations of form and feature, and possess adaptations to their respective sites. Both the more ancient and the more recent churches also intermingle with them to produce diversity.-St. Alban's, Wood-street, succeeded an ancient one built by King Athelstane, and a subsequent one built by Inigo Jones; was itself built by Wren, after the great fire, at a cost of £3,165; and has a tower 85 feet high, and a carved pulpit. Allhallows, Barking, stands in Great Tower-street; took the second part of its designation from the nunnery of Barking, to which it belonged; is partly decorated English, partly later English, with a steeple built in 1659; included chapels erected by Richard I. and Edward I., and a chantry founded by Richard III.; contains some very fine brasses, from 1400 till 1651, one of which is of W. Thynne, the first editor of all Chaucer's works; contained the bodies of the Earl of Surrey, Bishop Fisher, and Archbishop Land, - removed from it after the Restoration; and had, for a vicar, Hickes, the author of the "Thesaurus. ''-Allhallows, Bread-street, was rebuilt by Wren, at a cost of £3,348; has a tower 86 feet high, and a carved pulpit; and contains the baptismal registry of Milton, and the grave of John Howe. Allhallows-the-Great stands in Thames-street; was rebuilt by Wren, at a cost of £5,641; has an oak screen, given by the Hamburgh merchants; and contains the grave of Jacobson, who built the Foundling hospital. Allhallows-the-Less had a steeple over the vaulted gate to Cold harbour House, and was therefore sometimes called Allhallows-on-theCellars. Allhallows, Lombard-street, succeeded an ancient church of 1053, and a subsequent one of 1516; was rebuilt by Wren, at a cost of £8,058; and has a good carved door. Allhallows, London-wall, was rebuilt by Dance, in 1765-7, at a cost of £2,941; and had, for rectors, Beloe and Nares. Allhallows, Staining, stood in Mark-lane; was rebuilt after 1669, but had an ancient tower; and was to be taken down in 1870. St. Alphage's stands near Aldermanbury; was built in 1777; and has part of the porch of Elsynge or St. Mary's, Spital. St. Andrew's, Holborn, is noticed in the article HOLBORN. St. Andrew's-Hubbard stood on the site of Weighhouse-yard. St. Andrew's-Undershaft stands in Leadenhall-street; took the latter part of its name from a shaft or maypole fixed annually upon it after the "evil Mayday ''of 1517; was rebuilt in 1520-32, by W. Fitzwilliam; is good later English; has a painted window with portraits of English kings; and contains a carved pulpit, three brasses from 1500 till 1598, an effigies of Sir H. Hammersley, a monument to Stowe the antiquary, and the grave of Motteux, the translator of "Don Quixote. St. Andrews-by-the-Wardrobe stands near Doctors' Commons; was rebuilt by Wren, at a cost of £7,060; consists of brick, faced with stone; and contains a bust of Romaine, who was rector, and the grave of Oliver the artist. Sts. Ann and Agues stands in St. Ann's-lane; is sometimes called St. Ann-in-the-Willows; was rebuilt by Wren; and has a square tower. St. Antholin's stands in Budge-row, Watling-street; succeeded a church famous, in the time of the Commonwealth, for an early morning lecture; was rebuilt by Cartwright, after designs by Wren, at a cost of £5,700; and has a dome resting on eight columns, and an octagonal spire. St. Augustine's stands in Watling-street; was rebuilt by Wren, and repaired in 1829; and serves also for St. Faith's parish, whose church was a crypt under Old St. Paul's

St. Bartholomew's-by-the-Royal Exchange stood in Bartholomew-lane; was rebuilt by Wren; was taken down in 1841, to make room for the new Exchange; and was copied, in a new church, by Cockerell, in Moor-lane. St. Bartholomew's-the-Great stands in Smithfield; was the choir and transept of the church of St. Bartholomew's priory, founded in 1102 by Rahere the royal minstrel; was partly rebuilt in 1410, and partly after 1532; comprises Norman, early English, and later English portions; was restored in 1865-6, at a cost of about £4,000; contains a richly canopied tomb of Lahere, and a large monument to Sir Walter Mildmay, the founder of Emmannel college, Cambridge; and was the place of the painter Hogarth's baptism. St. Bartholomew's-the-Less stands at St. Bartholomew's hospital, in Smithfield; was originally a part of St. Bartholomew's priory; retains an old tower; was rebuilt in 1789 by Dance, and in 1823 by Hardwicke; and contains two brasses of the 15th century, monuments of Balthorpe and Lady Bodley, and the grave of Heath the chronicler. St. Benet's-Fink stood in Threadneedle-street; was founded by Robert Finke, who gave name to Finch-lane; was rebuilt by Wren; and was taken down to make room for the Royal Exchange. St. Benet's-Gracechurch-street was rebuilt by Wren, at a cost of £3,583; and was united, in charge, to St. Leonard's-Eastcheap, which contained the grave of Quarles. St. Benet's-Pauls-wharf, called also St. Benet's-Hythe, succeeded a previous church of 11 81; was built by Wren, at a cost of £3,328; and contains the graves of Inigo Jones, Le Neve, and W. Oldys. St. Benet's-Sherehog, called also St. Benet's-Syth, a corrnption of St. Osyth, was destroyed by the great fire, and not rebuilt; but was then united, in charge, to St. Stephen's-Walbrook. St. Botolph's, Billingsgate, was destroyed by the great fire; and was afterwards united, in charge, with St. George's, Botolph-lane, which was built by Wren, at a cost of £5,207. St. Botolph's-without-Aldersgate stands in Little Britain; was restored in 1790; and contains monuments of Dame Packington, Elizabeth Smith, and Wray the scholar. St. Botolph'swithout-Aldgate was rebuilt in 1741-4, by Dance, at a cost of £5,536; is a brick structure; contains monuments of Lord Dacre, Sir R. Carew, and others; and had Bishop Kennet as incumbent. St. Botolph's-without-Bishopsgate stands in Houndsditch; was rebuilt in 1725-8, by James Gould; is a brick structure, with a good steeple; contains a monument to Sir Paul Pindar, an emblematic picture of Charles I., and the grave of Alleyn the actor; and had Bishops Mant and Blomfield as rectors. All Saints, in St. Botolph-without-Bishopsgate parish, stands in Skinner-street; and was built, in 1838, by Meredith. St. Bride's, Fleet-street, succeeded a previous church older than 1362, enlarged in 1480, containing the graves of Wynkin de Worde, Sir Richard Baker, Moll CutPurse, and Col. Lovelace, and destroyed in the great fire; was built in 1680-1703, by Wren, at a cost of £11,430; retains a doorway of the previous church; has a very beautiful steeple, originally 234 feet high, injured by lightning in 1764, and then reduced 8 feet in height; has also a stained glass window, by Meiss, copied from Rubens' "Descent from the Cross, ''and put up in 1824; and contains the graves of Ogilvy-the royal cosmographer, Sandford the gencalogist, Dr. Davenant the political writer, and Richardson the novelist.

Christchurch, Newgate-street, was built in 1325; belonged to the Greyfriars' monastery; was originally 300 feet long; suffered injury from the great fire; was restored in 1687-170 4, by Wren; has capacity for 3,000 persons; is the place where the Spital sermons are preached before the lord mayor and aldermen; had Trapp, the translator of Virgil, as a vicar; and contains monuments of Trapp and Lady Digby, and the graves of Burdett and Richard Baxter. St. Christopher's-le-Stock stood on part of the site of the Bank of England; and was taken down, in 1781, to make room for the bank. St. Clement's, Eastcheap, sands in St. Clement's-lane; was rebuilt by Wren, at a cost of £4,365; and had Bishop Pearson as rector. St. Dionis-Backchurch stands in Fenchurch-street; was rebuilt by Wren, at a cost of £5,737; consists of brick and stone; and has four old squirts, each 2¼ feet long, such as were used for extinguishing fires. St. Dunstan's-in-the-East stands in Tower-street; was restored by Wren, after the great fire; had then added to it a spire resting on flying buttresses, similar to the spire of St. Nicholas in Newcastle-upon Tyne; was rebuilt in 1817 by Laing, with preservation of Wren's spire; and had Jortin as a rector. St. Dunstan's-in-the-West stands in Fleet-street; succeeded a previous church situated a little nearer the street, and famous for two savage figures which beat the quarters on two bells, and famous also for the preaching in it of Richard Baxter and William Romaine to crowded audiences; was built in 1831-3 by Shaw; is in the pointed style, and internally octagonal; has, over the side doorway, a statue of Queen Elizabeth, brought from old Ludgate,-and, on the corbels at the sides of the principal entrance, carved heads of Tyndale and Dr. Donne; has also a stained window by Williment; and is surmounted by a Louvre tower, 130 feet high, imitated from that of St. Helen's in YorkSt. Edmund-the-King's stands in Lombard-street; was rebuilt by Wren, at a cost of £5,207; and contains a monument to Dean Milles the antiquary. St. Ethelburga's stands near Crosby Hall in Bishopsgate; is partly early English, but plain and small; and had Milbourne, who figures in the "Dunciad, ''as a rector. St. MargaretPattens' serves as the church of St. Gabriel-Fenchurchstreet; stands in Rood-lane; was rebuilt by Wren, at a cost of £4,986; has carvings by G. Gibbons; and had Birch, the biographer, as a rector. St. Giles'-without-Cripplegate succeeded a Norman church of 1090; was built in 1545-6, in the pointed style of that period; underwent partial restoration in 1864; was the place of Cromwell's marriage to Elizabeth Bourchier; contains the graves of Speed the chronicler, Fox the martyrologist, Frobisher the navigator, Milton the poet, and Milton's father; contains also a bust of Milton, by Bacon, placed here in 1773; was designed, in 1865, to be further restored in the way of tribute to Milton's genius; and had Bishop Andrews and the grandfather of John Wesley as vicars. St. Helen's stands on the E side of Bishopsgatestreet-within, near its junction with Gracechurch-street; was the church of the Benedictine nunnery of St. Helen, founded in 1 216 by William Basing, dean of St. Paul's, and named St. Helen's in honour of the mother of Constantine; consists now of two aisles and a small transept, with a tower erected about 1669; and contains six brasses from 1470 till 1514, and monuments of Sir John Crosby, Sir Thomas Gresham, Sir William Pickering, Sir Julins Cæsar, Sir Andrew Judd, Sir John Spencer, Martin Bond, and Francis Bancroft.

St. James', Duke's-place, occupies the site of Holy Trinity priory; and is a small brick edifice of 1622 3. St. James', Garlick-Hythe, was rebuilt by Wren, at a cost of £5,337; measures 75 feet by 45; and has a steeple 98 feet high. St. Katharine-Coleman's stands in Fenchurch-street; escaped injury by the great fire; and was rebuilt in 173 4.. St. Katharine-Cree's is sometimes called Christchurch; stands in Leadenhall-street, on ground which was part of the graveyard of Holy Trinity priory; was rebuilt in 1630, and very ritualistically opened by Land; and contains an effigies of Sir M. Throgmorton, and the grave of Holbein. St. Lawrence', Jewry, stands in King-street, Cheapside; succeeded a church in which Tillotson lectured, and which had Bishop Wilkins as a vicar; was rebuilt by Wren, at a cost of £11,870; has a spire, with the gridiron of St. Lawrence; and contains the graves of Tillotson and Wilkins. St. Magnus-theMartyr s stands near the end of London-bridge; was rebuilt by Wren, at a cost of £9,579; has an elegant cupola and lantern; and contains a monumental tablet to Bishop Miles Coverdale, who was rector, and whose remains were brought hither from St. Bartholomew's-by-the-Exchange, at the taking down of that church. St. Margaret's, Lothbury, was rebuilt by Wren, at a cost of £5,3 40; measures 64 feet by 60; contains a carved font by G Gibbons; and has attached to it the "golden lectureship "of £400, under the Haberdashers' Campany. St. Martin's, Ludgate, succeeded a previous church of 1437; was rebuilt by Wren, at a cost of £5,378; has a beautiful small spire which strikingly contrasts to the massive form of the neighbouring cathedral; had, as a rector, Purchas, the author of the "Pilgrimage;'' and contains his grave. St. Martin's-Outwich stands in Threadneedlestreet; was rebuilt in 1796-8, by Cockerell; and contains three brasses of 1459-1590. St. Mary's-Abchurch stands in Abchurch-lane; was rebuilt by Wren, at a cost of £4,922; and has a spherical roof, painted by Thornhill, and carvings by G. Gibbons. St. Mary's, Aldermanbury, succeeded a church in which Dr. Calamy preached for twenty years, and in which Milton married his second wife; was built by Wren, at a cost of £5,237; contains the graves of Dr. Calamy and Judge Jeffreys; and had Bishops Kennet, Stratford, and Hopkins as curates. St. Mary's-Aldermary stands in Bow-lane; succeeded a previous church, founded by Lord Mayor Keble; was built after the model of that church, in the pointed style, by Wren; measures 100 feet in length, 63 in width, and 45 in height; and has a tower and spire 135 feet high. St. Mary's-at-Hill stands in Eastcheap; was restored or rebuilt by Wren, and repaired in 1849; has a brick tower; contains a monument to Brand, the author of "Popular Antiquities;'' and was the place in which the poet Young was married.

St. Mary-le-Bow, or Bow church, stands in Cheapside, on the arches of the crypt of a Norman church, which is thought to have been the earliest arched one in London, and may thence have taken the name of Le-Bow. The ancient church was built in 1087; was the original meeting-place of the Court of Arches; had, in the time of Edward III., a tribune in which the royal family sat to see the City processions; and was noted for the sound of its bells, mentioned in a famous line of Pope, and the subject of a proverb which makes birth within the sound of Bow-bells equivalent to London citizenship. The present church was built by Wren, at a cost of £8,071; is regarded, next to St. Paul's cathedral, as his masterpiece; has a remarkably beautiful steeple, 239½ feet high, exhibiting all the orders of pillared architecture, containing a balcony in place of the tribune on the old church, terminating in a dragon-vane 9 feet long, and restored in 1820 by Gwilt; is the church in which the bishops-elect of the province of Canterbury are confirmed, and in which the Boyle lectures are preached; and had Bishop Newton, the author of the work on the "Prophecies, ''as a rector for twenty-five years. The bells of the present steeple retain the fame of the ancient ones, were set up in 1762, and form a peal of ten. St. Mary Magdalen's, Old Fish-street, was rebuilt by Wren, at a cost of £4,291; and has a brass of 1586. St. Mary's-Somerset stands in upper Thames-street; succeeded a previous church of 1335; and was built by Wren, at a cost of £6,579. St. Mary's-Woolnoth stands in Lombardstreet; succeeded a previous church, founded in 1355, rebuilt in 1496, and partly burnt in the great fire; was built in 1716-9, by Hawksmoor; presents a bold, original, and beautiful exterior, in the Tuscan style; had John Newton, the author of "Cardiphonia ''and other re1igious writings, as a rector for twenty-eight years; and contains a monumental tablet to him, with an affecting inscription. St. Matthew's, Friday-street, was rebuilt by Wren, at a cost of £2,301; is a brick structure; and had Bishop Bayley and the Gr&ae.cist Lort as rectors. St. Michael's-Bassishaw stands in Basinghall-street; and was built by Wren, at a cost of £2,822. St. Michael's, Cornhill, is in the pointed style; was mainly built by Wren, at a cost of £4,686; has a fine turreted tower, in various styles, copied from the tower of a previous church; was restored in 1721 by Gibbs, and again shortly before 1861; and contains the graves of the chronicler Fabian and the puritan Nye. St. Michael's, Crooked-lane, was rebuilt by Wren, and taken down in 1831. St. Michael'sPaternoster-Royal stands at College-hill; was rebuilt by Wren, at a cost of £7,455; has a fine tower, with carvings bY G. Gibbons; and contains the grave of "thrice-lord mayor" Whittington. St. Michael's, Queenhithe, was built by Wren; measures 71 feet by 40; and has a steeple 130 feet high. St. Michael's, Wood-street, succeeded a previous church in which James IV. of Scotland was buried, and from which Holmes was ejected; is in the Ionic style, by Wren, at a cost of £2,554, and has a poor spire, in room of a previous one. St. Michael's-leQuerne took the latter part of its name from the "corn ''market, and contained the grave of Leland. St. Mildred's, Bread-street, was rebuilt by Wren, at a cost of £3,705. St. Mildred's, Poultry, was rebuilt in 1676, at a cost of £4,654; had a steeple, surmounted by a shipshaped vane; had Needham as a rector and Bishop Hoadley as a lecturer; and, being almost deserted, was to be taken down in 1870. St. Nicholas', Cole Abbey, stands in Old Fish-street; was rebuilt by Wren, at a cost of £5,580; and has a square tower. St. Olave's, Hartstreet, is an old edifice; contains tombs of Mennis and Pepys, and two brasses of the 16th century; and had H. Owen as rector. St. Olave's, Old Jewry, was rebuilt by Wren, and contains a monument to Alderman Boydell. St. Peter's, Cornhill, succeeded one of the earliest churches in London; was built by Wren, at a cost of £5,467; has a brick steeple, with a key-shaped vane; contains a screen by G. Gibbons; and had Beverage as rector. St. Peter's-le-Poer stands in Broad-street; was built in 1788-92, by J. Gibson, at a cost of upwards of £4,000; is a circular edifice, with good front and no sidewindows; and had Bishop Hoadley as rector. St. Peter'sad-Vincula has been noticed in our account of the Tower. St. Peter's, near Pauls-wharf, was rebuilt by Wren, at a cost of £4,020; has a figure of the Resurrection over its gate; and had Goodwin the republican as rector. St. Sepulchre's-without-Newgate stands on Snow-hill, opposite Newgate; was partly destroyed by the great fire, and partly rebuilt by Wren; contains the grave of Roger Ascham; and has, in the street-wall of its churchyard, the first of the London drinking-fountains. St. Stephen's, Walbrook, stands close behind the Mansion House; was built by Wren, at a cost of £7,652, and restored in 1850-1; has a plain or even mean exterior, but a very fine interior; is a parallelogram, 87 feet long and 64 feet wide, divided by two rows of Corinthian columns, with a dome rising from the centre, and surmounted by a lantern; contains West's "Stoning of Stephen, ''and the grave and monument of Sir John Vanbrugh; and had Pendleton, the turncoat vicar of Bray, as rector. St. Swithin's-London-Stone stands in Cannon-street, opposite the new City terminus of the Southeastern railway; was built by Wren, at a cost of £4,687; and was restored in 1869, with conversion of its style from renaissance to non-descript Gothic. St. Vedast's, Foster-lane, was rebuilt by Wren, has a fine spire, and contains a screen by G. Gibbons. The Temple church stands a little S of Temple-bar; was the church of the Knights Templars; consists of two parts, the Round and the Choir; has a triforium, reached by a cork-screw stair; and was the place where Archbishop Usher preached the funeral sermon of Selden. The Round was built in 1185; is transition Norman; has a very fine Norman porch; and contains two groups of monumental effigies, either Knights-Templars or Associates of the Temple. The Choir was erected subsequently to the Round, and finished in 1240; is pure early English; underwent thorough restoration in 1839-42, at a cost of £70,000; and contains the tomb of Selden and a bust of Hooker. The Martyrs Memorial church, commemorative of the martyrdoms in Smithfield, was founded in the summer of 1869, and is in the style of the 13th century.

