Descriptive Gazetteer Entry for MAN, or ISLE of MAN

MAN, or ISLE of MAN, an island, with adjacent islet of Calf of Man and several skerries, in the Irish. sea; between England, Scotland, and Ireland, nearly equidistant from Liverpool, Greenock, and Belfast. Its centre is in lat. 540 15 N, and long. 4030 W; its N extremity, at Point of Ayre, is 16 miles SSW of Burrow Head, in Scotland; its NE extremity at Manghold Head, is 30 miles W of St. Bees Head, in Cnmberland; its SW extremity, at Calf of Man, is 31 miles SE of Ardglass, in Ireland, and 45 NNE of Holyhead, in Anglesey; and the central point of its E coast, at Peel, is 27 miles SE by E of Lough Straingford, in Ireland. Its outline is proximately oblong, with angular projection at each extremity, and extending from NE by N to SW by S. Its length, from the Point of Ayre to the SW. of the Calf, is 35 miles; its greatest breadth from Ballanayre, N of Peel, to Banks-Howe, is 12½ miles; its circumference is about 80 miles; and its area, inclusive of the Calf, is about 130,800 acres. Its aggregate form may be described, in the words of an old writer, as @ a park in the sea, inpaled with rocks." The coast, except in the N, and at the bays of Douglas, Castletown, and Poolvash, consists of rugged and lofty precipices. The interior is divided into two regions by a chain of mountains extending through it. from NE to SW. The chain begins at Manghold Head, with a height of 373 feet; and runs by the watershed of North Barrule, Sneafell, Bein-y-Phot, Garraghan, Greebah, Slieauwhallin, South Barrule, and Cromkna-Irey-Llaa to the W coast N of Fleshwick Bay, with a maximum altitude of 2,024 feet. Side mountain, or spurs, flank considerable portions of the watershed line; a chain of hills, in continuation of the watershed line, runs to the SW extremity of the W coast; heights of considerable altitude beetle over many points of the E and the SE coast, all the way from Manghold Head to the vicinity of Castletown bay; and a summit, 472 feet high, rises on the Calf. The altitudes of the principal summits, named in arithmetical order, are Sneafelll,.2,000 feet; North Barrule, 1,842; Bein-y-Phot, 1,772; Greevah, 1,591: South Barrule, 1,584; Sartel, 1,560; Slieau-chiarn, 1,5333; Garraghen, 1,520; Cronkna-Irey-Llaa,. 1,445: Slieau-Dhoo, 1,139; Slieauwhallin, 1,086; Carrans-Hill, 984; Sliean-y-Carnane, 900; Brada-Hill, 758.; Dun-Howe, 757; Mount Murray, 714; Corrins-Tower, 675: Mull-Hills, 537; Bushels-House, 472; Donglas-Howe, 394; Santon-Head, 392; SpanishHead, 350.; Douglas-Head, 315; Tynwald Hill, 130: the watershed between Douglas and Peel, 126; and the watershed between Port Erin and Port-St. Mary, 81. The Calf is separated by a sound only about 500 yards Wide, and comprises about 800 acres

About three fourths of the island S of a line drawn westward from Ramsey to Sulby and thence sonth-west-ward to near the middle of the W coast, consist of Lower Silurian rocks, comprising all the Cainbrian series below the Upper Silurian. Considerable tracts within that region, particularly at Foxdale oN the E sine of South Barrule, and. at the.Dhoon N of Laxey, consist of granites and trappæan rocks, which, have burst through the schists and greatly contorted their strata. Two tracts at. Peel and in the vicinity of Castletown consist of old red sandstone and conglomerate, resting unconformably on the upturned edges of the clay schist. Aconsiderable tract, in the S around Castletown, consists of carboniferous rocks, chiefly lower carboniferous limestone and shale, but including a remarkable black schistoxe formation, locally called Poolvash black marble-The northern fourth of the island consists mainly of alluvinm, overlying a stratiffied bed of drift gravel; and might all be, in some sense, an extensive raised beach. The aggregate rocks, though belonging to so few formations, possess much interest in.their coast-sections, in their lithological character, and in rich stores of carboniferous and pleistocene fossils. Granite is worked at Dun Howe,. clay schist at Spanish Head, limestone flags at Scarlet, and black marble at Poolvash; and iron ore is worked at Maughold Head and South Maughold, copper ore at South Laxey and South Manx, zinc ore at South Laxey,. aNd lead ore at Foxdale, South Laxey, North Laxey, and South Manx. Silver also is obtained at Foxdale, South Laxey, and North Laxey; sulphate of barytes, at Foxdale; and plumbago, in Glen Helen. The produce of worked granite, in 1859, was 7 tons; of worked clay schist, 60 tons; of worked limestone flags, 1,800 tons; of worked black marble, 75 tons; and there was also a produce of calcined limestone, at Ballahot and Port-St. Mary, of many hundred tons. The produce of iron, i, 1860, was s,6650 tons: of copper, 350 tons: of ziNc, 3,181 tons; of lead, 2,677 tons; and of silver, in the previous year, 56,97 4 ounces.