The dissenting places of worship within the City challenge little remark, except that they are mostly spacious and convenient; but those without the City, besides being very numerous and having greatly multiplied in the ten or twelve years ending in 1870, show many examples of taste and elegance. The first independent one within the City was built in 1592; the first Baptist one, in 1608; the first Methodist one, in 1777. The Congregational Memorial Hall stands in Cannon-street, with a frontage to the new street toward the Mansion House; and was built subsequent to 1867, at a cost of about £75,000. The Wesleyan Mission house, or Centenary Hall, stands in Bishopsgate-street; was erected in 1839, to celebrate the hundredth anniversary of Methodism; and contains a very interesting museum. The French Protestant church in St. Martin's-le-Grand was preceded by one on the site of the Hall of Commerce, founded there by Edward VI. The Danish church in Wellclose-square, Whitechapel, was founded in 1696, by Christian V. of Denmark; and was taken down in 1869. The German Lutheran church, in Trinity-lane, occupies the site of the extinct parochial church of Holy-Trinity-the-Less. The Greek church, in London Wall, is an edifice in the Byzantine style, in the form of a Greek cross; and contains some beautiful pictures. The Jews' great synagogue is in St. James-place, Aldgate; and the Spanish and Portuguese Jews' synagogue is in Bevis-marks, Leadenhall-street. A Jews' synagogue in Great Portland-street was built in 1869-70, at a cost of about £24,000.

The burying-places throughout the City and in all other parts of the metropolis, till the comparatively recent enactment for ultramural interment, were the churches and the churchyards. The accumulated masses of human remains, in densely populated places, are closely contiguous to the great thoroughfares, and are great and numerous, almost beyond belief. St. Mary-le-Bow's Norman vault, in Cheapside, is crammed with leaden coffins piled 30 feet high, and covered with cobwebs and fungi; St. Benet's vaults, in Gracechurch-street, continued to be used for burial till 1850, and were then so crowded that access could be obtained to them only by lifting the stones in the aisle; St. Andrew's-by-theWardrope and St. Mary's-at-Hill were, at the same period, in a similar or even worse condition; and even churches in the West, such as St. Martin's-in-the-Fields and St.. Georges-Chapel-Bayswater, were, at the same period, in a not much better state. Bunhill-Fields cemetery, near Finsbury-square, was originally the pest-place of interment at the time of the great plague; lay then in a state of open common; was afterwards enclosed to the extent of 23¼ acres, at the public expense of the City; became, from usage, the cemetery of the dissenters; is notable for the great numbers of eminent dissenting ministers and authors interred in it; and has, for some time, been full and disused. The principal ultramural cemeteries, all formed since the passing of the act for ultramural interment, and mostly spacious and ornamental, are the City of London cemetery, at Little Ilford; the Tower Hamlets, at Mile-End-road; the North of London, at Colney-Hatch; the Kensal-Green, on the road to Harrow; the London Company's, at Highgate and Nunhead; the Islington and the St. Pancras, at ColneyHatch; the South Metropolitan, at Norwood; the Victoria Park or East London, at Bethnal-Green; the AbneyPark, at Stoke-Newington; the West London, at Brompton; and the Necropolis, at Woking. All are noticed, in their appropriate places, in other articles.

Schools and Institutions.—The schools in the registration-metropolis, inclusive of the City, at the census of 1851, were 863 public day-schools, with 167,298 scholars; 3,698 private day-schools, with 86,941 s.; 701 Sundayschools, with 138,600 s.; and 100 evening schools for adults, with 2,878 s. Twenty-six of the public schools, with 3,910 scholars, were workhouse schools; 8, with 1,137 s., were military schools; 5, with 1,299 s., were naval schools; 2, with 635 s., were prison schools; 19, with 3,748 s., were endowed collegiate and grammar schools; 80, with 12,280 s., were other endowed schools; 161, with 46,161 s., were Church of England national schools; 216, with 34,041 s., were Church of England non-national schools; 5, with 946 s.-one of them British -were Church of Scotland schools; 2, with 141 s., were Presbyterian Church-in-England schools; 2, with 399 s., were Presbyterian, not specially defined; 24, with 5,482 s., were Independent British; 40, with 5,947 s., were Independent non-British; 3, with 386 s., were Baptist British; 5, with 505 s., were Baptist non-British; 4, with 430 s., were Unitarian; 4, with 1,129 s., were Wesleyan British; 20, with 3,612 s., were Wesleyan non-British; 1, with 86 s., was of Lady Huntingdon's Connexion; 3, with 442 s., were dissenting, not specially defined; 1, with 157 s., was Lutheran; 1, with 100 s., was of the German mission; 1, with 15 s., was French Protestant; 42, with 7,780 s., were Roman Catholic; 7, with 1,033 s., were Jewish; 38, with 10,568 s., were undenominational British; 1, with 509 s., was undenominational non-British; 74, with 15,418 s., were ragged schools; 18, with 2,123 s., were orphan schools; 2, with 215 s., were for the blind; 1, with 5 s., was for the deaf and dumb; 1, with 398 s., was attached to a mechanics' institute; and 46, with 6,261 s., were subscription schools of no specific character. Two hundred and fiftynine. of the Sunday-schools, with 49,173 scholars, belonged to the Church of England; 4, with 698 s., to the Church of Scotland; 6, with 1,122 s.; to the Presbyterian Church in England; 2, with 362 s., to the United Presbyterian Church; 156, with 39,391 s., to Independents; 74, with 12,952 s., to Baptists; 3, with 348 s., to Unitarians; 1, with 67 s., to Moravians; 84, with 17,452 s., to Wesleyan Methodists; 3, with 444 s., to New Connexion Methodists; 8, with 570 s., to Primitive Methodists; 3, with 332 s., to Bible Christians; 13, with 2,666 s., to the Wesleyan Association; 8, with 944 s., to Wesleyan Reformers; 2, with 305 s., to Calvinistic Methodists; 2, with 92 s., to Welsh Calvinistic Methodists; 4, with 1,147 s., to Lady Huntingdon's Connexion; 1, with 60 s., to the New Church; 1, with 55 s., to Brethren; 61, with 9,579 s., to undefined congregations; 5, with 819 s., to Roman Catholics; and 1, with 22 s., to Latter Day Saints. The increase of schools, from 1851 till the end of 1866, has not been ascertained by any reliable statistics; but may be presumed to have been about proportionate to the increase of churches.

Two of the most prominent endowed schools are noticed in our articles CHARTER-HoUSE and CHRISTCHURCH-NEWGATE-STREET. The City of London school stands in Milk-street, Cheapside, on the site of Honey-lane market; was founded, in the time of Henry V., by John Carpenter; was rebuilt, in 1835-6, at the expense of the City corporation; affords a very liberal middle-class education, at a charge of only £6 15s. for each pupil; and has an endowed income of £900 a year, 8 free scholarships for university exhibitions of £35 a year each, and a number of special scholarships ranging in value from £20 to £50. St. Paul's school, on the E side of St. Paul's churchyard, was founded in 1512, for 153 poor men's children, by Dean Colet; was rebuilt after the great fire, and again in 1822-4; is an edifice in the Grecian style, with an arcade; has an endowed income of upwards of £5,000, and upwards of twenty scholarships or exhibitions; is under the direction of the Mercers' company; gives an education entirely classical; had, as its first master, Lilly the friend of Erasmus, and as another master A. Gill; and numbers among its pupils Leland the antiquary, Milton the poet, Scarborough the physician, the great Duke of Marlborough, Earl Orrery, Pepys the diarist, Halley the astronomer, Strype the ecclesiastical analyst, Burton and Gale the antiquaries, Taylor the "Platonist," Nelson the author of "Fasts and Festivals,'' Sir P. Francis, R. Cotes, and Knight the biographer of Dean Colet. The Mercers' school was founded, for 70 boys, by the Mercers' company; stood originally in Cheapside, near the Mercers' chapel; was rebuilt in 1808, on the site of Whittington's alms houses, at College-hill, Thames-street; affords liberal education, beyond the old circle of Latin and Greek; and had, as master, W. Baxter the antiquary,-and as pupils, Dean Colet, Sir W. Gresham, and Bishop Wren. The Merchant Tailors' school stands in Suffolk-lane, on the site of the mansion of the Duke of Suffolk; was founded in 1561, on the suggestion of Sir T. White, by the Merchant Tailors' company; was rebuilt by Wren, after the great fire; is a brick edifice, with pilasters, with library and chapel, and with an adjoining residence for the head master; gives a very liberal education to 260 boys, at a charge of £10 a year for each; draws all deficiencies of revenue from the Company's funds; has 37 of the fellow ships at St. John's college, Oxford, and 64 scholarships or exhibitions; had, as masters, Mulcaster and Dugard; and numbers among its pupils Archbishops Juxon, Dowes, and Boulter, Bishops Andrews, Dove, Tomson, Buckeridge, Wilcox, Boyle, Henshaw, and Van Mildert, LordKeeper Whitelocke, Sandys the traveller, Shirley the poet, Wheatley the ritualist, Neale the puritan historian, E. Calamy the nonconformist, Titus Oates of infamous notoriety, Byrom the writer in the "Spectator, ''E. Gayton the annotator of "Don Quixote, ''How the botanist, Denham the traveller, Lord Clive, Charles Matthews, Dr. Bliss, V. Knox, Sir H. Ellis, and Luke Milbourne. Other endowed schools, in the City, with their respective endowed incomes, are the Harberdashers', or Trotman's, Bunhill-row, £110; Lady Lockington's, Little Knightrider-street, £60; Lambert's and Meale's, near St. Bride's, £40 and £1 14; Red Cross-street, boys, and girls', £464 and £856; Smith's, in Old Jewry, £109; Starling's, in East Smithfield, £44; St. Alphage's, £65; St. Botolph's-Aldgate, £97; St. Botolph's-Bishopsgate, £258; St. Dunstan's-in-the-West, £58; St. Ethelburga's, £63; Turner's, in Primrose-street, £228; Sir J. Cass's, in Aldgate-street, founded in 1810, £1,555; Whiting's, in Smithfield, £119; the Dissenters', near Smithfield, £96; Reeve's, in St. Sepulchre's, £243; the Ladies' girls', in St. Sepulchre's, 159; the Aldersgate ward, £148; the Aldgate ward, £98; the Billingsgate ward, £41; the Bread-street ward, £574; the Broad-street ward, £119; the Coleman-street ward, £43; the Faringdon ward, in Newgate-street, £132; the Lime-street ward, £42; the Queenhithe ward, £83; the Tower ward, £100; the Vintry ward, £92; Bristow's, in Foster-lane, Lady Holle's girls', in Cripplegate; the Tailors' orphan girls', in Cannon-street-road; and St. Anne's, in St. Anne's-lane.. The Aldersgate ward and national schools were built in 1 860, at a cost of £6,000, and afford accommodation for 600 children; and a number of the other endowed schools strike attention for costliness and capacity.

The principal public schools in other parts of the metropolis are Westminster school, or St. Peter's college, in Deans-yard, Westminster; King's college schools, in Somerset House; the University college schools, in Gower-street; St. Mark's training college, for church schools, in Fulham-road; the National central model schools for boys and girls, in Broad Sanctuary, Westminster; the National training college, for masters, in Battersea; the National training institution, for schoolmistresses, in Chelsea; the British and Foreign model schools, in Borough-road; the British and Foreign training college, for masters, in Stockwell; the British and Foreign training college, for school-mistresses, near Clapham-road; the Church of England Metropolitan training college, at Highbury-Park; the Home and Colonial training college, for mistresses, in Gray's-Inn-road; the Wesleyan Norman schools, in Horseferry-road; St. John's school, for sons of poor clergy, in Clapton; the Clergy orphan schools, in Marylebone; the Islington proprietary school, in Barnsbury-street; the Kensington proprietary school, in Kensington-square; the Marylebone grammarschool, in Regent's-park; the Stockwell grammar school, in Park-road; the Stepney grammar school, in Tredegarsquare; the St. Olave's and St. John's grammar school, or Queen Elizabeth's, in Southwark; the Dissenters' grammar school, in Mill-hill; the Royal naval school, in New-cross; the Emmanuel Hospital school, in Westminster; the St. Margaret's Hospital schools, in Westminster; the Greenwich Hospital-schools, in Greenwich; the Royal Military Asylnm schools, in Chelsea; the Ladies' college, in Bedford-square; the City of London Freemen's orphan school, in Brixton; the St. Giles' parochial schools, a very spacious and handsome building of 1861, at a cost of about £8,000, at the corner of Broad-street and Endell-street; Archbishop Tenison's school, in Soho; the Licensed Victuallers' schools, at Vauxhall; the Female orphan school, in Bayswater; the Female orphan school of industry, in Paddington; the Yorkshire Society's school, in Lambeth; the Caledonian Asylum school, at Copenhagen-fields; Raine's schools, in Wapping; St. Anne's schools, at Brixton-hill; Lady Owen's schools, in Goswell-street; the Warehousemen and Clerks' schools, at New-cross; St. Patrick's schools, in Stamford.street; the Welsh charity school, formerly in Gray's-Inn-lane, now at Ashford, Middlesex; the schools for the blind, in St. George's-fields and in St. John's-Wood; the school for the deaf and dumb in Gloucester-place, Old Kent-road; the Missionary children's home, at Highbury New Park; the Soldiers' daughters' home, at Boslyn-hill, Hampstead; the Marine floating school, off Charlton-pier; the Sailors' orphan girls' school and home, at Hampstead; the French charity school, in Westminster; the Bermondsey free school, in Bermondsey; Awdely's school, under the Skinners' company, in Hackney; Coffe's grammar school, under the Leathersellers' company, in Lewisham; the United Societies' school, in Rotherhithe; the Orphan workingschool, in Haverstock-hill; the Jews' orphan asylum, in Goodman's-fields; the school for the indigent blind, in Southwark; the training refuge for destitute girls, in Marylebone; and great numbers of the national, the British, the denominational, the subscription, and the ragged or industrial schools, in almost all the parishes. As many of these schools as require further mention, are noticed in other articles.

The Inner-Temple, the Middle-Temple, Lincoln's-Inn, and Gray's-Inn, are law colleges.-The Inner-Temple took the first half of its name from being situated within the City liberties; and the second half from its having succeeded to the premises and grounds which, as noticed in a former section, had previonsly belonged to the Knights Templars. It occupies an extra-parochial tract of 11 acres, with 43 inhabited houses between Fleet-street and the Thames; is approached principally through Inner-Temple-lane, entered by an arched gateway of the time of James I.; and has, within its area, toward the Thames, about 3 acres of garden, disposed in a fashionable promenade. Its hall was repaired and refaced by Smirke, and contains portraits of Littleton and Coke; its library contains about 16,000 volumes, and the Petyt manuscripts, chiefly transcripts of records in the Tower: and its parliament chamber, adjoining the library, contains busts of Lord Thurlow, Lord Abinger, Lord Ellenborough, Sir W. W. Follett, and Sir Frederick Pollock, and portraits or engravings of James II., George I., and about fifty eminent judges and lawyers. Thirty-nine of its earlier members became judges; and among its most distinguished members have been Littleton, Coke, Croke, Sir Julins Cæsar, SirHatton, Selden, Lord Chancellor. Nottingham, the poet Beaumont, Sackville Earl of Dorset, Prince Rupert, Charles II., and James II. -The Middle Temple lies immediately E of the Inner Temple; was originally conjoint with it; and took its prenominal designation from being situated between the Inner Temple and the Outer Temple, the latter of which stood on the site of Exeter House, and was displaced by Exeter buildings. It occupies an extra-parochial tract of 3 acres, containing 33 inhabited houses; and is entered principally from Fleet-street through a gateway, erected in 1864 by Wren, on the site of an old portal built by Sir Amias Paulett. Its hall was erected in 1752; forms the best specimen of Tudor architecture in London; is 100 feet long, 42 feet wide, and 47 feet high; has a richly carved roof, with curves and pendants; and contains a finely carved oak screen of 1575, busts of Eldon, Stowell, and the twelve Cæsars, and portraits of Charles I., Charles II., James II., William III., Anne, and George II. Its library was founded, in 1641, by R Ashley; and contains a portrait of him, and about 30,000 volumes. Among its distinguished members have been Chief Justices Montague, Broke, Popham, and Saunders, Judge Blackstone, Lord Keeper Guildford, Lord Chancellor Hardwick, Lords Clarendon, Stowell, Eldon, Ashburton, and Kenyon, Edmund Plowden, B. Whitelocke, Sir Walter Raleigh, Congreve, Rowe, Shadwell, R. B. Sheridan, and Thomas Moore. The Temple church, noticed in a previous section, belongs in common to the two temples; and the right side of its choir is appropriated to the Inner Temple,-the left side to the Middle Temple. -Lincoln's Inn stands in an extra-parochial tract of its own name, comprising 9 acres and containing 23 houses, between Lincoln's-Inn-fields and Chancery-lane. It occupies the site of an ancient Episcopal palace of Chichester, a Blackfriars monastery of 1226, and an "inn" or mansion of Henry Lacy, Earl of Lincoln; and it took from the last its name of Lincoln's Inn. It probably became a residence of lawyers in the 14th century; but it was not conveyed to the benchers till 1580. The old hall, now used at times for the courts of chancery, was built in 1506; the gate-house in Chancery-lane, bearing the arms of the Earl of Lincoln, Henry VIII., and Sir Thomas Lovell, was built in 1518; and the brick wall, separating the grounds from the street, and traditionally said to have had Ben Jonson employed on it as a bricklayer, was built in 1562. The edifices now used as the inn include the new hall, the library, and the chapel; and form the Old square partly built in 1683, the New square, finished about 1697, and stone buildings; begun in 1780 and finished in 1845. The new hall stands on the E side of Lincoln's-Inn-fields; was built in 1843-5, after designs by Hardwick, at a cost of £55,000; is in the Tudor style, of red brick, with stone dressings; has a boldly-carved oak roof, in seven rich compartments; measures, in the hall proper, 120 feet in length, 45 feet in width, and 62 feet in height; and contains Hogarth's picture of "Paul before Felix, ''a statue of Lord Erskine by Westmacott, and, in a connected drawing-room, portraits of Sir Mathew Hale, Lord Chancellor Bathurst, and Sir William Grant. The library is in the new building; measures 80 feet in length, 40 in width, and 44 in height; has a very rich painted window; and contains about 25,000 volumes. The chapel was built or restored by Inigo Jones; shows a grotesque admixture of bastard Gothic and Roman Doric; has very fine painted windows; and stands over a cloister-ambulatory of six groined arches. Among eminent members have been Judges Fortescue and Rastall, Chief Justice Hobart, Lord Chancellor Egerton, Sir Thomas More, Oliver Cromwell, John Thurloe, Sir Henry Spelman, Sir Mathew Hale, William Pitt, Sir James Mackintosh, Curran, Bentham, Daniel O'Connel, and Lords Mansfield, Erskine, Lyndhurst, Tottenham, Brougham, Campbell, and St. Leonards.-Grays Inn has been separately noticed in its own alphabetical place.-Nine Inns of Chancery were formerly attached, as preparatory schools, to the four law colleges; Clifford's Inn, Clement's Inn, and Lyon's Inn, to the Inner Temple; New Inn and Strand Inn, to the Middle Temple; Furnival's Inn and Thavies Inn, to Lincoln's Inn; Staple Inn and Barnard's Inn to Gray's Inn; but they now have almost or altogether lost their former connexion and character.-The Law Institution, in Chancery-lane, was established in 1825, for improved regulation of the business of solicitors and attorneys; and it has a large and handsome building, erected in 1829 after designs by Vulliami, adorned with a hexastyle Ionic portico, and containing a hall, a library, a club-room, and committee and lecture-rooms.-Doctors' Commons, in Blackfriars, occupies the site of Mountjoy House, given to the advocates by Dr. Harvey; was rebuilt after the great fire; comprises two brick quandrangles, with hall, library, and other apartments; and includes the Court of Arches, the Prerogative Court, the Court of Faculties, and the Bishop of London's Consistory Court. -The Courts of common law and equity will be noticed in the article WESTMINSTER.

The University of London was instituted in 1837; confers academic degrees in arts, law, and medicine; has several scholarships, each with £50 a year; and was enfranchised in 1867, to send one member to parliament. A building for it was erected in 1867-9, at a cost of about £80,000, exclusive of fittings; stands in Burlington-street, fronting Burlington-gardens; is in the Italian style, of Palladian type, adorned with statues; and comprises a centre 115 feet long and 55 feet high, two flanking towers 100 feet high, and two wings each 52 feet long.-King's College is a proprietary institution, established by members of the Church of England in 1828; occupies the E wing of Somerset House; affords instruction in the four departments of theology, general literature, applied science, and medicine; has a museum, containing Babbage's calculating machine and some interesting models; and has two literary scholarships of £50 a year each, and two medical ones of £25 a year each.-University college was instituted in 1828, on principles entirely undenominational; stands in Upper Gower-street; presents a frontage of 400 feet, in two stories, the lower one adorned with a bold Corinthian portico of ten columns, the upper one enriched with Corinthian pilasters, the centre surmounted by a handsome dome; includes large class-rooms, a laboratory 52 feet in length, a museum with collection of models by Flaxman, and a marble statue of the architect Watson: and affords instruction in pure science, mixed science, classical literature, belles-lettres, history, and medical science.-The Theological college of the Independents, a junction of Highbury, Homerton, and Coward colleges, is in St. John's-wood; that of the London Missionary Society is in Highgate; that of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel is in Hackney; that of the Baptists is in Regent's-park; that of the Presbyterian Church in England is in Queen-square House, Guildfordstreet; and that of the Wesleyans is in Horseferry-road. -The Royal College of Physicians, a building of 1825, by Smirke, at a cost of £30,000, is in Pall-Mall East, at the corner of Trafalgar-square. - The Royal College of Surgeons, a building of 1835, by Barry, at a cost of £40,000, with a valuable museum, is in Lincoln's-Inufields.-The Veterinary college, established in 1751, is in Great College-street, Camden Town.-The Royal Society, in Burlington House, Piccadilly, originated in 1645, and was incorporated in 1663; has a library of about 50,000 printed volumes and 5,000 manuscripts, a highly valuable museum, and portraits of famous members, from Sir Isaac Newton to Sir Humphrey Davy; and numbers so very many distinguished men among its members, past and present, that a list of them would fill several of our columns.-The Royal institution, in Albemarle-street, was established in 1799 at the house of Sir Joseph Banks; maintains lectures in varions departments of science and philosophy; and has a library of about 26,000 volumes. -The London Institution, in Finsbury-circus, was established in 1806, at Sir William Clayton's house in Old Jewry; was built in 1815-9, by Brooks; and has a library of upwards of 60,000 volumes, abounding specially in topographical works.-Sion college, in London wall, was founded in 1631, by Dr. White, and incorporated by Charles I.; was previonsly first a nunnery, them an hospital, then in 1332 a priory of canons-regular; includes among its fellows all the City clergy; comprises a hall, a president's lodging, and a library, surrounding a court; has, in its library, about 40,000 volumes,-and, in its hall and library, several portraits and other paintings; and maintains an alms house for 20 persons.-Gresham college, in Basinghall-street, was originally a miniature university, founded by Sir Thomas Gresham, at his own house in Bishopsgate-street; is now a place of lectures, Erected in 1843; and maintains lectures on scientific subjects in the middle hours of the day, and lectures on music in the evening.

The Astronomical society in Somerset House, was founded in 1820; and gives annually a medal for the most important discovery since the previous year. The Geological society, in Somerset House, was instituted in 1807; has a very rich museum and a library; and publashes a quarterly journal of its transactions. The Chemical society, in Burlington House, was instituted in 1841. The Royal Geographical society, in Whitehall-place, was established in 1830; has a good geographical library, and a large collection of maps and charts; and publishes a "Journal ''and "Proceedings. ''The Royal Society of Literature, in St. Martin's-place, Charing-cross, was founded in 1823, and incorporated in 1826; enjoyed for a time a royal grant of £1,155 a year; suffered loss of that grant, and opposition by some distinguished literary men; and sank into comparatively low condition. The Royal Society of Antiquaries, in Somerset House, was instituted in 1572, dissolved in 160 4, re-instituted in 1717, and incorporated in 1751; issues its transactions in the well known Archæologia; and has a library of about 7,000 volumes, with many curious old documents, and an interesting museum. The Royal Asiatic society, in New Burlington-street, was founded in 1823; and has a library with 450 volumes of Chinese books, and a museum with an interesting collection of Eastern curiosities. The Society of Arts, in John-street, Adelphi, was established in 1754 at Rawthmell's coffee-house in Coventgarden; removed to its present premises in 1774; has six pictures by Barry of 1777-83; makes temporary exhibitions of manufactures; and has connexion with most of the mechanical and literary institutions in the provincial towns. The Royal Institute of British Architects, in Conduit-street, was instituted in 1834, and incorporated in 1837; and has a good collection of books on architecture. The Institution of Civil Engineers, in Great George-street, Westminster, was established in 1818, and incorporated in 1828, and has a lecture-room, containing a portrait of Telford, its first president. The Royal Agricultural Society, in Hanover-square, holds an annual cattle show and exhibition of implements, which attracts crowds from all parts of the kingdom. The Horticultural Society, in Regent-street, was established in 1804, and incorporated in 1809; has new experimental gardens at Kensington, in lieu of previous ones at Chiswick; and holds flower exhibitions at stated periods. The Royal Botanical society, in Regent's-park, was 1839; has grounds extending over 18 acres, and containing a noble conservatory; and holds exhibitions three times a year. The Linnæan society, in Burlington House, was founded in 1788, and incorporated in 1802; and has the library and herbarium of Linnæus. The Zoological society, in Hanover-square, was established in 1826: and has zoological gardens in Regent's-park. The Palæontographical society was established for publishing accounts of animal fossils; the Statistical society, for collecting and publishing statistics; the Camden, the Hakluyt, and the Arundel societies, for printing or engraving literary or artistic works of particular kinds. A number of scientific and literary institutions of a local kind, together with mechanics' institutes, are in the City and in other parts of the metropolis.

The British museum stands in Great Russell-square, Bloomsbury; was originally Montague House, once the residence of the Duke of Montague, afterwards the mansion of the Earl of Halifax; has undergone complete reconstruction and immense extension; and now possesses such vast wealth of materials, with such rapid increase of them, that it wants sufficient space to store them. It originated in a testamentary deed of Sir Hans Sloane, who died in 1753, and whose will instructed his executors to sell to the nation his extensive library, museum, and works of art for £20,000, a good deal less than one half the sum which they had cost him. A resolution was taken to accept the offer, to add the Cottonian library and the Harleian manuscripts to the Sloane collection, and to place the whole in Montague House, which then had ample capacity to receive them. The sum of £300,000 was raised by a lottery; and £20,000 were paid for the Sloane collection, £10,000 for the Harleian manuscripts, and £10,250 for Montague House. New collections were made from year to year, the Egyptian antiquities were obtained in 1801, the Townley marbles in 1805; and these additions led to the building of a new gallery in 1807. George IV. 's library was brought hither in 1823; and it occasioned the erection of a new wing on the E side in 1 828. Fresh treasures were acquired, and great new purchases were made from time to time, all requiring increased accommodation; and they, at length, occasioned the re-construction of all the original edifice, and the erection of the N, the S, and the W sides. The edifice, as it now stands, was begun in 1823, after designs by Sir Robert Smirke; continued to be erected after the same designs, but partly by Sydney Smirke; and cost till 1854, when very far from complete, no less than about £800,000. The main front was formerly dull and heavy, but is now graceful and grand. A peristyle of fortyfour massive columns extends along a line of 370 feet; a portico of sixteen columns, in two rows, adorns the centre; and the pediment is filled with sculpture. by Westmacott, presenting the progress of man from barbarism to refinement. The ground-floor comprises principally the hall in front, the new reading-room in the centre, the library suite on the right, and the sculpture galleries on the left. The hall is in the Doric style, with richly-worked ceiling; measures 62 feet in length and 51 feet in width; and contains a bust of Mr. Townley, statues of Shakespeare and Sir Joseph Banks, and a statue of the Hon. Mrs. Damer holding in her hand the genius of the Thames. The new reading-room occupies the quondam vacant space of the inner quadrangle; was built in 1855-7, after designs by Sydney Smirke, at a cost of £150,000; has a circular form 140 feet in diameter; is surmounted by an elegant glazed dome 106 feet high; affords accommodation for 336 readers; and is heated and ventilated by machinery. The contents of the museum are far too vast to be indicated within our available limits; but they may be sufficiently learned from a synopsis of them, obtainable for a shilling at the entrance. The principal purchased collections, additional to those already mentioned, are the Townley marbles, £28,200; the Elgin marbles, £35,000; the Phigalian marbles, £19,000; Sir William Hamilton's collection, £8,400; Dr. Burney's manuscripts, £13,500; the Lansdowne manuscripts, £4,925; the Arundel manuscripts, £3,559. The principal gifts and bequests are the Cottonian manuscripts; the Royal library of the kings of England; the library formed by George III.; Sir Joseph Banks's books and botanical specimens; the Rev.Cracherode's books and prints, valued at £40,000; Sir William Musgrave's books, manuscripts, and prints; Payne Knight's books, drawings, and bronzes; Dr. Birch's books and manuscripts; Mr. Grenville's library; and Tyrwhitt's and Edwardes's books, the latter bequeathed along with £7,000. The printed books amount to fully one million volumes, and are increased at the rate of about 75,000 volumes a year; the manuscripts are proportionally numerous, and are catalogued under several heads; the sculptures, bronzes, antiquities, natural history objects, and miscellaneous curiosities fill many galleries, in classified collections; and all are so arranged that any group or single one can easily be found.

The new museum in the Exhibition buildings of 1862-an extension of the British museum-and the South Kensington museum and school of art, are noticed in the article KENSINGTON. The Soane museum, in Lincoln's-Inn-fields, was formed by Sir John Soane, in his own house; was vested by him in trustees for the public in 1833; occupies now a house built in 1812; fills all available space in 24 rooms; comprises a vast variety of both instructive and curious objects; and contains, among others, the alabaster sarcophagus discovered in Egypt by Belzoni, and purchased for £2,000. The School of Mines' museum, or museum of practical geology, was established in 1835, in connexion with the Ordnance survey; occupies a well-contrived building, with front to Piccadilly, but with entrance from Jermyn-street, erected in 1851 at a cost of £30,000; comprises objectillustrations of the mineral products of every part of Britain and its colonies, together with multitudes of beautiful specimens of manufactured minerals, and of implements used in mining and in metallurgy; and maintains evening lectures to working-men, in a hall capable of accommodating 500. The United Service museum, in Whitehall-yard, was founded in 1830, as a repository for books, documents, and objects of science and of professional art connected with the army and the navy; was remodelled in 1858, when also the building for it was repaired; and includes a lecture theatre, with capacity for 500 persons. The Missionaries' museum, in Bloomfieldstreet, Moorfields, was established in connexion with the London Missionary society; contains curiosities and natural history objects from the regions occupied or explored by the society's missionaries; and includes the idols which were renounced by the South Sea islanders at their embracing Christianity. A naval museum is in Somerset House, Strand: another museum is at the War-office, in Pall-Mall; a numismatic museum, connected with the Bank of England, is in Tavistock-street; a museum of arms and armour is at Woolwich arsenal: and a number of other museums are connected with colleges and learned societies, and have already been incidentally named. The London library, in St. James,square, is a well-managed public subscription library, with about 60,000 volumes of standard works. Dr. Williams' library, in Red Cross-street, contains about 20,000 volumes. Archbishop Tenison's library was founded chiefly for the parishes of St. Martin, St. James-Westminster, and St. Anne-Westminster; contained about 4,000 volumes; and was recently dissolved. Many large libraries are either stored in certain public buildings, or connected with colleges and learned societies; and have been already mentioned, most of them in the present article, some in other articles. Circulating libraries of great extent, in large numbers, and of various character, also are in operation.

The Crystal Palace is noticed in an article of its own. The National gallery occupies all the N side of Trafalgar-square; stands on the site of the Kings' mews from Henry VIII. till George IV.; was erected in 1832-8, after designs by Wilkins, at a cost of £96,000; is in the Corinthian style, modelled after the temple of JupiterStator, with columns which belonged to the portico of Carlton House; has a length of 461 feet; is disposed in the five schools, -Italian, Flemish, Spanish, French, and English; became quite insufficiently commodious, in consequence partly of great increase of its contents, but mainly of its being held, over the E half, by the Royal Academy; and now, by changes made in 1867-9, occupies both the entire original edifice and new spacious galleries in the rear. Premises for the Royal Academy, formed partly out of Burlington House, partly by new erections, are adjacent, and present a rich front to Piccadilly. The Royal Academy was founded in 1768; was originally located in Somerset House, Strand; removed to the E wing of the National gallery, in 1838; gives a well regulated and gratuitous course of instruction to approved students in art; and is known to the public principally by its annual exhibition of paintings. The National Portrait gallery was founded in 1858, and placed temporarily in a house in Great George-street, Westminster. The Dulwich gallery is noticed in the article DULWICH. The Art Union of London, in West Strand, was established in 1836, "to extend the love of the art of design, ''and to encourage native artists. The British Institution, in Pall-Mall-West, was established in 1805; purchased then the lease of Alderman Boydell's gallery; and holds a spring exhibition for modern British artists, and a summer one for the works of old masters. The Society of British artists, in Suffolkstreet, Pall-Mall-East, the Old Society of painters in water colours in Pall-East-East, and the New Society of painters in water colours in Pall-Mall-West, hold each an annual exhibition. The Royal Academy of Music, in Tenterden-street, Hanover-square, was established in 1822; instructs two classes of students,in door and outdoor; and has a large musical library. The Philharmonic society consists of 40 members, 30 associates, and 20 lady associates; has a band of pre-eminent excellence; and gives its concerts in the Hanover-square rooms. The Society of British musicians gives concerts in the same rooms. The Sacred Harmonic society was established in 1832, for performing the oratorios of the great masters; and gives the oratorios in Exeter-hall, Strand.

Other associations, in connexion with science, literature, or art, are numerous. Some of the principal are the Eclectic Society of London, Great Prescot-street; the British Association for the advancement of science, Queen-street-place; the Entomological society, Bedfordrow; the Epidemiological society, Soho-square; the Geologists' association, Cavendish-square; the Hunterian society, Bloomfield-street, Finsbury; the London Medical Registration association, Trinity-place, Charingcross; the London and Middlesex Archæological society, Fleet-street; the Meteorological society, Great George street; the National association for the promotion of social science, Waterloo-place, Pall-Mall; the Natural History collecting association, Dean-street, Soho; the Numismatic society, Gate-street, Lincoln's-Inn; the Obstetricalsociety, Berners-street; the Odontological society, Soho-square; the Ornithological society, St. James' park; the Pathological society, Berners-street; the Pharmaceutical society, Bloomsbury-square; the Royal Medical and Chirurgical society, Berners-street; the Surrey Archæological society, Southampton-street, Strand; the Western Medical and Surgical society, Sloane-street; Bray s institute for founding libraries, Pall-Mall; the British Horological institution, Northampton-square; the British Pomological society, Regent-street; the Chelsea Athenæum, Caversham-street; the Genealogical and Historical society, Piccadilly; the Pure Literature society, Buckingham-street, Strand; the Royal Society of Literature, St. Martin's place; the College of Preceptors, Queen's-square, Bloomsbury; the Architectural Union company, Conduit-street; the Art-Union of Glasgow, Alfred-place, Bedford-square; the Cecilian society, Albion Hall, London-wall; the Guild of Literature and Art, Wellington-street, Strand; the Photographic society, New Coventry-street; the Royal Society of female musicians, Macclesfield-street, Soho; and the Universal society for the encouragement of arts and industry, Duke-street, Adelphi.