The soils correspond in character with the rocks, and do not present much variety. The total of enclosed and cultivated lands, exclusive of the Calf, is 89,458 acres; of unappropriated commons, 30,788 acres; of waste lands, rocks, and skerries, about 10,000 acres. The general surface looks, on a first approach, to be bare and bleak; yet, from the very edge of the coast-cliffs to a considerable distance up the mountain sides, it is all disposed in corn-fields and pastures. Agriculture was long in a very low condition, but has gradually improved since 1765. The produce formerly was so scanty as barely to suffice for the population, but now is so plentiful as to admit of large exportation. Wheat and beans grow well on the heaviest lands; barley and oats grow well on the sandy portions of the N quarter, and on some portions of the hills; and potatoes are eminently suited to most parts of the N quarter, to the central valley from Douglas to Peal, and to the limestone tract around Castletown. Upwards of 20,000 quarters of wheat, considerable quantities of barley and oats, and from 12,000 to 15,000 tons of potatoes, are annually exported. Poultry, butter, eggs, cattle, horses, and pigs also are increasingly exported; and all the kinds of produce find ready markets at Liverpool and Whitehaven. Sea-weed is largely used for manure; and calcined lime, from the limestone tract around Castletown, is largely employed. Fisheries of herring, cod, ling, and inshore fish employ about 3,800 men and boys, upwards of 600 boats, and about 3,600,000 square yards of netting; and yield, on the average, a produce worth more than £60,000 a year. The herring fisheries employ also about 500 English and Irish boats, with upwards of 3,600 men. The average take of herrings yearly produces about 8,000,000 fish for home consumption, and 32,000,000 fish, or 40,000 barrels for curing. The cod and ling fisheries also are considerable. Lobsters likewise are obtained in such quantity, chiefly on the rocky shores around the Calf, as to be an. article of export. Manufactures, mainly in consequence of the want of coal, are not extensive. Yet woollen goods are produced in the Union mills of Braddan; sailcloths, ropes, and nets, largely at Tromade, near Douglas; paper, soap, and starch, at Laxey and Sulby Glen; and iron ware, at Douglas. The vessels belonging to Man at the beginning of 1864 were 278 small sailing-Vessels, of aggregately 6,817 tons; 49 large sailing-vessels, of aggregately 4,161 tons; and 3 steam-Vessels, of aggregately 839 tons The Vessels which entered in 1863 were 5 British sailingVessels, of aggregately 1,098 tons, from British colonies; 5 British sailing-Vessels, of aggregately 809 tons, from foreign countries; 28 foreign sailing-vessels, of aggregately 3,495 tons, from foreign countries; 1,607 sailing* vessels, of aggregately 99,942 tons, coastwise; and 96 steam-vessels, of aggregately 20,503 tons, coastwise. The Vessels which cleared in 1863 were 2 British sailingessels, of jointly 500 tons, to British colonies; 8 British sailing-vessels, of aggregately 1,010 tons, to foreign countries; 25 foreign sailing-vessels, of aggregately 2,789 tons, to foreign countries; 783 sailing-vessels, of aggregately 55,585 tons, coastwise; and 80 steam-vessels, of aggregately 17,037 tons, coastwise. The amount of customs in 1862 was £23,647 at Douglas, and £4,689 at Ramsey. The island is divided politically into two sections, N and S; each section is divided into 3 sheadings; the sheadings are subdivided into 17 parishes; the parishes are subdivided into 180 treens; and each treen is subdivided into 4 quarterlands. Each section has its own demister, or judge; each sheading, its coroner or sheriff, and its lockmen or deputies; each parish, its captain, summer, and moar; and each treen had formerly a chapel or an oratory. The island is independent of the imperial parliament; has its own laws, courts of law, and law officers; and is not affected by any writ of chancery or other English court, unless the writ obtain the sanction of its own courts. The supreme court consists of the LientenantGovernor, the Council, and the Keys; bears the name of the Tynwald court; may be convoked by the LieutenantGovernor at any time of need for legislative business; and forms acts which, w hen sanctioned by the Queen in council, and proclaimed in Manx and English on Tynwald-hill in the centre of the island, have the force of law. The Lieutenant-Governor is appointed by the Crown, represents the sovereign, sits as chancellor in his court, and is captain-general of the military forces of the island. The Council also is appointed by the Crown; consists of the bishop, the archdeacon, the clerk of the rolls, the attorney-general, the receiver-general, the water-bailiff, and the vicar-general; and, in consequence of their always taking part in the business of the legislature, practically includes likewise the deemsters. The clerk of the rolls has the custody of the records, and enters all pleas; the attorney-general sits in all courts for the Crown, and is public prosecutor; the receivergeneral has charge of the revenue, and makes payment of salaries; the water-bailiff is practically the admiral of the island, and holds admiralty courts; the vicar-general is the bishop's official; and the deemsters are the judges, and are regarded by the natives as having derived their office from the ancient Druids. The Key s are the lower house of the legislature; consist of twenty-four natives, gentlemen of property; hold their office for life; are each appointed, on a vacancy, by the lieutenant-governor, from a leet of two presented by the remaining twentythree; have appellate jurisdiction in civil causes; and are supposed to derive their name of Keys from three Manx words signifying "four-and-twenty." The revenue is derived from import duties, royalties of mines and quarries, lord's rent, and £500 of the commuted tythes; and amounts to somewhat more than £32,000 a year. The expenditure comprises about £8,000 on that civil establishment, about £3,900 in the customs department, and £2,300 for public works; and the balance goes to the consolidated fund of the United Kingdom as interest on £416,114 paid in 1825, to the fourth Duke of Athole, for all his rights and interest in the island.