Nearly 550 philanthropic institutions, not including branch ones or auxiliaries, are in the metropolis; they may be classified into general medical hospitals, lunatic asylums, special medical hospitals, residential hospitals, general dispensaries, alms houses, refuges for the destitute, asylums for orphans, homes for the aged or the outcast, societies for relieving general distress and destitution, societies for relieving specific distress, societies for aiding cases of emergency or for preserving life, institutions for reforming offenders or reclaiming the fallen, societies for the ameliorating of public morals, societies for aiding the resources of the industrious, provident societies, charitable pension societies, religions book societies, Bible societies, missionary societies, and many institutions or associations of mixed or miscellaneous character; and, together with endowed and subscription schools, they have an annual income of about £806,000 from endowments, and upwards of £1,000,000 from voluntary contributions. The endowed charities for the City-within-the-Walls, in 1835, amounted to £253,000; of which £129,000 were for the City hospitals, £49,000 for the grammar schools, £39,000 for the City parishes, and £82,000 for the City companies. The charities for the metropolis, in 1849, comprised 12 general medical hospitals, with 3,630 beds forin patients, means of relieving 330,000 out-patients, and an income of £143,000; 25 special medical charities, with means of relieving 106,000 patients, and an income of £97,000; 40 dispensaries, with means of relieving 141,000 patients, and an income of £14,500; 93 residential institutions for the infirm and the aged, with accommodation for 1,420 persons, and an income of £77,200; 31 residential institutions for orphans and other children, with means of maintaining 4,400 boys and girls, and an income of £80,000; 12 institutions for the blind and for the deaf and dumb, with an income of £35,000; 16 pension societies, with support to 1,050 persons, and an income of £19,000; 70 societies for aiding the industrious, with an income of £120,000; 12 book and tract societies, with an income of £167,000; 17 church-building, pastoral-aid, and home-evangelistic societies, with an income of £114,150; and 3 Bible societies, 8 foreign missionary societies, 8 colonial missionary societies, 11 missionary societies for Ireland and Scotland, and 2 missionary societies for the Jews, with aggregately an income of £561,560. The Chelsea hospital, the Greenwich hospital, and many of the chief philanthropic institutions, are noticed in other articles. St. Bartholomew's hospital, in Smithfield, one of the largest general medical hospitals, dating from 1102, and refunded in its present form in 1547, contains 580 beds; St. Thomas' hospital, founded by Edward VI., and undergoing removal in 1866 from Southwark to the Lambeth embankment, had, in its old premises, 430 beds; the Middlesex hospital, Charlesstreet, Marylebone, founded in 1747, has 290 beds; Guy's hospital, in Southwark, built in 1768, has 580 beds; the Westminster hospital, in Broad sanctuary, has 174 beds; St. Mary's hospital, in Paddington, has 150 beds; St. George's hospital, at Hyde-park corner, has 350 beds; University College hospital, in Upper Gower-street, has 120 beds; King's College hospital, in Portugal-street, founded in 1839, and built in the Italian style in 1860, at a cost of £100,000, has 200 beds; the London hospital, in Whitechapel, had 405 inmates at the census of 1861; and the Charing-cross hospital, the Royal Free, the Poplar, the Metropolitan Free, and the Homœopathic had respectively 102,101,24,16, and 33. New fever and small-pox hospitals at Hampstead, Stockwell, and Homerton, and alarge sick asylum at Newington, were projected about the beginning of 1869. The lunatic asylums,with the number of inmates in each at the census of 1861, are Hoxton House, in Shoreditch, 207; Bethnal House, in Bethnal-Green, 277; Grove Hall, in Bow, 348; St. Luke's hospital, in City-road, 199; Mare-street House, London House, and Pembroke House, in South Hackney, 15,22, and 157; Brooke House, in Hackney, 96; Northumberland House, in Stoke-Newington, 79; Blacklands House, in Chelsea N. E., 40; Elm House, in Chelsea N. W., 12; Otto House, Normand House, Munster House, and Sussex and Brandenburgh House, in Fulham, 50,20,41, and 88; Mall House, in Hammersmith, 19; Earl's Court House, in Brompton, 41; Kensington House, in Kensington, 73; the Bethlehem hospital, in St. George's-fields, 442; Effra Hall, in Brixton, 30; the Retreat, in Clapham, 30; the Surrey County asylnm, in Wandsworth, 1,053; and Camberwell House and Peckham House, in Camberwell, 311 and 280. The other philanthropic house institutions, exclusive of schools, with the number of inmates in each at the census of 1861, are the Field-lane refuge and the home for destitute females, in St. Sepulchre parish, 94 and 87; the ophthalmic hospital, in St. Stephen-Coleman-street, 35; the hospital for diseases of the chest and the Guardian society's asylnm, in Bethnal-Green, 79 and 32; King Edward's refuge for destitute girls in Mile-End-NewTown, 46; the boys' refuge, in Commercial-street, Whitechapel, 104; the Jews' orphan asylum, in Goodman'sfields, 47; the Sailors' home and the destitute sailors' asylum, in the Tower precinct, 202 and 17; Raine's asylum for girls, in St. George-in-the-East, 43; the strangers' home for Asiatics, in Limehouse, 29; the German Jews' hospital and the Portuguese hospital, in MileEnd-Old-Town, 92 and 32; the merchant seamen's orphan asylum, in Bromley-St. Leonard, 130; the sailors' home, in Poplar, 84; the asylum for the houseless poor, in Whitecross-street, 703; the French Protestant hospital, the City of London lying-in hospital, and St. Mark's hospital for fistula, in or near the City-road, 59,73, and 32; the female penitentiary, and the London female penitentiary, in Pentonville, 66 and 102; the hospital for sick children and St. Elizabeth's hospital, in St. George-Holborn, 68 and 44; the house of charity and the hospital for women, in St. Anne-Soho, 58 and 31; the boys' refuge, in Great Queen-street, 107; the British lying-in-hospital, in Endell-street, 13; the refuge for homeless and destitute girls, in St. George-Bloomsbury, 42; the Trewint industrial home, Elizabeth Fry's refuge, and the British penitent female refuge, in South Hackney, 22,26, and 45; the refuge for the destitute, the German hospital, and the London orphan asylum, in Hackney, 81,68, and 439; the invalid asylum for females, in Stoke-Newington, 25; the Church missionaries' chil dren's home, the Caledonian asylum for children, the Great Northern hospital, the small-pox hospital, and the London fever hospital, in Islington, 98,121,18,35, and 44; the boys' home, in Euston-road, 62; the foundling hospital, in Guildford-street, founded in 1739 for foundlings, but altered in 1760 for poor illegitimate children wse mothers are known, 321; the adult orphan institution, in St. Andrew's-place, St. Pancras, 36; the girls, laundry, the house for rescue of young women and chil dren, the sailors' orphan girls' home, and the soldiers daughters' home, in Hampstead, 32,48,71, and 172; the cripples' home, the orphanage asylum, the house of mercy, the female protection house, Queen Charlotte's lying-in-hospital, the Ladies' invalid establishment, and All Saints home, in Marylebone, 74,23,61,14,68,35, and 93; the ophthalmic hospital, near Charing-cross, 18; the Royal orthopœdic hospital, in St. George-Hanoversquare, 58; the Chelsea home, or hospital for consumption, in Chelsea, 18; the Fulham refuge, in Fulham, 190; the Eagle House orphanage, St. Joseph's home for children, and the home of the aged poor, in Hammersmith, 75,51, and 134; St. Philip's orphanage, the cancer hospital, and the hospital for consumption, in Brompton, 76,12, and 218; the London home for females, in Notting-hill, 21; the Lock hospital, in Paddington, 124; the Magdalen hospital, in Blackfriars-road, 139; the female orphan home and the South London institution for reception of females, in Walworth, 26 and 20; the general lying-in hospital, the industrial home for outcast boys, the female orphan asylum, and the female philanthropic society's house, in Lambeth, 38,22,158, and 53; the girls' industrial home, in Kennington, 32; the British orphan asylnm, in Clapham, 94; the family home of the Rescue society, in Wandsworth, 22; the hospital for incurables, in Putney, 101; and the female penitentiary, in Greenwich, 32. Some large residentiary philanthropic institutions, connected with the metropolis, are situated beyond the registration boundaries; and many non-residentiary ones, of marked character, which our limits do not permit us to particularize, are within the boundaries.

The religions societies, Bible, book, missionary, and miscellaneous, are far too numerous to be all mentioned within our limits. The principal are the British and Foreign Bible society, New Earl-street, Blackfriars, funded in 1804; the Religions Tract society, Paternoster-row, instituted in 1799; the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in foreign parts, Pall-Mall, incorporated in 1601; the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, at the corner of Queen-street and Lincoln's-Inn-fields, established in 1698; the Corporation of the Sons of the Clergy, Bloomsbury-place, founded by royal charter, in 1678; the Church Missionary Society, Salisbury-square, Fleet-street, founded in 1800; the Society for employing additional curates, Whitehall, established in 1837; the Pastoral Aid society, Temple Chambers, Fleet-street, instituted in 1836; the Church-Building society, Whitehall, instituted in 1818; the Society for the Conversion of Jews, Lincoln's-Inn-fields, funded in 1809; the London Missionary society, Blomfield-street, Finsbury, founded in 1795; the Baptist Missionary society, Moorgate-street, founded in 1 792; the Wesleyan Missionary society, Bishopsgate-street, founded in 181 7; the Home Missionary society, Blomfield-street, instituted in 1819; the Colonial Missionary society, Blomfield-street, instituted in 1836; the London City Mission, Red Lionsquare; the London Diocesan Home Mission, Pall-Mall; the London Diocesan Church-Building society, PallMall; the Moravian Missions, Hatton-garden; the Irish Evangelical society, Blomfield-street; the Evangelical Continental society, Blomfield-street; the Evangelical Alliance, Adam-street, Adelphi; the Naval and Military Bible society, Sackville-street; the Prayer-Book and Homily society, Salisbury-square; and the Protestant Reformation society, Berners-street. A new building for the British and Foreign Bible society, in New Earlstreet, Blackfriars, was funded in June 1866, by the Prince of Wales, estimated to cost £29,918, exclusive of warming and ventilation; to be in the Italian style, four. stories high, 115 feet long, and about 68 feet wide; to have a staircase and a hall of Caen stone, with coloured marble panels, veined marble floors, alabaster balusters, and coloured marble columns with elaborately carved capitals; and to be divided into two nearly equal portions, for respectively the warehouse and the officesThe Religions Tract society's premises in Paternosterrow, are spacious and ornamental; and the business carried on in them figures largely in the publishing trade.

Trade and Manufacture.—The best exact index of the trade and manufactures of the registration metropolis, is afforded by the tables of the occupations of the people, in the report of the census of 1861. Twenty-one males were arboriculturists; 8,035 males and 458 females were employed in gardens; 6,289 males and 2,177 females were employed in fields and pastures; 48,688 m. and 215 f. were general labourers; 10,922 m. and 37 f. were engaged about animals; 31,352 m. and 324 f. were messengers and porters; 7,087 m. and 209 f. were engaged in storage; 7,983 m. and 16 f. were carriers on railways; 29,153 m. and 114 f. were carriers on roads; 5,794 m. and 22 f. were carriers on canals and rivers; 29,642 m. and 58 f. were carriers on seas and rivers; 41,310 m. and 794 f. were mercantile persons; 11,587 m. and 5,402 f. were general dealers, other than mercantile; 21,770 m. and 4,636 f. were employed on books; 4,720 m. and 104 f., on musical instruments; 3,525 m. and 317 f., on prints and pictures; 2,097 m. and 4,122 f., on carving and figures; 1,159 m. and 562 f., on tackle for sport and games; 909 m. and 32 f., on designs, medals, and dies; 7,726 m. and 176 f., on watches and philosophical instruments; 473 m. and 179 f., on surgical instruments; 2,063 m. and 236 f., on arms; 13,000 m. and 141 f., on machines and tools; 5,588 m. and 117 f., on carriages; 3,335 m. and 102 f., on harness; 8,284 m. and 37 f., on ships; 86,418 m. and 4,673 f., on houses and buildings; 20,950 m. and 2,699 f., on furniture; 3,020 m. and 10 f., on implements; 3,510 m. and 546 f., on chemicals; 2,338 m. and 856 f., on wool and worsted; 6,412 m. and 6,757 f., on silk; 1,274 m. and 1,685 f., on cotton and flax; 12,231 m. and 5,330 f., on mixtures of wool, silk, and cotton; 70,260 m. and 176,070 f., on dress; 3,041 in and 1,186 f., on hemp and other fibrous materials; 22,854 m. and 5,375 f., on animal food; 22,757 m. and 3,716 f., on vegetable food; 23,698 m. and 2,084 f., on drinks and stimulants; 3,597 m. and 438 f., on grease, gut, bones, horn, ivory, and whalebone; 7,784 m. and 860 f., on skins, feathers, and quills; 3,147 m. and 1,743 f., on hair; 5,715 m. and 501 f., on gums and resins; 16,105 m. and 1,745 f., on wood; 888 m. and 43 f., on bark; 1,624 m. and 366 f., on cane, rush, and straw; 5,882 m. and 2,527 f., on paper; 323 m. and 7 f., in mining; 8,857 m. and 152 f., on coal; 6,931 m. and 128 f., on stone and clay; 2,542 m. and 418 f., on earthenware; 1,907 m. and 196 f., on glass; 34m., on salt; 567 m. and 3 f., on water; 7,094 m. and 476 f., on gold, silver, and precions stones; 791 m. and 21 f., on copper; 2,802 m. and 69 f., on tin and quicksilver; 487 m. and 4 f., on zinc; 1,139 m. and 47 f., on lead and antimony; 8,239 m. and 253 f., on brass and other mixed metals; and 18,840 m. and 140 f., on iron and steel.

The carrying trade, both within the metropolis and outward from it, is manifold and enormous; and accounts for the very great numbers, and for the classes, of the carriers. The general retail trade for the inward supply of the metropolis, and the general wholesale trade for the outward supply of provincial towns, also are enormous; and account for the great numbers of the general dealers and the merchants. The publishing trade is so great as to print and publish farm rebooks than are printed and published in other parts of the kingdom. The publishers and booksellers, in 1861, comprised 2,878 males, and 240 females; the bookbinders, 3,691 m., and 4,063 f.; the printers, 13,803 m., and 134 f.; the newspaper-agents, 1,143 m.; the other persons employed on publications, 255 m, and 199 f.; the lithographers and lithographic printers, 1,546 m.; and the persons of kindred occupations, 1,979 m., and 317 f. The authors and literary persons, too, amounted to 1,471 m., and 110 f.; and these evidently were only the authors and literary persons by profession, or did not include great numbers who had other professions or independent means, and wrote for the press only at times or as amateurs. A vast department of trade accrues from the constant and rapid increase of the metropolis, and from the demolition and re-erection of buildings; and this accounts for the great numbers of persons employed on building-materials, houses. and furniture. The trade in the supply of food requires, for annual consumption within the metropolis, about 270,000 oxen, 30,000 calves, 1,700,000 sheep, 35,000 pigs, 3,750,000 poultry, 4,025,000 head of game, 3,000,000 salmon, 310,000 barrels of oysters, 1,600,000 quarters of wheat, 2,000,000 sacks of potatoes, and proportionate quantities of other provisions; and accounts partly for the great amount of the carrying trade, and fully for the great numbers of persons employed on animal food and vegetable food. The trade in drinks and stimulants corresponds in magnitude with that in the supply of food; and employed, in 1861,176 maltsters, 2,994 males and 12 females connected with breweries, 2,466 male and 34 female wine and spirit merchants, 516 distillers or rectifiers, 876 cellarmen, and 401 gingerbeer and soda-water makers. The consumption of alcoholic drinks was computed to amount, in 1860, to 43,100,000 gallons of porter, 65,000 pipes of wine, and 2,000,000 gallons of spirits. The breweries are so numerons, and on so great a scale, as to be one of the sights of London; and two of them, respectively in Brick-lane, Spitalfields, and in Park-street, Southwark, are believed to consume on the average yearly 140,000 and 127,000 quarters of malt.

Gardeners are located most numerously in Kensington and Wandsworth; publishers and booksellers, in Paternoster-row and Fleet-street; musical instrument makers, in St. Pancras; watch-makers and jewellers, in Clerken well and St. Luke's; coach-makers, in St. Pancras and Marylebone; cabinet and furniture makers, in St. Pancras and Shoreditch; silk manufacturers, in BethnalGreen; dyers and calenderers, in Bethnal-Green and Shoreditch; tailors, in St. James, Marylebone, and St. Pancras; women-tailors and seamstresses, in Stepney, Whitechapel, and St. George-in-the-East; milliners, in Marylebone and St. Pancras; stay-makers, in Marylebone; umbrella-makers, in Whitechapel and St. George-in-the-East; blond-workers, in Islington; upholstery and lace-workers, in Marylebone; artificial flower-makers, in St. Pancras; hat-makers, in Southwark and Bermondsey; leather-workers, in Bermondsey; shoe-makers, in StPancras, Marylebone, Whitechapel, Lambeth, and other parts; shoe-binders, in Shoreditch and Bethnal-Green; sugar-refiners, in Stepney, Whitechapel, and St. Georgein-the-East; chemical workers and glass-blowers, in Lambeth; rope and sail makers, in Stepney and BethnalGreen; ship-builders, in Stepney and Poplar; and engineers, in Stepney, Poplar, and Lambeth. The number of banks and banking offices in the metropolis, exclusive of numerous sub-offices, is ninety-five. Most of them are situated in the City, chiefly in Threadneedlestreet, Lombard-street, Cornhill, Cannon-street, Old Broad-street, and other places near the Royal Exchange. The premises of the Bank of England have been noticed in the section on Public Buildings; and those of some other banks, in the section on Structure.-The number of insurance offices is upwards of 170. Very many of them are in the City, chiefly in Lombard-street, Cornhill, King William-street, Moorgate-street, Cheapside, Bridge-street-Blackfriars, and Fleet-street; but many also are in other parts, chiefly in Westminster. The premises of not a few are ornamental.-The associations and public institutions connected with trade are numerous and very diversified; and they have their offices dispersedly through the metropolis, in localities suited to their several specific objects, some in the City, some in Westminster, and some in other parts.-The principal newspapers and periodicals are so well known throughout the kingdom that whey do not require to be named; and some of the minor ones are so obscure as not to be worth naming. The number of very widely-circulated newspapers is about 20; of limitedly circulated newspapers, about 150; of broad-sheets issued less frequently than once a week, about 10; of weekly magazines, reviews, or similar publications, about 15; of monthly magazines or other periodicals, about 95; of quarterly reviews, and other quarterly periodicals, about 33.-About 4,300 cabs stand for hire, at about 200 places on or near the principal thoroughfares; about 3,500 omnibuses circulate through the metropolis, mostly making the City their central point; about 25 coaches or omnibuses, and about 500 carriers, go from the City to the outward suburbs; and about 150 steam-vessels or other packets sail from about 50 wharves on the river to places on the river itself, or to British or to Continental ports.

The Port and Commerce.—The port of London was formerly bounded seaward by an artificial line from the Naze in Essex, across the mouth of the Thames estuary to the North Foreland in Kent; and, as to exercise of jurisdiction, or the boarding of vessels, was bounded by a line from a standing-stone a little above Southend, across the river, to Gravesend. It then had Gravesend as a sub-port; but that place having been made an independent port in 1860, the port of London is now limited to the reaches which may be called suburban. The actual harbour extends only from London bridge to Woolwich, or, as densely occupied by shipping, only to the termination of the Isle of Dogs; and is divided into the Upper and Lower pools, and the Limehouse, Greenwich, Blackwall, Bugsby's, and Woolwich reaches. The Upper pool extends from the bridge to Wapping-old-stairs, near the Thames tunnel; is 1¼ mile long, and from 250 to 300 yards broad; and has a depth of from 12 to 16 feet at low water, and from 29 to 33 at high water. The Lower pool extends thence to the Regent's canal, Ratcliffe; is a bout 1 mile long, and from 280 to 320 yards broad; and has a depth of from 13 to 18 feet at low water. Limehouse reach extends thence, round Cuckold's Point, to Deptford-yard; is about 1½ mile long, and from 300 to 450 yards broad; and has a similar depth to the Lower pool. Greenwich reach extends thence, past Greenwich hospital, to a total length of about 1¼ mile; Blackwall reach goes thence along all the E side of the Isle of Dogs; the two other reaches go eastward thence to Woolwich; and these four reaches have an average breadth of from 400 to 500 yards. Ships of 800 tons burden come up to the pools; and large barges can go nearly 130 miles above London bridge. Colliers, steamers, and small craft lie along-side quays or wharfs on both sides of the pools, or are moored in the stream; but large vessels are berthed in docks excavated from the borders of the river.