The postal department is independent of the local revenne arrangements; and is well ramified, and very efficient. Regular communication, by s team-vessels, is enjoyed. with Liverpool, Fleetwood, Whitehaven, Silloth, Glasgow, and Dublin. A telegraphic cable connects Point Cranstal, 4 miles N of Ramsey, with St. Bees in Cumberland; and wires go from it to Ramsey and Douglas. Many EngliSh families, attracted by the amenities of the island, and by motives of economy, haVe settled in it as permanent residents; and great numbers resort to it in summer for excursions through it, for rustication, and for sea-bathing. The cost of provisions in it iS Very much lower than in Great Britain and Ireland; house-rent, especially in the rural parts, is moderate; house-tax, income-tax, poor's-rates, carriage-licences, and tolls are unknown; and the hire of carriages, cars, or horses, is comparatively cheap. The currency is now assimilated to that of England; yet the copper coinage continues to be stamped with the Manx arms. Notes of one-pound and five-pounds, secured by guarantees on land, are issued by local banks-Curions ancient manners and customs continued to prevail till the era of steam communication; but have now, in main degree, disappeared; yet many superstitions observances and notions, some of them supposed to date from the times of Druidism, still survive. The Manx language, a dialect of the Celtic, very closely allied to the Gaelic and the Erse, is still spoken by the natives; but, as a spoken language, is not unlikely to become extinct in another generation. It was used in most of the parish churches, so late as about 1835, on three Sundays out of every four; but is now entirely out of use. A curious Manx literature, chiefly of ballads on sacred subjects, exists in manuscript, and may be found in rural cottages and farm-houses; a scanty Manx literature, chiefly of a fee poems, exists in print; a Manx prayer-book was printed in 1762, and a Manx Bible in 1772; a Manx grammar, which had become very scarce, was republished about 1855; and both a dictionary of Manx and English and a triglot dictionary of Manx, Gaelic, and Erse, were written by the author of the grammar, and were under consideration for being printed in 1861. A school is maintained in every parish by assessment on the inhabitants; and is aided by £8 6s. from varions endowments. Upwards of 50 elementary schools are in the island; and a proportion of fully more than one-eighteenth of the population is at school. About 23 places of worship, either chapels or school-houses used as chapels, besides the 17 parish churches, belong to the Establishment; upwards of 60 other places of worship are Wesleyan or Primitive Methodist; several, in the towns, are Independent or Scotch Presbyterian; and three, at Douglas, Ramsey, and Castletown, are Roman Catholic. The ecclesiastical matters of the Established Church are all comprised in the diocese of Sodor and Man; and will be noticed in an article under that title. The only towns are Douglas, Ramsey, Castletown, and Peel; and two of the chief Villages are Port-St. Mary and Port-Erin. Pop. of Man, in 1726, 14,066; in 1757,19,144; in 1784,24,924; in 1821, 40,081; in 1841,47,986; in 1861,52,469. Inhabited houses, 8,946; uninhabited, 477; building, 93.

Man, in common with Anglesey, is the Mona of many ancient writers. It alone was called Mona by Cæsar; it was called Monaoida, Monabia, Menavia, and Eubonia by other Roman authors; and it was called Mann, Manau, Mannin, and Menow by the ancient Norsemen and the ancient Britons. It was early inhabited by a ScotoIrish people, and was a grand theatre of Druidism. It comes into view, at the beginning of the 6th century, as sharing in the troubles of neighbouring Celtic populations. It was the scene of a war in 503; and, after the termination of that war, it lay under the dominion of Maelgwyn, King of North Wales. It continued to be subject to Maelgwyn's son; but, after a battle in 581, it passed under the dominion of Aodan M 'Gabhran, King of the Scots; and it was ruled till the beginning of the next century by two sons of Aodan in succession as viceroys. Edwin, King of Northumbria, wrested it from the Scots about 625, but held it with such uncertain grasp that it reverted to them at his death in 633. It continued with the Scots through three more reigns; became the subject of disputed succession in 755; seems thence, for years, to have been a scene of troubles; and reverted in 825 to the dominion of North Wales. A partition of the Welsh kingdom among three sons of the king took place in 877; and Man was then made a separate kingdom, and assigned to Anarand. But that prince became-feudatory to Alfred the Great, and was the last of the Welsh princes who reigned in Man. The Norsemen, or Danes and Norwegians, were then making descents on the islands and coasts of Briton; and they seem to have driven Anarand to seek protection from Alfred the Great. Harold Harager, king of Norway, and subjugator of the Hebrides and the Orkneys, invaded Man in 888, and drove Anarand from the throne. Jarl Ketit Bjornson was appointed viceroy under the new regime, claimed the sovereignty for himself and became independent in 890, and was succeeded on the throne by first his son and then his grandson. The natives rebelled against his grandson, and expelled him; and they appear to have been thence, for a time, without any settled government. Orrey, or Orry, a Danish marander, who had overrun the Hebrides and the Orkneys, arrived with a strong fleet, in some early year of the 10th century, on the shores of Man; and was readily accepted by the people as their king. His son and successor, Godred I., came to the throne in 947; is said to have been the founder of Rushen Castle; and died in 954. Reginald, Olave I., Olain, Allan, Fingal I., and Godred II., followed in succession. Macon, son of the King of Dublin and high-admiral of King Edgar of England, in 973, swept the British seas with a powerful fleet, took possession of the sovereignty of Man, and assumed as the Royal Manx coat of arms a ship in full sail,-a coat of arms which was afterwards adopted by the lords of the isles, and may be seen on many monuments in Iona.