St. Katharine's docks, situated immediately below the Tower, were formed in 1828, at a cost of £1,700,000; displaced an ancient hospital and about 1,250 houses; have a water area of 11½ acres, and a quay and warehouse area of 12½ acres; are entered through alock so deep as to admit ships of 700 tons at any time of the tide; and have excellent storage for about 110,000 tons of goods. The London docks, situated between St. Katharine's docks and Ratcliffe-highway, were partly formed in 1805, and completed in 1858; comprise 34½ acres of water, 49¼ acres of floor in sheds and warehouses, and 20 acres of vault; include a W dock of 20 acres of water, an E dock of 7 acres, an old or Wapping basin of 3 acres, and a new basin of 780 feet by 450; are entered partly by a lock at Shadwell made in 1831, and partly by two locks, 60 feet wide, made in 1858; have a magnificent suite of tea warehouses, erected in 1844-45, and capable of receiving 120,000 chests of tea; have also storage for 20,000 hogsheads of tobacco and 60,000 pipes of wine; and cost altogether about £4,000,000. The West India docks extend across the isthmus of the Isle of Dogs, between Limehouse and Blackwall; were formed in 1800-2, on a capital of £500,000, afterwards raised to £1,200,000; cover, with their accompaniments, an area of 295 acres; comprise a northern or import dock, 170 yards long and 166 wide,-a southern or export dock, 170 yards long and 135 wide,-and a more southern or narrow dock, originally a canal to give direct communication between Blackwall reach and Limehouse reach, and nearly ¾ of a mile long; have such extensive storage as to have held at one time 148,563 casks of sugar, 35,158 pipes of rum and wine, 433,648 bags and 70,875 barrels of coffee, 21,350 tons of logwood, and 14,021 logs of mahogany; have also, around the import and the export docks, a lofty enclosure-wall 5 feet thick; and, though retaining their original name of West India docks, are now open to ships from all countries. The East India docks, situated at Blackwall, a lit the below the West India docks, were formed in 1803-6; include an import dock of 19 acres, an export dock of 10 acres, and a basin of 3 acres; and, since the opening of the trade to India, have been available for all kinds of ships. The Commercial docks, situated on the Surrey side of the river, are entered at a point between Randall's-rents and Dog-and-Duck-stairs, nearly opposite King's-Arms-stairs in the Isle of Dogs; originated in a great wet dock called the Howland, formed so early as 1660, frequented by whaling ships, and thence called afterwards the Greenland docks; underwent great improvement in 1809, and numerous enlargements in subsequent years; comprise seven docks, together with timber-ponds and yards, occupying a total area of upwards of 150 acres; and are open to vessels of all kinds, and much used by those in the Baltic and East country commerce. The Surrey docks, adjoining the Commercial new docks, were formed at a cost of £100,000; and are the usual place of vessels laid up for sale. The Victoria docks, on the S side of the river, in a quondam desolate tract of the Plaistow marshes, were formed in 1855; comprise a water-area of 90 acres, upwards of a mile of quayage, and a total area of 200 acres; and have three pairs of lock-gates, the largest of which is 80 feet in span and entirely of iron. The West London docks, chiefly for barges, on the E side of Battersea park, were authorized in 1864. Two new graving docks at Blackwall were completed in 1866. The Millwall docks were formed in 1866-9; have a water-area of more than 33 acres, capable of enlargement to 52 acres, with a depth of about 28 feet, and with a wharf-frontage of about 6,000 feet; are in the form of the letter T, with the supportingline stretching toward the West India docks; have a great lock 450 feet long and 80 feet wide, and a graving dock 413 feet long and from 65 to 80 feet wide; and are engirt by a land-area of 152 acres for wharves and warehouses Another new dock of about 24 acres, specially for vessels in the East India trade, was formed contemporaneously with the Millwall docks, not far from them, and connected with the East India docks. An enlargement of the Limehouse canal dock, together with construction of a ship entrance-lock 350 feet long by 60 feet wide, was projected in 1868.

The vessels belonging to the port in 1701 were 560, of aggregately 84,882 tons; in 1798 were 2,666, of aggregately 568,268 tons; and at the beginning of 1864 were 731 small sailing vessels, of aggregately 25,364 tons, 1,873 large sailing vessels, of aggregately 801,200 tons, 175 small steam-vessels of aggregately 5,060 tons, and 437 large steam-vessels, of aggregately 227,732 tons. The vessels which cleared in 1753 were 1,369, of aggregately 180,250 tons; and 150 of them were foreign built. The vessels which entered in 1796 were 4,176, of aggregately 723,985 tons, from colonial and foreign ports, and 11,176, of aggregately 1,059,915 tons, coastwise; and 2,169 of those from colonial and foreign ports were foreigners. The vessels which cleared in 1863 were 1,427 British sailing vessels, of aggregately 802,000 tons, to British colonies; 116 foreign sailing vessels, of aggregately 57,831 tons, to British colonies; 1,142 British sailing vessels, of aggregately 188,746 tons, to foreign countries; 3,045 foreign sailing vessels, of aggregately 683,299 tons, to foreign countries; 91 British steamvessels, of aggregately 46,680 tons, to British colonies; 1,804 British steam-vessels, of aggregately 619,523 tons, to foreign countries; 542 foreign steam-vessels, of aggregately 192,742 tons, to foreign countries; 6,457 sailing vessels, of aggregately 459,994 tons, coastwise; and 1,833 steam-vessels, of aggregately 663,590 tons, coastwise. The vessels which entered in 1863 were 2,064 British sailing vessels, of aggregately 857,829 tons, from British colonies; 281 foreign sailing vessels, of aggregately 152,013 tons, from British colonies; 2,820 British sailing vessels, of aggregately 607,441 tons, from foreign countries; 3,687 foreign sailing vessels, of aggregately 809,497 tons, from foreign countries; 100 British steamvessels, of aggregately 59,811 tons, from British colonies: 2,120 British steam-vessels, of aggregately 762,489 tons, from foreign countries; 536 foreign steam-vessels, of aggregately 192,432 tons, from foreign countries: 13,821. sailing vessels, of aggregately 1,819,352 tons, coastwise; and 3,219 steam-vessels, of aggregately 1,324,785 tons, coastwise.

The exports of home produce in 1863, comprised in declared real value, alkali soda, £85,820; apparel and slops, £1,846,989; small fire-arms, £267,899; gunpowder, £242,337; beer and ale, £1,157,005; butter, £80,802; candles, £167,827; cheese, £91,927; coals, cinders, and culm, £109,418; cotton yarn, £1,177,299; cotton piece goods, £5,698,584; cotton hosiery and small wares, £317,229; earthenware and porcelain, £244,541; fish, £47,056; glass, £375,663; haberdashery and millinery, £1,526,147; hardwares and cutlery,.£1,001,647; unwrought leather, £312,530; wrought leather, £1,055,095; saddlery and harness, £224,207; linen yarn, £433,311; linen piece goods, £477,883; linen thread, tapes, and small ware, £26,676; steamengines, £446,732; other sorts of machinery, £625,201; pig, bar, and cast iron, and bolts and wire, £638,804; railroad iron, £502,643; all other kinds of iron, £1,135,214; unwrought steel, £40,455; unwrought copper, £484,601; wrought or partly wrought copper, £1,471,987; lead and shot, £549,300; unwrought tin, £252,602; tin plates, £241,303; seed oil, £354,288; painters' colours, £253,639; paper, £368,625; salt, £19,229; silk-yarn and thrown-silk, £540,535; silk manufactures, £258,694; British and Irish spirits, £125,536; refined sugar, £324,307; sheep and lambs' wool, £259,689; woollen and worsted yarn, £23,635; woollen cloths, £798,538; worsted and mixed stuffs, £1,340,578; flannels, carpets, and kindred fabrics, £716,543; woollen hosiery and other goods, £294,710; all other articles, £7,166,230;-altogether, £36,211,510. The exports of foreign and colonial produce in the same year, comprised 50,135 cwts. of bacon and hams, 9,252 cwts. of Peruvian bark, 6,560 cwts. of caoutchouc, 4,145,647 lbs. of cocoa, 65,926,037 lbs. of coffee, 18,409 qrs. of wheat, 21,989 cwts. of wheatmeal or flour, 424,704 cwts. of raw cotton, 215,954 pieces of cotton fabrics, £49,714 worth of other cotton articles, 16,305 cwts. of cochineal, 45,074 cwts. of indigo, 13,000 cwts. of dressed and undressed flax, 77,521 cwts. of currants, 34,591 cwts. of raisins, 4,983 tons of guano, 91,335 cwts. of shell lac, £57,665 worth of hair and goats' wool manufactures, 203,557 cwts. of dressed and undressed hemp, 252,544 cwts. of untanned hides, 44,926 tons of partly wrought and partly unwrought copper, 12,504 tons of bar-iron, 3,587 tons of spelter or zinc, 18,860 tons of block, ingot, bar, or slab-tin, 190,119 cwts. of cocoa nut oil, 85,707 cwts. of palm oil, 11,343 lbs. of opium, 1,212,513 lbs. of quicksilver, 876,371 cwts. of unhusked rice, 20,673 cwts. of saltpetre, 81,465 qrs. of flax-seed and linseed, 41,286 qrs. of rape-seed, 392,714lbs. of raw silk, 17,984 lbs. of thrown silk, 24,977 pieces of bandannas, corahs, choppas, romals, and taffaties, 725,355lbs. of cinnamon, 9,240,160 lbs. of pepper, 2,035,065 gallons of rum, 727,399 gallons of brandy, 30,107 gallons of Geneva, 94,886 gallons of unremunerated spirits, 247,019 gallons of mixed spirits in bond, 338,369 cwts. of unrefined su gar, 21,418 cwts. of foreign refined and candy sugar, 35,521 cwts. of molasses, 30,225 cwts. of tallow, 25,057,393 lbs. of tea, 252,917 lbs. of stemmed tobacco, 5,276,075 lbs. of unstemmed tobacco, 1,679,496 lbs. of foreign manufactured tobacco and snuff, 2,014,794 gallons of wine, and 38,484,856 lbs. of sheep, lamb, and alpaca wool.

The imports of foreign and colonial produce, in 1863, comprised 83,849 head of oxen, bulls, and cows, 341,565 head of sheep and lambs, 8,539 tons of bones, 6,599,821 lbs. of cocoa, 107,093,177 lbs. of coffee, 881,299 qrs. of wheat, 547,160 qrs. of barley, 1,597,567 qrs. of oats, 48,776 qrs. of pease, 111,284 qrs. of beans, 112,545 qrs. of maize, 1,150,507 cwts. of wheatmeal and flour, 715,461 cwts. of raw cotton, £598,118 worth of cotton manufactures, 10,683 cwts. of cochineal, 72,349 cwts. of indigo, 4,088 cwts. of madder, madder-root, and munjeet, 22,159 cwts. of dressed or undressed flax, 934 cwts. of tow, 616,292 cwts. of currants, 721,202 bushels of lemons and oranges, 296,082 cwts. of raisins, 83,513 tons of guano, 278,571 cwts. of hemp, 740,751 cwts. of jute and other vegetable substances of the nature of undressed hemp, 279,311 cwts. of dry untanned hides, 274,850 cwts. of wet untanned hides, 3,495,394.lbs. of tanned, tawed, or dressed hides, 20,924 tons of mahogany, 7,996 tons of copper ore and regulus, 2,707 tons of partly wrought and partly-unwrought copper, 12,225 tons of unwrought iron in bars, 14,721 tons of unwrought and rolled spelter, 49,715 cwts. of unwrought tin, 5,626 tuns of train, blubber, and spermaceti oils, 152,688 cwts. of palm oil, 312,934 cwts. of cocoa nut oil, 5,118 tuns of olive oil, 7,797 tuns of seed oils, 29,419 tons of oilseed cakes, 298,333 cwts. of bacon and hams, 102,159 cwts. of salted beef, 99,115 cwts. of salted pork, 426,842 cwts. of butter, 185,239 cwts. of cheese, 609,167 great hundreds of eggs, 56,682 cwts. of lard, 10,454 tons of rags and other materials for making paper, 1,325,525 cwts. of unhusked rice, 364,305 cwts. of saltpetre and cubic nitre, 128,036 cwts. of clover-seed, 476,363 qrs. of flax-seed and linseed, 158,262 qrs. of rape-seed, 2,910,092 lbs. of raw silk, 44,918 lbs. of thrown silk, 667,587 lbs. of silk broad-stuffs, 475,263 lbs. of ribbons, 154,413 pieces of bandannas, corahs, choppas, tussore-cloths, romals, and taffaties, 13,778,751 lbs. of pepper, 28,077 cwts. of pimento, 5,133,148 gallons of rum, 2,070,146 gallons of brandy, 66,434 gallons of geneva, 5,047,932 cwts. of unrefined sugar, 77,039 cwts. of refined sugar and sugar candy, 96,831 cwts. of molasses, 720,439 cwts. of tallow, 132,187,293 lbs. of tea, 5,229,642 Ibs. of stemmed tobacco, 24,413,518 lbs. of unstemmed tobacco, 2,183,439 lbs. of manufactured tobacco, cigars, and snuff, 4,128,444 gallons of red wine, 6,231,241 gallons of white wine, 248,646 loads of unsawn or unsplit timber, 540,461 loads of sawn or split timber, 20,686 loads of staves, 110,424,521 lbs. of sheep and lambs' wool, and £850,236 worth of woollen manufactures. The amount of customs, in 1268, was £150; in 1641, £500,000; in 1845, £10,885,156; in 1862, £12,156,114; in 1867, £10,819,711.

River-steamers ply to Chelsea and Battersea, from London bridge, every ten minutes, calling at fifteen intermediate places; to Wandsworth, Putney, Hammersmith, Chiswick, Barnes, Mortlake, Brentford, and Kew, every half hour; to Lambeth, every five minutes, calling at five intermediate places; to Greenwich and Woolwich, every twenty minutes, calling at intermediate piers; to Gravesend, from one or other of several starting points, many times a day, calling at intermediate places; to Sheerness, several times a day, calling at Gravesend and other places; and to Southend, from Hungerford and the Temple daily, calling at intermediate places. Sea-steamers sail to Aberdeen, usually twice a week; to Algoa Bay and Natal, every alternate month; to Amsterdam, weekly; to Antwerp, several times a week, some of them calling at Harwich; to Belfast, every Wednesday, calling at Plymouth and Waterford; to Bilboa and Santander, twice a month; to Bordeaux, about every ten days; to Boulogne, daily; to Bremen, every Thursday; to Bristol, once a fortnight, calling at Fowey; to Caen, every Wednesday and Saturday; to Calais, twice a week; to Christiania, every alternate Thursday, calling at Christiansand; to Constantinople, twice a month; to Copenhagen and Stockholm, every three weeks during the open season; to Cork, every Thursday, calling at Plymouth; to Dieppe, every Tuesday and Friday; to Duhlin, every Wednesday and Saturday; to Dundee, twice a week; to Dunkirk, every second or third day; to the Edinburgh ports of Leith and Grainton, every Wednesday and Saturday; to Falmouth, every Wednesday and Saturday; to Genoa, Leghorn, Naples, Messina, and Palermo, on the 1st and 15th of every month; to Gothenburg, about every 14 days; to Hamburg, one every Friday morning, another twice a week; to Harburg, every Sunday; to Harlingen, every Wednesday and Sunday; to Havre, twice a week; to Hull, every Wednesday and Saturday; to Ipswich, daily, calling at Walton and Harwich; to Lisbon, every fortnight; to Liverpool, every Saturday night, calling at Plymouth, Falmouth, and Penzance; to Malta, twice a month; to Middlesborough-on-Tees, every Saturday; to Newcastle-on-Tyne, three times a week; to Nien Diep, every week; to Oporto, twice a month; to Ostend, every Wednesday and Saturday; to Plymouth, on the way to Cork and to Liverpool; to Portsmouth, on the way to Dublin and to Liverpool; to Rotterdam, five days a week; to Scarborough, once a week; to Smyrna, twice a month; to Southampton, every Wednesday; to St. Petersburg, every week during the open season; to Sunderland, once a week; to Waterford, every Wednesday; to West Hartlepool, every Saturday; to Yarmouth, every Wednesday and Saturday. Some commerce also, by means of intermediate railway communication, is maintained through the ports of Dover, Folkestone, Littlehampton, and Fleetwood.

Public Works.—Causewaying with cube-stones, in the forming of great roads, was well known to the Romans; and paving with lava, to form elevated side-walks, is found to have been practised at Herculaneum and Pompeii; but the paving of streets with stones, in so far as history or monuments inform us, was first practised, so late as the middle of the 9th century, in the city of Cordova in Spain. Paving does not appear to have been commenced in London till the 12th century; was then done only very partially; and was not by any means general till the 17th century. A brief but graphic account of the state of the pavements, toward the end of that century, has been given, in an extract from Macaulay, in our historical section. The principal streets eventually came to be well causewayed, in the central portions, for horses and vehicles, and smoothly flagged, at the sides, for footpassengers; but the suburban streets were dressed only in the manner of good country roads, and even yet, to a considerable aggregate, are merely macadamized in the central parts, and fitted with gravel-paths at the sides. Vigorous attempts were made, about 1840 and subsequent years, to substitute wood in the carriage-ways and asphalt in the foot-paths; but these had very doubtful success, and were in great degree abandoned. An aggregate streetway of not less than 2,000 miles now is well paved; and the annual expense of keeping it in repair is not much under £2,000,000. The management of paving, cleaning, and draining, prior to 1855, was vested in about 300 different bodies, with 10,500 paid functionaries, under 250 local acts; was so wastefully conducted that, for every £100 spent in improvements, £150 were spent in salaries, dinners, and incidental matters; underwent material amelioration at the passing of the metropolitan improvement act of 1855; is still exceedingly divided and far from satisfactorily effective; and was the subject of a notice in the House of Commons, in 1866, that it should be centralized, made more economical, and carried out with more unity of purpose. One clause of the act of 1855 puts the sweeping of the streets under the direction of the parochial boards; another puts the care of keeping the crossings clean on the same boards; another requires that all refuse be taken away at certain periods of the day; and the act imposes heavy fines for the neglect of these duties, but omits to say by whom the fines are to be imposed. The parochial boards, therefore, are left very much to their own discretion, or to act mainly on their own sense of duty. A metropolitan board was constituted by the act, to control the parochial boards, to carry out those great street improvements which we noticed in the section on Structure, and to devise and execute the great works of drainage which we have still to notice; and that board has worked out highly beneficial results, and still carries on its operations, but has very little power over the parochial boards. The offices of the metropolitan board stand at Spring-Gardens, and were built in 1861; they occupy a very peculiarly-shaped piece of ground, and present two fronts, each about 85 feet-long, set at a wide angle, with the junction rounded off for the state entrance; they are three stories high, in the Palladian style, the first story rusticated, the second Ionic, the third Corinthian; they have a facing of "compo, ''with stone for the carvings; and they contain a public board-room, 49 feet long, 30 feet wide, and 33 feet high, with pilasters and panels in the style of the exterior.

The lighting of London at night, till a comparatively recent period, like the lighting of every other city in Europe, was of a most pitiful kind. A great progress was made in 1714 by ordering the citizens to hang out lamps at their doors on dark nights, from six in the evening till eleven; but the lighting in 1734 comprised no more than about 1,000 small lamps; and even so late as 1797, it had mere glimmerings from lamps, at about every tenth door. The lamps, too, were lighted only from Michaelmas till Lady-day, only from six in the evening till midnight, and only from the third day after each full moon till the sixth day after the new one. The lighting is now done from 18 public gasworks, producing annually about 5,000,000,000 cubic feet of gas, sent through upwards of 2,000 miles of pipes, and costing upwards of £1,500,000. The gas-works and companies are the British gas-works, Old Ford; the Chartered Gas and Coke company, Horseferry-road, Westminster, Brick-lane, and Curtain-road; the Commercial Gas Company, Ben Jonson's fields; the Deptford gas-works, Creek-street; the Equitable gas-works, Thames-bank, Westminster; the Great Central Gas Consumers' company, Bow-common; the Imperial gas-works, Maiden-lane, Hackney, Shoreditch, and Fulham; the Independent gas-works, Haggerston; the London Gas-company, Westminster and Vauxhall; the Phœnix gas-works, Bankside, Blackfriarsroad, and Bridge-street, Greenwich; the Poplar gasworks, King-street; the Ratcliffe gas-works, Wapping; the South Metropolitan Gas company, Surrey Canalbridge, Camberwell; and the Surrey Consumers' Gas company, Rotherhithe Western, Kensal-green. An enactment is in force, that no gas-pipe shall be laid within 4 feet of a water-pipe, except where the one must cross the other; and that, when a crossing is inevitable, no joint in a gas-pipe must come within 4 feet of a waterpipe. A new arrangement, in some localities, for the laying of gas-pipes and water-pipes, is made by means of the "subways ''which we noticed in the article on Structure. A great meeting, on the requisition of nearly 1,000 gas-consumers in the City, and convened by the lord mayor, was held in the Guildhall in 1865, to take steps for a reduction in the price of gas from 4s. 6d. to 2s. 9d. per 1,000 cubic feet; and unanimously resolved that measures should be adopted for obtaining an act to empower the Corporation either to purchase the existing gas-plant and contract for the supply of gas into it, or to erect works and enter into the manufacture and distribution of gas to the consumers.

The supply of water to the metropolis, in its early periods and down to the formation of the New river, has been incidentally noticed in our historical section. The supply eventually came to be furnished from the works of nine public companies; amounted on the average, in 1856, to 88,000,000 gallons daily, or 239 gallons per house; and ran through an aggregate of 2,086 miles of main pipes and branches. Nearly one half is drawn from the river Thames; and the rest is drawn from the river Lea, the small river Ravensbourn, and varions brooks and springs. The Thames portion was originally raised at spots within the bounds of the metropolis, at no great distance from the mouths of the common sewers; but after 31 Aug. 1855, no company, except the Chelsea company, was allowed to take water from any part of the Thames below Teddington Lock. The prevention of impurity, in the case of all the supplies, was further secured by an enactment, that all reservoirs within five miles of St. Paul's shall be covered, or that the water Shall be filtered. The nine companies differ widely as to at once the sources whence they draw, the quantities which they supply, and the portions of the metropolis which they serve. The Grand Junction company draws from the Thames above Hampton; supplies about 7,000,000 gallons daily; and serves Paddington and part of Piccadilly. The West Middlesex company draws from the Thames at Hampton; supplies about 11,500,000 gallons daily; and serves Regent's-park and Portland Town. The Chelsea company draws from the Thames at Seething-wells, near Thames-Ditton; supplies about 7,500,000 gallons daily; and serves Chelsea and Belgravia The Southwark and Vauxhall company draws from the Thames at Hampton; supplies a similar quantity to the West Middlesex company; and serves great part of Southwark and Kennington, together with Wandsworth, Clapham, Peckham, and some other parts. The Lambeth company draws from the Thames between Kingston and Thames-Ditton; supplies about 8,000,000 gallons daily; and serves Lambeth, Newington, Camberwell, Brixton, Tooting, Streatham, and Dulwich. The New River company draws from Chadwell-spring near Ware, from other small springs, from the river Lea, and from four artesian wells; supplies about 27,000,000 gallons daily; and serves the City, Islington, Highbury, Hornsey, Highgate, and Hampstead. The East London company draws from the river Lea, by a canal to Old Ford; supplies nearly 16,000,000 gallons daily; and serves from Upper Clapton southward to Bethnal-Green and Limehouse, and eastward to Stratford and Plaistow. The Kent company draws from the Ravensbourn rivulet; supplies nearly 4,000,000 gallons daily; and serves Deptford, Greenwich, Blackheath, Charlton, and Woolwich. The Woolwich and Plumstead company was established so late as 1852; draws from a well and deep boring in the chalk; supplied 550,000 gallons daily in 1856: and serves part of the same places as the Kent company. An official report in 1866 showed the Grand Junction's water to contain 17.49 grains of solid matter per gallon; the West Middlesex's, 1 6.77; the Chelsea's, 16.6; the Southwark and Vauxhall's, 17.1; the Lambeth's, 18.39; the New River's, 17.16; the East London's, 18.16; the Kent's, 27.86. An official report for 1868 showed that, in 100,000 parts of water, the total solid impurity varied from 26.9 in the New River's to 45.3 in the Kent's; while it was only 6.2 in the water of Manchester, 4.6 in that of Lancaster, 3.0 in that of Glasgow, and 2.2 in that of Whitehaven. The same document showed also that contamination from sewage or manure affected from 1,590 to 3,842 parts in every 100,000 of the London waters, but was absent from those of the towns named. Improvement of the London waters was reached before the end of 1868, and was expected to go on.

Additional supplies of water, even for the present population, have become highly desirable or quite essential; and for prospective increase of population, are a very grave desideratum. Supplies of purer quality, too, at least for all drinking and cooking purposes, are loudly called for, and would be required to the extent of diverting the present supplies all to other purposes. Tentative measures were in progress in 1866, on the part of the water companies, to obtain additional supplies from the river Severn immediately above Tewkesbury; to render these supplies pure by diverting or utilizing all the sewage of the towns higher up the river; and to convey the supplies to large reservoirs at a distance of 9 miles from Tewkesbury, and at a sufficient elevation to send the water under high pressure to every portion of the metropolis. The works were estimated to cost about £3,000,000. An alternative project was, at the same time, a foot on the part of the water companies, in the event of the tentative measures for the Severn scheme being unsatisfactory, to draw supplies from the sources of the river Wye among the Welsh mountains, with construction of works to cost £2,500,000 more than those for the Severn scheme, or altogether £5,500,000. Varions projects, independent of these of the water companies, were under discussion in 1866; and the most remarkable of them were one proposed by Mr. Bateman, and another proposed by Messrs. Hemans and Hassard. Mr. Bateman's project was to form collecting reservoirs among cooms and upland vales of certain groups of the Welsh mountains, and to construct an aqueduct thence to London 183 miles long; and, though contemplating vast cost, was computed to afford very fair prospect of yielding good pecuniary compensation. Messrs. Hemans and Hassard's project was to bring supplies from the lakes of Westmoreland and Cumberland; to construct an aqueduct 240 miles long, with a tunnel of 7 ½ miles in length under Kirkstone-pass; to send off 50,000,000 gallons daily to towns on the way to London; and to bring to London itself 200,000,000. The cost of this stupendous work was estimated at £12,200,000; and the rate to be levied for the supply by it on house-rental in London, was estimated at possibly not more than 7½d. or 8d. per pound, and, on the highest and most unfavourable view of the whole case, at not more than 11 ¼d.

A plentiful and regular supply of water is essential, not only for the health of the population and for the carrying on of manufactures, but also for the extinguishing of conflagrations. London, under its improved modern construction, may no longer fear to suffer desolation by fire on any such awful scale as in former times; but, from the density of its streets, the prodigious numerousness of its places of business, and the combustibility of the materials stored in its warehouses or used in its manufactures, as well as from other causes, it is still subject to frequent accidental fires. Some of the fires, even in recent years, in spite of all precautions to prevent them, and of all appliances to extinguish them, have been very great; and so many, on the average, as 900 in the year, or a fraction more than 17 in the week, take place. Two fire-engines, in terms of an act of 1688, were required to be kept by every parish; and so many as 300 of them were at one time in use; but they were mere "hand squirts, ' of little effective service. The formation of insurance companies began in 1682, went on slowly till 1717, accelerated rapidly during the rest of last century, and led the way to more efficient methods for suppressing fire. The companies, for a long time, were too rivalrous with one another to originate common action against fires; but at length in 1833 ten of them agreed to place their engines under one committee of management, with an organized body of men to work as one force. The new organization took the name of the fire brigade; had soon about 100 trained men, with two floating engines on the Thames, and twenty-seven other large engines and nine small ones; and disposed them at a central station in Watling-street, and at nineteen other stations. An institution for rescuing persons from burning houses rose simultaneously with the fire brigade; divided the metropolis into sixty-two sections, each with an area of half a mile square; has trained men every night in readiness to act on the alarm of fire; keeps, at forty-two stations, fire-escapes in constant readiness for action; and is computed to have rescued, on the average, about eight persons every year. A new fire brigade in room of the previous one, and under the management of the Metropolitan Board of Works, began to act at the commencement of 1866; consists of chief's and 350 officers and men, distributed among 33 large and 56 small stations, and provided with 4 steam floating engines, 4 large land-steamers, 27 small land-steamers, and 370 large manual engines, with horses, drivers, and all needful appliances; and is to be maintained at a cost of not more than £50,000 a year. The increase, as compared with the previous fire brigate, comprises 219 firemen, 72 stations, 2 large floating engines, 2 large landsteamers, 4 small land-steamers, and 61 manual engines.

A system of drainage was instituted in the time of Henry VI.; underwent improvement and vast extension at varions subsequent periods; was investigated by a committee of the House of Commons, in 1834; and acquired a condition which, though well seen to be far from perfect, was thought for a time to be sufficiently effective. That system included, on the N side of the Thames, no fewer than 50 main sewers, aggregately 106 miles long, -on the S side, 21 main sewers, aggregately 60 miles long; comprised, with subsidiary sewers, not less than an aggregate of 1,000 miles of underground channels; discharged daily into the Thames, on the N side, about 7,045,120 cubic feet of sewage,-on the S side, about 2,457,600 cubic feet; and was enlarged, during the fifteen months ending in March 1857, to the aggregate of 44 miles of sewers, at a cost of nearly £100,000. But some of its sewers were, in fact, mere subterranean canals, constructed along the beds of ancient streams; so many as drained about 3 square miles of streets and other densely edificed places, discharged into the Thames at points from 6 to 7 feet below high-water mark,. with the effect of rendering them, throughout these 3 square miles, during a large proportion of every twelve hours, a vast series of sheer cesspools; and all poured their contents into the river in direct contact with the metropolis, converting all its waters into foul diluted sewage, offensive enough if the current had always been running seaward, and made intensely offensive by the stemming of the tides. An entirely new system, under the direction of the Metropolitan Board of Works, was begun to be formed in 1859; went steadily on in formation, during subsequent years; was nearly completed at the end of 1869; and is estimated to have cost about £4,100,000. This comprises three main sewers, called the high level, the middle level, and the low level, on the N side of the river, and two main sewers, called the high level and the low level, on the S side; it was based on the principle of intercepting the old drainage by new lines of sewers, at right angles to the previous sewers, and a little below their levels; it conveys the entire sewage of the metropolis, and as much as practicable of the rainfall, to outlets at Barking creek on the N and at Crossness Point on the S, about 14 miles below London bridge; it carries off as large a proportion as possible by gravitation, and provides a discharge for the remainder by constant pumping; it delivers the whole into terminal reservoirs, placed at inch a level on the banks of the river as enables them to empty themselves at or about the time of high water; and, by that arrangement, it both secures the dilution of the entire volume of sewage there by the large mass of the tidal waters, and occasions it to be carried off by the ebb to a point 26 miles below London bridge, so as effectually to prevent the return of it by the following flood tide to the metropolitan area. The high level sewer, on the N side, commences immediately below Hampsteadheath; and runs, by Holloway, Stoke-Newington, Hackney, and Bow, to the outfall at Barking-creek. The middle level sewer commences near Kensal-green; follows the Uxbridge road and Oxford-street; crosses Clerkenwell-green, Bethnal-green, and Old Ford; passes on to the Hackney marshes; and there falls into the high level sewer. The low level sewer commences above Millbank penitentiary; runs nearly parallel with the Thames, by Abingdon-street, Palace-yard, and Parliament-street, to Whitehall; is joined there by a sewer draining the W, and passing between Belgravia and Chelsea; proceeds from Whitehall so closely to the Thames as to have connexion with the Thames embankment; goes on in contiguity to the Thames to the vicinity of the Tower; proceeds thence nearly in the line of the Blackwall railway; and joins the high level sewer at Bow. The high level sewer, on the S side, commences at the foot of the high ground at Clapham; runs N of Stockwell, Camberwell, and Peckham, to New Cross; passes under part of Greenwich and part of Greenwich park; proceeds through the marshes to Woolwich; goes in a tunnel under Woolwich; becomes an open canal through the Plumstead marshes; and proceeds to the outfall at Crossness Point. The low level sewer commences at Putney; drains Wandsworth, Battersea, Lambeth, and Southwark; crosses the Kent road; drains Bermondsey and Deptford; and joins the high level sewer at a point in the Ravensbourne valley between Deptford and Greenwich. Provision is made in the new main drainage system for anticipated increase of sewage, up to 11,500,000 cubic feet per day on the N side, and 5,750,000 cubic feet per day on the S side, and also for a rainfall of respectively 28,500,000, and 17,250,000 cubic feet per day.

The Municipality.—The City has a series of charters, from the time of Edward the Confessor till 23 George II.; is divided into 26 wards, with subdivision into precincts; and is governed by a lord mayor, 26 aldermen inclusive of the lord mayor, 206 common councillors, two sheriffs, a recorder, and other officers. The lord mayor is elected annually on 29 Sept., and installed on 9 Nov.; is chosen from the aldermen who have been sheriff's; is, in vurtue of his office, conservator of the Thames, admiral of the port, chief butler at a coronation, lord lieutenant of the county, and a member of the privy council: and has an income of £6,000, with resi dence at the Mansion House. The aldermen, since 1354, have been elected for life; are chosen, one in each ward, by freemen-householders paying an annual rent of £10: and are justices of peace for the county. The senior alderman represents the ward of Bridge-Without, and is popularly called the "Father of the City. ' ' A deputy is appointed by each alderman to represent him in his ward; and the lord-mayor's deputy is bailiff of Southwark. Fourteen of the common councillors are deputies of the aldermen; and the others are chosen annually on St. Thomas'-day, one by each precinct of each ward, excepting the ward of Bridge-Without. Aldergate-Within ward has 4 precincts, and returns 4 councillors; Aldersgate-Without, 4; Aldgate, 8; Bassishaw, 4; Billingsgate, 8; Bishopsgate-Within-and-Without, 14; Bread-street, 8; BridgeWithin, 8: Broad-street, 8; Castle-Baynard, 8; Cheap, 8; Codeman-street, 8; Cordwainer, 6; CripplegateWithin, 8; Cripplegate-Without, 8; Dowgate, 6; Faringdon-Within, 14; Faringdon-Without, 16; Langbourn, 8; Lime-street, 4; Portsoken, 8; Queenhithe, 6; Tower, 8; Vintry, 6; and Walbrook, 6. The two sheriffs are chosen at midsummer, and installed at Michaelmas; act conjointly for London and Middlesex; have under them two sub-sheriffs, a secondary, 16 sergeants, yeomen, and other officers; and have each an income of £1,000. The recorder is chosen for life, and has an income of £3,000. The common sergeant has £1,500; the town-clerk has £2,800; and there are two chamberlains, a comptroller, a city remembrance, and a sword-bearer. The civic offices are filled chiefly by second-class citizens as to station; and are usually declined by the principal merchants and bankers, who occasionally pay heavy fines to be exempted from serving. The freemen comprise all the constituents, and furnish all the candidates; they include all persons of full age, and not subject to any legal incapacity, who choose to pay each £6 5s. 4d.; and they amount to upwards of 20,000. The liverymen are such freemen and members of the city guilds as enjoy certain privileges additional to those of other freemen; they formerly were only such as possessed superior wealth, but now may be any of the members of the great majority of the guilds; and they amount to about 10,000. The City guilds or companies were originally 87 in number, but are now 81; many are veRy rich, but most have ceased to exercise their old privileges; the twelve leading ones are styled "Honourable, ''and called "the Twelve Great Companies; ''forty-one of the whole have halls, while forty have none; and each is under the direction of a master, a senior warden, a junior warden, and a court of assistants, chosen by the members. The principal halls were noticed in our section on Public Buildings. The City arms are the sword of St. Paul and the cross of St. George. The City sends four members to parliament. The number of electors in 1833, was 18,58 4, and included 9,527 with ancient-right qualifications; and the number, in 1868, was 17,534. The electoral statistics for the other six metropolitan boroughs are given in the articles on these boroughs.

Statistics.—Varions statistics have already been given in the sections on subjects with which they are connected; and some more will be given in the two sections which are to follow. The statistics to be given here are on matters of mainly independent kinds, more or less isolated from other subjects; and they relate to police, to offences, to property, to population, to mortality, and to climate.