Godred III., the brother of Macon, succeeded him on the throne; and appears to haVe defended it, in 986, in a battle against invaders. Reginald II., of the line of Orrey, succeeded in 996; Suibne succeeded in 1004, and was slain in defending his throne against Jarl Torfin of Orkney in 1034; Harold I., the son of Suibne, was the next successor, and reigned till 1040; Godred IV., son of the Danish king of Dublin, was the next successor.; and Fingal II., the son of Godred IV., succeeded in 1076. Godred V., or Godred Crovan, the son of Harold the Black of Iceland, invaded Man in 1077, slew Fingal II. in battle at Sky-Hill, and took possession of the throne; and he afterwards seized Dublin and great part of Leinster, and made overawing demonstrations against the Scots. Magnus Nudipes, the piratical king of Norway, in 1093, after having overrun the Hebrides and part of Scotland, invaded Man, and drove Godred V. from the throne. A viceroy was appointed by him to govern Man; but an opposition viceroy was soon set upp by a portion of the inhabitants; and a great battle, fatal to both, was fought, in 1098, at Stantway in Jurby. Magnus Nudipes returned a few days after the battle; found the island in a state of devastation from the effects of the civil war; restored it to a condition of order; sailed from it to the subjugation of Anglesey and Galloway; turned his arms then against Ireland; and was surprised and slain near Downpatrick in 1103. Harold Gillie, the youngest son of Magnus, made claim to the throne of Man, but was rejected by the people. Lagman, the eldest son of Godred V., was accepted by them in 110 4; but he soon provoked their disobedience by acts of tyranny; and, under cover of a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, he abdicated in 1111. Olave II., the youngest son of Godred V., was then called to the throne; and he had the advantage of having been trained in the courts of William Rufus and Henry I. of England; but, although he ruled well for a time, he did things which produced subsequent complications and disasters. Godred VI., the son of Olave II., succeeded at the latter's death in 1154; he had been educated at the court of Norway; he became competitor for the crown of Dublin in 1155, and obtained it; he encountered battle by hostile fleets at Ramsey bay in 1156,1158, and 1164; he lost the crown of Dublin by the first battle, lost the crown of Man by the second, and regained that crown by the third; and he died at Peel Castle in 1187, and was carried for burial to Iona.

Reginald III., a natural son of Godred VI., usurped the throne to the prejudice of a legitimate son; was refused recognition by the court of Norway; rendered fealty to John of England; created a precedent for all his successors being treated as feudatories of the English crown; constituted himself also a vassal of the see of Rome; provoked his subjects eventually to depose him, in 1226, in favour of his legitimate brother, Olave I II.; fled to the protection of the thane of Galloway; made two descents on Man, in 1228 and 1229, with design to recover possession; and was defeated and slain, in the latter year, at Tynwald-hill. Olave III. did homage first to Henry III. of England, next to Haco Hagenson of Norway; and died in 1237. Harold II. succeeded him; married a daughter of Haco of Norway in 1248; and perished at sea on his way back to Man. Reginald IV., the second son of Olave III., succeeded to the throne, but was soon murdered by the brother of Reginald II I. Magnus, a surviving son of Olave III., was then heir to the throne, but did not obtain possession till 1252; he rose to it over a course of usurpation and confusion; he took recognition of his rights from the reigning kings of Norway and England; he assisted Haco of Norway, in 1263, in his expedition against Alexander III. of Scotland; he afterwards, on the failure of that expedition, did homage to Alexander, and made himself a feudatory of the Scottish crown; and he died, without issue or direct heir, in 1265. Alexander of Scotland, then, in virtue of a cession by Magnus of Norway, who had the nearest claim to the throne, took possession of Man as an appanage of the Scottish crown. The Manx resisted him, and set up a remote relative of their late king; but were beaten in a battle at Ronaldsway in 1270, and compelled to submit. Alexander suppressed Man's old armorial device of a ship in full sail, which had continued to be used by all its kings from the time of Macon; and he gave, instead of it, the device which it still retains, of three legs of a man in armour, with the motto "Quocunque jeceris stabit. ''The island was ruled by lieutenants of Alexander till his death in 1285; it suffered severely from the oppressive conduct of one of these lieutenants in 1274; it passed into confusion and misery amid the rival claims to the Scottish throne, consequent on Alexander's death; it was transferred to Edward I. of England, by the Scottish commissioners, in 1289; and it formally acknowledged Edward's rule, and renounced all fealty to any representatives of its old quondam kings, in 1290. Edward I., in 1 292, gave it back to John Baliol of Scotland, to be held by him, like his other dominions, of the crown of England; Edward II. revoked it from Scotland; and, in one year, bestowed it successively on three of his favourites. Robert Bruce made a descent on it at Ramsey in 1313; proceeded to Douglas and Castletown; laid siege to Rushen Castle, and got possession at the end of somewhat more than three months; and, on acquiring mastery of the entire island, gave it to Randolph, Earl of Moray, as a fief of the Scottish crown. A body of Irish maranders, in 1316, invaded the island at Ronaldsway; beat the inhabitants in an engagement at Wardfell; roamed over the island, for a month, in a course of plunder; and then, laden with booty, returned to their ships