The metropolitan police force was established in 1829, by Sir Robert Peel; it superseded a previous force of constables and watchmen, consisting largely of feeble old men, and quite incompetent for required duties; and it does not include the City police. The bounds of its jurisdiction are indicated in our section on Topography; and the courts for it are mentioned in our section on Public Buildings. Three magistrates sit in the Bow-street court, -two in each of the other courts; and all are appointed by the Home Secretary, and must be barristers of seven years' standing. The force is distributed into divisions, designated severally by letters of the alphabet; and each policeman is dressed in blue, and has on his coat-collar the letter of his division with his number. The divisions, with their respective regions, are A Whitehall; B Westminster; C St. James; D Marylebone; E Holborn; F Covent-garden; G Finsbury; H Whitechapel; K Stepney; L Lambeth; M Southwark; NIslington; P Camberwell; R Greenwich; S Hampstead; T Kensington; V Wandsworth; T.D the river Thames. The head station is in Scotland-yard, opposite the Horse Guards; and subordinate stations are distributed through all the divisions, in numbers proportionate to population and area. The force, on 29 Sept., 1864, consisted of a chief commissioner, 2 assistant-commissioners, 18 superintendments, 180 inspectors, 697 sergeants, 5,772 constables, and 12 detective officers; but it was raised, in the following year, to 23 superintendents, 211 inspectors, 785 sergeants, and 6,172 constables. The expenditure, during the year ending 29 Sept., 1864, amounted to £527,248; and included £369,351 for salaries and pay, £33,442 for clothing and accoutrements, £59,096 for superannuating and gratuities, £720 for allowances and contingent expenses, and £45,362 for station-house charges, printing, stationery, and some other matters. The expenditure, in the following year, amounted to £560,864; the receipts, in that year, amounted to £662,244; and they included £78,030 of balance, £354,627 from the parishes, and £118,209 from the public treasury. A portion of the force, for the suburbs, is mounted; and the annual cost, in connexion with this, for horses, harness, forage, and other matters, amounts to upwards of £8,828. Each policeman of the metropolitan force has the marking of his coat-collar in white; and each policeman of the City force has the marking in yellow. The City force, on 29 Sept., 1864, consisted of a commissioner, 2 superintendents, 14 inspectors, 66 sergeants, 514 constables, 40 assistant constables, and 12 detective officers; and the expenditure on it, during the year ending 29 Sept., 1864, amounted to £50,801, and included £40,013 in salaries and pay, £1,532 for clothing and accoutrements, £2,698 for superannuations and gratuities, £77 for allowances and contingent expenses, and £3,791 for station-house charges, printing, stationery, and other matters. A third police is connected with the royal dock-yards and arsenals; and this, on 29 Sept., 1864, consisted of a head constable, 5 superintendents, 32 inspectors, 92 sergeants, 587 constables, and 8 detective officers; and the expenditure on it, during the year ending 29 Sept., 1864, amounted to £48,240, and included £42,448 in salaries and pay, £3,800 for clothing and accoutrements, £334 for superannuations and gratuities, £688 for allowances and contingent expenses, and £361 for station-house charges, printing, stationery, and other matters.

Crime, in the metropolis, is far from being as rampant as in former times; but, though very greatly diminished in recklessness and gross violence, and though materially diminished also in numerical magnitude, is still enormous. So large a proportion of the entire population as 1 in 178 is believed to live by crime; and a very large fraction of that proportion, in spite of constant activity and keen vigilance on the part of the police, escapes detection or even suspicion. The number of crimes known to have been committed within the bounds of the metropolitan police, during the year ending 29 Sept., 1864, was 12,291; the number of persons apprehended was 5,088; the number of depredators, offenders, and suspected persons at large, was 13,260; and the number of houses of bad character was 2,362. The crimes known to have been committed within the bounds of the City police, during the same year, were 1,238; the persons apprehended, 717; the depredators, offenders, and suspected persons at large, 129; the houses of bad character, 57. The crimes committed and the persons apprehended, within the bounds of the royal dock-yards' police, during the same year, were 5.

The real property of the City, as assessed for property tax, and reported in 1860, was £2,121,738-of which £143,915 were in railways and £23,507 in gas-works; of Westminster, £2,762,242,-of which £44,318 were in railways, £37,525 in canals, and £36,273 in gas-works; of the Inns of Court, £102,269; of Bloomsbury, £299,540; of Finsbury, £1,465,876,-of which £20,274 were in canals, and £10,722 in gas-works; of Holborn, £5,402,029,-of which £3,330,619 were in railways, and £96,448 in gas-works; of Kensington, £988,107,-of which £4,650 were in gas-works; of Marylebone, £1,197,996; of the Tower E division, £1,675,986,-of which £479,849 were in railways, and £9,500 in gasworks; of the Tower W division, £995,252,-of which£2,384 were in railways, and £102,727 in gas-works; of Brixton E first, £667,042,-of which £16,337 were in canals, and £18,512 in gas-works; of Brixton E second, £1,146,684,-of which £468,431 were in railways, and £25,000 in gas-works; of Brixton E third, £642,053,- of which £1,900 were in railways, and £32,619 in gasworks; of Brixton W, £375,390,-of which £1,707 were in gas-works; of Southwark, £1,317,041,-of which £986,666 were in railways; of Blackheath, £697,841,- of which £7,259 were in gas-works.-The property of the entire registration-metropolis, as assessed in the several parishes per county rate or like basis, in Jan., 1862, was £12,514,053. The items of this, in the divisions of the Metropolitan Board of Works, were, -the City, £1,300,156; Marylebone, £976,820; St. Pancras, £800,640; Lambeth,. £637,000; St. George-Hanoversquare, £943,696; Islington, £548,572; Shoreditch, £265,772; Paddington, £526,420; Bethnal-Green, £130,320; Newington, £240,000; Camberwell, £250,000; St. James-Westminster, £431,500; Clerkenwell, £221,372; Chelsea, £234,248; Kensington, £319,924; St. Luke, £171,564; St-George-the-Martyr, Southwark, £146,000; Bermondsey, £150,000; St. George-in-theEast, £170,274; St. Martin-in-the-Fields, £258,708; Mile-End-Old Town, £162,388; Woolwich, £83,000; Rotherhithe, £83,500; Hampstead, £104,156; Whitechapel, Christchurch-Spitalfields, St. Botolph-without-Aldgate, Holy Trinity-Minories, St. Katharine precinct, Mile-End-New-Town, Norton-Folgate, Old Artillery Ground, the Tower liberty, respectively £111,866, £37,876, £50,920, £6,089, £17,328, £13,132, £8,108, £4,059, and £2,799; St. Margaret-Westminster and St. John-the-Evangelist-Westminster, £274,500: St. Paul-Deptford, St. Nicholas-Deptford, and Greenwich, respectively £115,000, £20,000, and £125,300; Clapham, Tooting-Graveney, Streatham, Battersea, Wandsworth, and Putney, respectively £107,000, £9,800, £56,800, £83,800, £58,000, and £46,000; Hackney and StokeNewington, respectively £253,084 and £41,356; St. Giles-in-the-Fields and St. George-Bloomsbury, jointly £261,696; St. Andrew-Holborn-above-Bars, and St George-the-Martyr-Holborn, jointly £126,212; St. Sepulchre, Glasshouse-yard liberty, and Saffron Hill, ', respectively £16,324, £3,978, and £25,129; St. AnneSoho, St. Paul. Covent-garden, the Savoy precinct, St. Mary-le-Strand, St. Clement-Danes, and the Rolls liberty, respectively £90,648, £42,472, £8,680, £19,332, £90,784, and £16,432; Hammersmith and Fulham, £77,804 and £55,916; St. Anne-Limehouse, St. JohnWapping, St. Paul-Shadwell, and Ratcliffe hamlet, respectively £67,027, £35,349, £30,936, and £44,740; All Saints-Poplar, St. Mary-Stratford-le-Bow, and St. Leonard-Bromley, respectively £184,548, £30,744, and £57,212; Christchurch and St. Saviour, £63,000 and £101,000; Charlton-next-Woolwich, Plumstead, Eltham, Lee, and Kidbrooke, respectively £35,000, £28,430, £14,900, £23,500, and £8,600; Lewisham and Penge, £140,300 and £43,800; St. Olave, St. Thomas-Southwark, and St. John-Horsleydown, £47,000, £4,700, and £48,000; the Charterhouse, Grays-Inn, St-Peter's Close, the Inner Temple, the Middle Temple, Lincolns-Inn, Staple-Inn, and Furnival's-Inn, respectively £1,948, £12,676, £1,420, £20,236, £13,000, £16,420, £2,152, and £3,164.-The income of the City corporation, in 1860, was £366,229, and included £56,346 of balance, £100,877 of rents and quit-rents, £14,120 of market-rents, and £90,533 of duties on coals, corn, ' The expenditure, in the same year, included £5,020 of charges on markets, £8,970 on the metropolitan cattle market, £31,500 in,id of metropolitan improvements, £11,889 for the City police, £18,836 on prisons, £27,441 on civil government and £105,000 on repayment of loans, and in other charges; and left a balance of £78,807. The produce of 8d. coal duty, for improvements in the metropolis, in the same year, yielded in trust to the corporation, £146,521; that of 4d. duty, in lieu of met age and other charges, £54,766; that of an additional 1d. duty, £18,470; that of the Bridge House estates, £38,718; and that of the Finsbury prebendal manor, which was held from the dean and chapter of St. Paul's, and would revert to them in about six years, £48,896. The gross estimated rental of the City assessed to poor rates, in 1859, was £1,193,412; and the net rateable value was £986,472. The population of the metropolis, according to the best estimates, was, in the middle of the 12th century, 40,000; in 1562,102,852; in 1604,140,000; in 1625,285,000; in 1664,453,000; in 1682,670,000; in 1701,674,000. The pop., according to Census, was, in 1801,958,863; in 1811,1,138,815; in 1821,1,378,947; in 1831, 1,654,994; in 1841,1,948,417; in 1851,2,362,236; in 1861,2,803,989. The limits, for the pop. by Census, are those fixed by the registrar-general for registration of births, deaths, and marriages. The males, in 1861, were 1,307,781; the females, 1,496,208. The persons in prisons, reformatories, lunatic asylums, workhouses, workhouse-schools, barracks, and residential charitable institutions, were 64,999; of whom 36,924 were males, and 28,075 were females. The persons on board vessels were 8,084; of whom 5,324 were on board of British vessels, and 2,760 were on board of foreign and colonial vessels. The males under 5 years of age were 180,893; thence under 10,149,335; thence under 15,130,799; thence under 20,119,949; thence under 25,122,548; thence under 30,111,668; thence under 35,102,755; thence under 40,88,366; thence under 45,82,068; thence under 50,62,782; thence under 55,51,497; thence under 60,34,985; thence under 65,30,438; thence under 70,17,614; thence under 75,12,241; thence under 80,6,133; thence under 85,2,706; thence under 90,779; thence under 95,183; thence upward, 42. The females under 5 years of age were 181,403; thence under 10,150,924; thence under 15,133,550; thence under 20,139,206; thence under 25,154,841; thence under 30,140,367; thence under 35,122,012; thence under 40,102,151; thence under 45,93,832; thence under 50,71,408; thence under 55,61,231; thence under 60,43,202; thence under 65, 40,878; thence under 70,25,322; thence under 75, 18,862; thence under 80,10,061; thence under 85, 4,821; thence under 90,1,615; thence under 95,412; thence upward, 110. The inhabited houses in 1861 were 359,421; the uninhabited, 15,774; and those in process of erection at the taking of the census, 4,027.-The pop. of the City was, in 1851,127,869; in 1861,112,063. The males, in the latter year, were 53,991; the females, 58,072. The inhabited houses were 13,298; the uninhabited, 2,058; and those in process of erection at the taking of the census, 97.-The pop. within the bounds of the metropolitan police, exclusive of the City, in 1861, was 3,110,654; and the inhabited houses were 431,231. The pop. within these bounds, and inclusive of the City, in 1861, was 3,222,717; and the inhabited houses were 434,529.

The rate of mortality in the metropolis, in 1700, was 1 in 26; and it went on increasing till 1741, when it was so high as 1 in 20. The births in 1741 were only 14,357, while the deaths were 32,169; so that great decrease of population could be prevented, or any increase made, only by influx from the country. The births, from 1744 till 1800, were still short of the deaths, to the aggregate of 267,000, or to the annual average of 4,800; but from 1801 till 1830, they exceeded the deaths to the aggregate of 102,975, or to the annual average of 3,600; and since that time they have, upon the whole, had a steady proportionate increase. The excess of births over deaths, in 1851, was 22,812; in 1852,26,612; in 1853,22,185; in 1854,11,188; in 1855,23,590; in 1856,30,156; in 1857,30,474; in 1858,24,919; in 1859,31,049; in 1860, 31,105; in 1861,31,813; in 1862,30,479; in 1863, 31,059. The average annual mortality in 1815, was 1 in 38; it fell thence till 1840, when it was only 1 in 44, or considerably less than the average in all England and Wales, and very much less than the average in most of the large cities on the Continent; and it has continned to be, not quite so low indeed, but on the whole favourable. The rate per cent., in 1851, was 2.338; in 1852,2.261; in 1853,2.441; in 1854,2.943; in 1855, 2.431; in 1856,2.209; in 1857,2.241; in 1858,2.39; in 1859,2.269; in 1860,2.249; in 1861, 2318; in 1862, 2356; in 1863,2.447. The material increase from 1856 till 186.3, as it was somewhat steady, was probably due, in great degree, to some chronic cause, such as badness of drainage or impurity of water. Previous decrease, especially in the years of the present century till 1840, manifestly arose from general sanitary improvement; and a decrease from the average of 1863 was likely to result from the great new works of street-cleaning, water-supply, and drainage. The death-rate, in 1863, of the west districts, was 2.324; of the south districts, 2.333; of the north districts, 2.377; of the east districts, 2.648; of the central-districts, 2.651. The death-rate, in 1868, of the west districts, was 2.27; of the south and north districts, 2.29; of the east districts, 2.56; of the central districts, 2.47. The standard rate of mortality in a healthy population, under conditions free from noxions influences, is assumed to be 1.7 per cent.; so that the average rate of what may be termed unnatural deaths in London, or deaths arising from noxions influences, may be set down at somewhere about 0.6 per cent.; and this rate, computing on the population census of 1861, gives the aggregate result of 334 unnatural deaths a week, or 17,426 a year. The deaths from zymotic diseases, in 1860, were 13,276; in 1863,20,672. The deaths from small-pox, notwithstanding all the facilities for vaccination, in 1862, were 366; in 1863,1,996. The deaths from measles, in 1862, were 2,334; in 1863,1,634. The deaths from fever, in 1862, were 3,598; in 1863,2,808. The deaths from scarlatina, in 1858, were 4,184; in 1859, 3,481; in 1863,4,955.

The climate of London is comparatively good. The mean temperature is about 510 9; the mean height of the barometer, about 29.9 inches; the mean fall of rain, about 23.5 inches. A fall of the thermometer has been known to 60 below zero, and a rise to 940 in the shade; but such occurrences are extremely rare. Dense fogs sometimes occur, especially in November and December; and occasionally make such obscurity, even at midday, as to render necessary then the burning of gas in shops and warehouses. South-west winds commonly blow about 112 days in the year, chiefly between mid-summer and mid-autumn; north-west winds occur mostly from Novem ber till March; and north-east winds in January, March, April, May, and June. North winds seldom blow more than in 16 days in the year. The mean temperature, in 1849, was 500; in 1850,49.3; in 1851,49.2; in 1852,50.6; in 1853,47.7; in 1854,48.9; in 1855, 47.1; in 1856,49; in 1857,51; in 1858,49.2; in 1859, 50.7; in 1860,47; in 1861,49.4; in 1862,49.5; in 1863,50.3. The dryness of the atmosphere, in 1849, was 6.60; in 1850,6.1; in 1851,6.5; in 1852,7.4; in 1853,6.2; in 1854,4.7; in 1855,4.5; in 1856,5.6; in 1857,5.2; in 1858,6.5; in 1859,6; in 1860,4.6; in 1861,5; in 1862,4.7; in 1863,6. The fall of rain, in 1849, was 23.9 inches; in 1850,19.7; in 1851,21.6; in 1852,34.2; in 1853,29; in 1854,18.7; in 1855,21.1: in 1856,22.2; in 1857,21.4; in 1858,17.8; in 1859, 25.9; in 1860,32; in 1861,20.8; in 1862,26.2; in 1863,19.8. The mean weekly amount of horizontal movement of the air, in 1849, was 1,808 miles; in 1850, 1,841; in 1851,1,730; in 1852,1,781; in 1853,1,597; in 1854,1,731; in 1855,1,659; in 1856,1,775; in 1857, 1,562; in 1858,1,626; in 1859,1,598; in 1860,1,676; in 1861,1,666; in 1862,1,680; in 1863,1,775. The relation of mortality to meteorology in the weekly average of 1863, was as follows:-during the first quarter, the weekly average number of deaths was 1,455, the mean temperature of the air was 42.60, the average daily range of temperature was 14.10, the dryness of the atmosphere was 4.90, the average fall of rain was.3 inches, and the weekly amount of horizontal movement of the air was 1,973 miles; during the second quarter, the weekly average number of deaths was 1,328, the mean temperature of the air was 53.10, the average daily range of temperature was 21.30, the dryness of the atmosphere was 7.10, the average fall of rain was.43 inches, and the weekly amount of horizontal movement of the air was 1,651 miles; during the third quarter, the weekly average number of deaths was 1,321, the mean temperature of the air was 58.80, the average daily range of temperature was 20.90, the dryness of the atmosphere was 8.10, the average fall of rain was.45 inches, and the weekly amount of horizontal movement of the air was 1,564 miles; and during the fourth quarter, the weekly averagenumber of deaths was 1,349, the mean temperature of the air was 46.80, the average daily range of temperature was 11.80, the dryness of the atmosphere was 3.90, the average fall of rain was.35 inches, and the weekly amount of horizontal movement of the air was 1,922 miles.

Registration Districts.—The registration-metropolis is divided into the six west districts of Kensington, Chelsea, St. George-Hanover-square, Westminster, St. Martin-in-the-Fields, and St. James-Westminster; the five north districts of Marylebone, Hampstead, Pancras, Islington, and Hackney; the eight central districts of St. Giles, Strand, Holborn, Clerkenwell, St. Luke, East London, West London, and London City; the seven east districts of Shoreditch, Bethnal-Green, Whitechapel, St. George-in-the-East, Stepney, Mile-End-Old-Town, and Poplar; and the eleven south districts of St. SaviourSouthwark, St. Olave-Southwark, St. George-Southwark, Bermondsey, Newington, Lambeth, Wandsworth, Camberwell, Rotherhithe, Greenwich, and Lewisham. All these districts, with their respective statistics, except East London, West London, and London City, are noticed severally in the articles bearing their own titles. The amount from poor rates in the entire registrationmetropolis, in 1863, was £1,431,516; and from receipts in aid of poor rates, £65,968. The expenditure, in the same year, on thein maintenance of poor was £297,753; on the out-relief of poor, £219,320; on the maintenance of pauper lunatics, £103,318; on repayment of workhouse loan, with interest, £44,242; on salaries and rations of officers, £98,643; on other matters immediately connected with relief of the poor, £104,921. Marriages in 1863,29,963, -of which 3,424 were not according to the rites of the Established church; births, 102,119,- of which 4,434 were illegitimate: deaths, 71,060,-of which 31,216 were at ages under 5 years, and 953 at ages above 85. Marriages in the ten years 1851-60, 264,153; births, 864,563; deaths, 610,473.