Robert Bruce and Edward III., in 1327, made a treaty, that, in the event of Man rising a st Scotland or Ireland against England, neither ling should give assistance against the other. But a female descendant of the last Manx king having reVived her claim to the sovereignty of the island, and made an appeal for protection to Edward III., that monarch, in 1333, sustained the validity of her title, gave her in marriage to Sir William de Montacute, granted to Sir William a limited right to the crown of an, and afterwards, in 1337, created him Earl of Salisbury. The Scots for a time, especially in result of Edward Baliol swearing fealty to Edward III. in 1334, resisted Montacute, and retained possession of Mau. Montacute, nevertheless, was regarded very favourably by the natives, as a sort of legitimate representative of their own proper kings; and he eventually succeeded in expelling the Scots; yet, in his efforts against them, he so far outran his means as to be obliged to mortgage the island for seven years to Anthony Bec, bishop of Durham; and the bishop obtained from Richard II. a grant of it for life. It reverted, at the bishop's death, to William, second Earl of Salisbury; was sold by him, in 1393, to Sir William Scroop, afterwards Earl of Wiltshire; was given, at that nobleman's attainder, to Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland; passed from him also by attainder in only four years; and then, in 1406, was given to Sir John Stanley, whose descendant, in 1486, was created Earl of Derby. The island remained with the Stanleys, though with some contests as to succession, and with some partial alienations, till the forfeiture and execution of the seventh Earl of Derby in 1651. It was seized by the parliamentary forces soon after that nobleman's death; was given by parliament to Lord Fairfax; reverted, at the Restoration, to the Derby family; remained with them till the death of the tenth Earl, without issue, in 1735; and then went to James Murray, second Duke of Athole, as descendant of a daughter of the seventh Earl of Derby. The British government made overtures to that nobleman for the purchase of the island, but were not successful. He died in 1764, and was succeeded by his nephew. The British government made overtures n to the new possessor; and, in 1765, obtained from him a surrender of the island's revenues, exclusive of the manorial rights, for £70,000 and an annuity of £2,000. The third-Duke of Athole succeeded in 1774; petitioned parliament, in 1781, 1790, and 1805, for restoration of part of the revenues; obtained, in the last of these years, restored right to a fourth part of them, afterwards commuted to £3,000 ayear; and finally, in 1825, surrendered all his remaining interest in the island to the British crown for £416,114.

The antiquities of Man are very numerous and varions. Stone circles abound in every parish: and some of them appear to have been Druidical temples, others to have been places of Druidical sepulture. Cists, or loW stone graVes are often turned up by the plough. Tall uninscribed stones, such as the heathen Norsemen erected to the memory of heroes, occur in varions places; and two of them, near Mount Gawne and above Port-St. Mary, are called Giants' Quoiting-stones. Barrows are very numerous; and five of them, at Fairy-hill, Cronk-ny-Marroo, Cronk-ny-Vowlan, Cronk-Aust, and Cronk-ny-Dooiney, are specially remarkable. Cairns also occur; and two, called Cloven-stones and Orrey's-Grave, continue in their pristine state. Ancient crosses, either runic or otherwise inscribed, are Very plentiful; and so many as forty appear to be Scandinavian, while nine are probably later than the Scandinavian times. Two stone weapons, and a considerable number of iron ones, including a battleaxe, a large gauntlet, and different kinds of swords, have been found. Numerous coins, chiefly Anglo-Saxon, Norman, and English, have been found; but no Norse or Danish ones have been discovered. Ancient earthen forts are at Ballachurry, Castleward, Ferk, Balla-Nicholas, Corvally, and Hango-Brongh; old stone fortifications are on South Barrule, on Hango-hill, at Derby Fort, and at Rushen Castle; remains or vestiges of Treen chapels or oratories, are numerous; remains of monastic buildings are at Rushen Abbey, at Bechmaken-Friary, and near Douglas; and ruins of a cathedral, an ancient church, a fine ancient round tower, and other ecclesiastical buildings, together with a large tumulus and remains of ancient civil buildings, are at Peel.

(John Marius Wilson, Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales (1870-72))

Linked entities:
Feature Description: "an island, with adjacent islet of Calf of Man and several skerries"   (ADL Feature Type: "islands")
Administrative units: the Isle of Man CrProt
Place names: ISLE OF MAN     |     MAN     |     MAN OR ISLE OF MAN     |     TYNWALD COURT
Place: the Isle of Man

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