East London district is divided into the sub-districts of St. Botolph and Cripplegate. The St. Botolph subdistrict comprises 85 acres; and contains the parishes of St. Botolph-without-Aldgate and St. Botolph-without-Bishopsgate. Pop. in 1851,23,824; in 1861,20,990. Inhabited houses, 2,322. The Cripplegate sub-district comprises 68 acres; and contains the parishes of St. Giles-without-Cripplegate and St. Botolph-without-Aldersgate, and the liberty of Glasshouse-yard. Pop. in 1851,20,582; in 1861,19,697. Houses, 2,167. Acres of the district, 153. Pop. in 1851,44,406; in 1861,40,687. Houses, 4,489. Poor rates in 1863, £24,146; receipts in aid of poor rates, £1,972. Marriages in 1863,565; births, 1,241,-of which 34 were illegitimate; deaths 914,-of which 443 were at ages under 5 years, and 8 at ages above 85. Marriages in the ten years 1851-60,5,741; births, 14,588; deaths, 10,003.

West London district consists of the West London poor law union and the Inner Temple,-the latter exempted from connexion with any poor law union; and it is divided into the sub-districts of North and South. The North sub-district comprises 47 acres; and contains the parishes of St. Bartholomew-the-Great and St. Bartholomew-the-Less, and part of the parish of St. Sepulchrewithout-Newgate. Pop. in 1851,12,946; in 1861, 11,750. Houses, 1,022. The South sub-district comprises 79 acres of land, and 12 of water; and contains the parishes of St. Dunstan-in-the-West and St. Bride, the part of St. Andrew-Holborn parish below the bars, the precinct of Bridewell, and the extra-parochial places of Barnards-Inn, Thavies-Inn, Inner-Temple, and Serjeant's-Inn-Fleet-street. Pop. in 1851,15,887; in 1861, 15,395. Houses, 1,558. Acres of the district, 138. Pop. in 1851,28,833; in 1861,27,145. Houses, 2,580. Poor rates in 1863, £21,104; receipts in aid of poorrates, £580. Marriages in 1863,490; births, 747,-of which 47 were illegitimate; deaths, 1,308,-of which 344 were at ages under 5 years, and 17 at ages above 85. Marriages in the ten years 1851-60,5,968; births, 7,948; deaths, 12,588. The workhouse is in St. Sepulchre parish; and, at the census of 1861, had 382 inmates. A workhouse formerly stood in St. Bartholomew-the-Great parish, but has been removed. London City district is conterminate with the City of London poor law union; comprises the whole of the City within the walls, and Whitefriars precinct in the City without the walls; and is divided into five sub-districts, SW, NW, S, SE, and NE. The SW sub-district comprises 49 acres of land, and 18 of water; and contains the parishes of St. Anne-Blackfriars, St. Andrew-by-the-Wardrobe, St. Benet-Pauls-Wharf, St. Peter-near-Pauls-Wharf, St. Nicholas-Cole-Abbey, St. Margaret-Moses, St. Mary-Magdalen-Old-Fish-street, St. Gregory-by-St. Paul, and St. Augustine-Watling-street, and the precinct of Whitefriars. Pop. in 1851,9,204; in 1861,7,762. Houses, 838. The NW sub-district comprises 72 acres; and contains the parishes of St. Faith-the-Virgin, St. Martin-Ludgate, Christchurch-Newgate-street, St. Leon ard-Foster-lane, St. Michael-le-Quern, St. Vedast-Fosterlane, St. Michael-Wood-street, St. Mary-Staining, St. John-Zachary, St. Ann-and-St-Agnes-Aldersgate, St. Olave-Silver-street, St. Alban-Wood-street, St. MaryAldermanbury, St. Alphage-Sion-College, St. MichaelBassishaw, St. Lawrence-Jewry, St. Mary-MagdalenMilk-street, St. Martin-Pomroy, St. Olave-Old-Jewry, St. Mary-Colechurch, Allhallows-Honey-lane, and St. Peter-Westcheap. Pop. in 1851,11,847; in 1861, 9,020. Houses, 1,266. The S sub-district comprises 85 acres of land, and 15 of water; and contains the parishes of St. Matthew-Friday-street, St. Mary-le-Bow, St. Pancras-Soper-lane, St. Mary-Aldermary, St. Thomasthe-Apostle, Allhallows-Bread-street, St. John-the-Evangelist, St. Mildred-Bread-street, St. Nicholas-Olave, St. Mary-Somerset, St. Mary-Mounthaw, St. Michael-Queenhithe, Holy Trinity-the-Less, St. James-GarlickHythe, St. Michael-Paternoster-Royal, St. Martin-Vintry, St. Antholin, St. John-the-Baptist-Walbrook, St. Stephen-Walbrook, St. Benet-Sherehog, St-Mildred-Poultry, St. Mary-Woolnoth, St. Mary-Woolchurch-Haw, St. Michael-Cornhill, Allhallows-Lombard-street, St. Edmund-the-King, St. Nicholas-Acons, St. Swithin-London-Stone, St. Mary-Bothaw, Allhallows-the-Great, Allhallows-the-Less, St. Lawrence-Pountney, and St. MaryAbchurch. Pop. in 1851,11,461; in 1861,8,570. Houses, 1,263. The SE sub-district comprises 84 acres of land, and 19 of water; and contains the parishes of St. Clement-Eastcheap, St. Martin. Orgars, St. Michael-Crooked-lane, St. Margaret-New-Fish-street, St. Magnus-the-Martyr, St. Botolph-Billingsgate, St. George-Botolph-lane, St. Andrew-Hubbard, St. Mary-at-Hill, St. Dunstan-in-the-East, Allhallows-Barking, St. Olave-Hart-street-with-St. Nicholas-in-the-Shambles, St. Katharine-Coleman, Allhallows-Staining, St. Gabriel-Fenchurch-street, St. Margaret-Pattens, St. Leonard-Eastcheap, St. Benet-Gracechurch-street, St. Dionis-Backchurch, and St. Peter-Cornhill. Pop. in 1851,10,594; in 1861,8,659. Houses, 1,344. The NE sub-district comprises 92 acres; and contains the parishes of St. Martin-Outwich, St. Peter-le-Poer, St. Benet-Fink, St. Bartholomew-by-the-Royal-Exchange, St. Margaret-Lothbury, St. Christopher-le-Stock, St. Stephen-Coleman-street, Allhallows-London-wall, St. Ethelburga, St. Helen-Bishopsgate, St. Andrew-Undershaft, St. Katharine-Cree, and St. James-Duke's-place. Pop. in 1851, 12,826; in 1861,11,544. Houses, 1,651. Acres of the district, 434. Pop. in 1851,55,932; in 1861,45,555. Houses, 6,362. Poor rates in 1863, £56,724; receipts in aid of poor rates, £4,764. Marriages in 1863,654; births, 933, -of which 15 were illegitimate; deaths, 819, -f which 316 were at ages under 5 years, and 13 at ages above 85. Marriages in the ten years 1851-60, 5,779; births, 11,821; deaths, 8,967.

The Diocese.—The see of London dates from the founding of the East Minster on the site of St. Paul's, by Ethelbert, king of Kent, in 604. It is supposed to have been, for a short period, an archbishopric, with jurisdiction over all England except the northern parts. But it speedily became a single diocese, conterminate with the East Saxon kingdom; and it then, and long afterwards, comprised Middlesex, Essex, and part of Herts. Its first bishop was Melitus, who had been abbot of a monastery at Rome. Its most notable subsequent bishops were Wina, who bought the mitre, and ranks as the earliest English simonist; Erkenwald, who was canonised and made the patron saint of the see; William, who won the gratitude of the mayor and the citizens by obtaining for them charters and public privileges; Roger, who died from eating poisoned grapes; Foliot, who hurled defiance at both primate and pope; Fitzwalter, who wrote on the Exchequer; Fitzneale, who was Lord-treasurer; Roger Black, who opposed the tyrannical acts of the king; Fulke Basset, who thought his helmet to be more secure than his mitre; De Wengham, Chichele, Baldock, and Waldon, who were lord-chancellors; De Bynteworth, Braybrooke, and Clifford, who were lord-keepers; Sudbury, who was put to death by a mob; Courtenay, who was lord-chancellor; Bubwith, who was lord-treasurer; Tonstal, who won a repute for gentleness in trying times; Stokesley and Bonner, who incurred the infamy of blood-thirstiness; Ridley, the noble martyr; Aylmer, who incurred a famous threat by Queen Elizabeth; Fletcher, who was suspended by Elizabeth for marrying; Vaughan, who believed in exorcism; Land, who afterwards figured so prominently as Archbishop; Juxon and Sheldon, who also became archbishops; Henchman, who aided the escape of Charles after the battle of Worcester; Compton, who was more martial than ecclesiastical; Robinson, who was lord-privy-seal, and the last bishop to hold a civil office of state; Gibson, who was styled by his opponents "the English pope; ''Sherlock, who was stylcd by Pope "the plunging prelate; ''Lowth, who refused the primacy; Porteus, who suppressed Sunday entertainments; and Howley, who became archbishop. Some of the most notable of the dignitaries were three who became cardinals; Francis, who became archbishop of Constantinople; Hodgkin and Young, who became bishops of respectively Bedford and Callipolis; Colet, who funded St. Paul's school; Nowel, Donne, Barwick, W. Sherlock, Milman, Peter de Blois, Ralph de Diceto, Polydore Vergil, Adam Murimuth, John Harpsfield, Jortin, Waterland, Calfhill, Jos. Warton, W. Beloe, R. Naers, R. Tyrwhitt, W. Crowe, Paley, J. Davison, Sydney Smith, and I. Barham.

The cathedral establishment comprises the bishop, the dean, four canons, a precentor, a chancellor, a treasurer, two archdeacons, thirty prebendaries, a sub-dean, a divinity lecturer, and twelve minor canons. The income of the bishop is £10,000; of the dean, £2,000; of one of the canons, £666; of each of the other three canons, £1,000. The bishop ranks next to the archbishop of York; and is provincial dean of Canterbury, and dean of the chapelsroyal. His residences are London House, in St. James' square, and Fulham Palace.-The diocese, in 1861, comprehended all the county of Middlesex; the parishes of Barking, Great Ilford, Little Ilford, East Ham, West Ham, Low Leyton, Walthamstow, Wanstead, Woodford, and Chingford, in Essex; the parishes of Charlton, Lee, Lewisham, Greenwich, Woolwich, Eltham, Plumstead, Deptford-St. Nicholas, and part of Deptford-St. Paul, in Kent; and the parishes of Newington-St. Mary, Barnes, Putney, Mortlake, Wimbledon, and part of Deptford-St. Paul, in Surrey; and, upon the next avoidance of the see of Winchester, it would comprehend also the parishes of Battersea, Bermondsey, Camberwell, Christchurch-Southwark, Clapham, Lambeth, (except the tract round Lambeth palace), Merton, Rotherhithe, Southwark, Horsleydown, Streatham, Tooting, and Wandsworth. Acres in 1861,246,125. Pop. in 1861, 2,570,079. Houses, 334,571. The diocese is divided into the archdeaconries of London and Middlesex. Thew livings are noted here as they stood in 1864; but many of that date have been raised in status, and many more have been formed; and all these, in our separate articles on them, are noted as they now stand.

The archdeaconry of London comprises the division of London City, and the rural deaneries of Barking, Hackney, Islington, St. Sepulchre, Spitalfields, and Stepney. The division of London City contains all the livings in the City. The deanery of Barking contains the rectories of Little Ilford and Wanstead; the vicarages of Barking, East Ham, West Ham, Great Ilford, and Leyton: the p. curacies of Stratford-St. John, Plaistow-St. Mary, Victoria Docks, West Ham-Emmanuel-church, West Ham-Christchurch, Barking-Side, Aldborough-Hatch, and Leytonstone; and the chapelry of St. Mary's Hospital. The deanery of Hackney contains the rectories of Chingford, Hackney-St. John, South Hackney, West Hackney, Stoke-Newington, and Woodford; the vicarage of Walthamstow-St. Mary; the p. curacies of Beauvoir-Town, Clapton, Stamford-Hill, Dalston, Homerton, Stoke-Newington-St. Matthias, Walthamstow-St. James, Walthamstow-St. John, Walthamstow-St. Peter, and Woodford-Bridge; and the chapelry of Ram's Chapel. The deanery of Islington contains the vicarage, the numerous p. curacies, and the chapelries of Islington parish. The deanery of St. Sepulchre contains the numerous livings of Hoxton, Haggerstone, Clerkenwell, and Pentonville; the livings of St. Sepulchre Middlesex, St. Leonard-Shoreditch, St. Andrew-Holborn, St. AlbanHolborn, St. Peter-Saffron-hill, Trinity-Gray's-Inn-lane, St. Luke-Old-street, St. Mark-Old-street, St. JamesCurtain-road, St. Barnabas-King-square, St. Paul-Bunhill-row, St. Matthew-City-road, St. Mary-Charterhouse, and St. Thomas-Charterhouse; the chapelries of Bedfordrow and Ely-chapel; and the chapelries of Ask's, Jefferry's, and St. Mark's hospitals. The deanery of Spitalfields contains the numerous livings in Spitalfields, Whitechapel, and Bethnal-Green, and the chapelry of London hospital. The deanery of Stepney contains the livings in Stepney, Bow, Ratcliffe, Limehouse, BromleySt. Leonard, Poplar, and St. George-in-the-East; those of St. Stephen-Old-Ford, Christchurch-Isle-of-Dogs, and St. Matthew-Pell-street-Wapping; and the chapelries of Bancroft's hospital, the Ratcliffe Union, and the City of London Union. The following are also under the jurisdiction of the Commissary of London, -the parishes of Acton, All Saints-Bishopsgate, BowSt. Mary-Stratford, Bromley, Christchurch-Spitalfields, Ealing, Finchley, Hackney, Hammersmith, Limehouse, Mile-End-New-Town, Northolt, Old Ford, Paddington, Mile-End-Old-Town, Poplar, Ratcliffe, Shadwell, South Hackney, Stepney, St. Barnabas-Homerton, St. BotolphBishopsgate, St. George-in-the-East, Whitechapel, Bethnal-Green, Wapping, and West Hackney; the chapelries in these parishes, and the chapelries of St. James-Clapton, St. Peter-De-Beauvoir-square, St. Philip-Dalston, and St. Thomas-Stamford-hill.

The archdeaconry of Middlesex comprises the parishes of Fulham and Kensington, and the deaneries of Barnes and Hammersmith, St. George-Bloomsbury, Chelsea, Ealing, Enfield, Greenwich, St. George-Hanover-square, Hampton, Harrow, St. Martin-in-the-Fields, St. Marylebone, Paddington, St. Pancras, Staines, Uxbridge, St. James-Westminster, St. John-Westminster, and St. Margaret-Westminster. The parish of Fulham contains a vicarage and two p. curacies. The parish of Kensington contains the numerous livings in Kensington and Brompton. The deanery of Barnes and Hammersmith contains the rectory of Barnes; the vicarage of Hammersmith; the p. curacies of Mortlake, Putney, Roehampton, and Wimbledon; four p. curacies in Hammersmith parish; and the chapelries of East Sheen, St. JohnPutney, Christchurch-Wimbledon, and Holy TrinityWimbledon. The deanery of St. George-Bloomsbury contains the rectories of St. George-Bloomingburg, St George-the-Martyr, and St. Giles-in-the-Fields; three chapelries in Bloomsbury parish, and three in that of St. Giles-in-the-Fields. The deanery of Chelsea contains the two rectories and the five p. curacies of Chelsea, the p. curacy of Kensal-Green, and the chapelry of Parkchapel. The deanery of Ealing contains the rectories of Acton, Great Greenford, Little Greenford, and Hanwell; the vicarages of New Brentford, Chiswick, Ealing, Heston, Isleworth, and Northolt; the p. curacies of Turnham-green, St. Mary Magdalene-Chiswick, ChristchurchEaling, Spring-grove, Hounslow, St. John-Isleworth, Norwood, and Southall-green. The deanery of Enfield contains the rectories of Finchley, Friern-Barnet, and Hornsey; the vicarages of Edmonton, Enfield, South Mimms, and Tottenham; the three p. curacies in Edmonton parish, the four in Enfield parish, the eight in Hampstead, the two in Highgate, the two in Hornsey parish, the two in South Mimms parish, the three in Tottenham parish; the chapelry of Tottenham-St. Michael; and the donative of Hadley. The deanery of Greenwich contains the rectories of Charlton, Deptford-St. Paul, Lee, and Woolwich; the vicarages of Deptford-St. Nicholas, Eltham, Greenwich, Lewisham, and Plum stead; and the p. curacies and chapelries in the same parishes as these livings. The deanery of St-GeorgeHanover-square contains all the livings in St. G. H. sq. parish. The deanery of Hampton contains the rectories of Hanworth, Littleton, and Shepperton; the vicarages of Feltham, Hampton, Sunbury, and Twickenham; the p. curacies of Hampton-Wick, New Hampton, Teddington, Whitton, and Trinity-Twickenham: and the chapelry of Montpelier chapel. The deanery of Harrow contains the vicarages of Edgware, Hendon, Harrow, Kingsbury, Great Stanmore, and Willesden; the p. curacies of Mill-Hill, Childs-Hill, HarrowWeald, Roxeth, Wembly, Pinner, and Little Stanmore; and the two chapelries of Kilburn. The deanery of St. Martin-in-the Fields contains the rectories of St. Maryle-Strand, St. Clement-Danes, St. Anne-Soho, and St. Paul-Covent-garden; the vicarage of St. Martin-in-the-Fields; the p. curacies of St. Michael-Burleigh-street, St. John-Drury-lane, and St. Mary-Soho; and the chapelries of St. Matthew-Spring-gardens, St. Mark-Long-Acre, and Savoy-Strand. The deanery of St. Marylebone, that of Paddington, and that of St. Pancras, contain all the livings in respectively St. Marylebone, Paddington, and St. Pancras parishes. The deanery of Staines contains the rectory of Cranford; the vicarages of Bedfont, Harmondsworth, West Drayton, and Staines; and the p. curacies of Ashford, Laleham, and Stanwell. The deanery of Uxbridge contains the rectories of Cowley, Hayes, Ickenham, and Harlington; the vicarages of Hillingdon and Ruislip; the p. curacies of Norwood, Southall, Hillingdon-St. Andrew, Uxbridge, Uxbridge-Moor, and Northwood; and the donative of Harefield. The deanery of Westminster-St. James, that of Westminster-St. John, and that of Westminster-St. Margaret, contain the livings in respectively W. St. James, W. St. John, and W. St. M. parishes.

(John Marius Wilson, Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales (1870-72))

Linked entities:
Feature Description: "the metropolis of England"   (ADL Feature Type: "cities")
Administrative units: City of London LCC       London AncC       London RegC
Place: London

Go to the linked place page for a location map, and for access to other historical writing about the place. Pages for linked administrative units may contain historical statistics and information on boundaries.