Descriptive Gazetteer Entry for MARYLEBONE

MARYLEBONE, a parish, a district, and a borough, in Middlesex. The parish forms a compact portion of the metropolis; lies on the Regents canal, the Northwestern railway, and the Metropolitan railway, 3 miles NW by W of St. Pauls; is bounded, on the N, by Primrose-hill and Queens-road,-on the E, by Cleveland-street and part of Regents-park,-on the S, by Oxford-street,-on the W, by Edgware-road; includes the suburbs of St. John's Wood and Portland-Town; and has several stations on the railways, and numerous post offices ‡ and postal pillarboxes under London W and London N W. The ancient nucleus of it was a village called varionsly Eyeburn, Aeybourn, and Tyburn, names denoting an insular position on a rivulet, and alluding to a small stream which once supplied water through reservoirs to London city, and now flows underground into the Thames near Vauxhall-bridge. A church or chapel, dedicated to St. Mary, stood at or near the village, and took the name of St. Mary-at-Aeybourn, or St. Mary-a-le-burn; and that name has become corrupted into Marylebone, or popularly Marbon. The tract around the village continued long to be open country, became eventually a haunt of footpads, and was a hunting-place of Queen Elizabeth. The manor belonged to the Hobsons; passed to the Crown in the time of Henry VIII.; went, in that of James I., to E. Foster; passed to the Austens, to Holles Duke of Newcastle, and to the Harleys; went, in 1734, to the Duke of Portland; and reverted, in 1813, to the Crown. The extension of the metropolis, from about the time of Elizabeth, but especially since the middle of last century, as narrated in the historical section of our article LONDON, gradually transmuted the entire area from a rural to an urban character. The parish, as a whole, is now one of the most splendid portions of the metropolis. It contains Portman-square, Cavendish-square, Manchester-square, Bryanston-square, Montague-square, Park-square, Dorset-square, Harewood-square, Blandford-square, Cumberland-square, Park-crescent, Yorkterrace, Sussex-terrace, Portland-place, Baker-street, the upper part of Regent-street, and many other fine streets and places; it enjoys the rich amenities of Regentspark; it underwent great improvements, by renovation and modernizing of buildings, throughout the portions of it on the Duke of Portland's and the Marquis of Westminster's estates, in 1864w7; and, though it includes some inferior localities and has suffered disparagement by comparison with newer portions of the metropolis further to the W, it still maintains a successful rivalry with even Kensington and Tyburnia. The worst spot in it is Crawford-place, a narrow court running from Crawford-street to Homer-street, and so offensive as to have been specially reported to the sanitary committee in the latter part of 1865; a number of other places also are so inferior as to be inhabited only by tradespeople; yet all these, taken together, do not prevent it from being aggregately fine and fashionable.

Portman-square was built chiefly in 1790-1800; has, at its N W corner, a detached house in which Mrs. Montague held her blue-stocking parties; and has, on its S side, residences of Lord Leigh and the Earl of Cardigan. Cavendish-square was built in 1730-60; contains an equestrian statue of the Duke of Cumberland, who quenched the rebellion of 1745, set up in 1770; has, on its W side, the residence of the Duke of Portland; and was to have had all its N side occupied by the entrance to the mansion of the Duke of Chandos. Park-crescent has a statue of the Duke of Kent. Regents-park lies mainly within the parish; extends from York-gate in the New-road to Primrose-hill; comprises 472 acres; is nearly surrounded with very handsome edificed terraces; was planned in 1812 by Nash, and progressively formed and ornamented till the latter years of William IV.: took its name from the Prince Regent, afterwards George IV.; was designed to have a residence of the Prince on its NE side, and to communicate through Regent-street with Carlton House and St. James' Palace; is traversed northward, on a line with Portland-place, by a broad avenue with rows of trees; has ramifications of footpath thence in all directions, with interspersions of ornamental plantations; contains the botanic gardens, the zoological gardens, and the toxopholite garden; has an inner circu lar drive around the botanic gardens, commanding a view of some of its finest features, and an outer drive of about 2 miles, passing St. Dunstan's villa, built for the Marquis of Hertford who died in 1842, and containing in its grounds the automaton clock-strikers from St. Dunstan's church in Fleet-street; and is adorned with beautiful isleted sheets of water, the chief of which was the scene of an accident in Jan. 1867, through sudden breaking of ice, involving the immersion of several hundreds of persons and the drowning of forty. The botanic gardens comprise a circular area of about 18 acres, together with an extensive winter garden; and are the scene of three public flower-shows in the summer months. The zoological gardens occupy a large portion of the N end of the park, and contain about 1,500 animals. The Crown estate within the parish comprises Regent-park, the upper part of Portland-place, Park-square, and Parkcrescent, Albany-street, Osnaburgh-street, and the adjoining cross streets, York-square, Cumberland-square, Regent-park basin, Augustus-street, E and W Park villages, and the outer road

The Colosseum stands at the SE corner of Regent-park; was built in 1834, after designs by D. Burton, and sold in 1843 for upwards of £20,000; was used for scientific lectures and artistic entertainments; and was doomed to demolition in 1869. The public baths and washhouses were erected in 1849, after designs by Eales, at a cost of £20,000; measure 160 feet by 230; contain 107 baths and 89 washing-stands; include a swimming-bath, containing 40,000 gallons of water; and are self-supported. Portman market, in the New-road, was con structed for the sale of hay and other commodities; superseded, in 1830, a hay and straw mart in Piccadilly, and is fitted with ornamental covered colonnades and other conveniences. Infantry barracks are at Portmanstreet, and artillery barracks at St. John's Wood; and, at the census of 1861, they had respectively 403 and 1 73 inmates. There are a county courthouse and several police stations. The new theological college of the Independents stands at St. John's Wood; is a handsome edifice, in the late perpendicular style, after designs by Eminett; and, in 1864-5, had an income of £4,176. The Clergy orphan school also is at St. John's Wood; was removed thither, in 181 2, from Acton; and has accommodation for 140 pupils. All Souls grammar school is in Bulstrode-street, and was founded in 1832. The philological school, for the free education of sons of reduced persons, is in High-street; and was founded in 1792. The girls' charity school has capacity for 135 pupils, and was founded in 1750. The ragged schools were established in Union-mews in 1843; were rebuilt in Ogle-mews, Foley-street, in 1863; are a brick structure, with stone dressings; and have capacity for 300 children. There are also several national schools, a female orphan school of industry, and a training refuge for destitute girls. The Middlesex hospital is in Berners-street; was founded in 1745, with accommodation for only 18in patients; underwent such great enlargement as to have accommodation for nearly 400; and, at the census of 1861, had 320 inmates. The lying-in hospital was established in 1752 at Bayswater; was removed to Marylebone in 1810; and, at the census of 1861, had 68 inmates. There are also a ladies' invalid establishment, an orphanage asylum, a cripples' home, a refuge called All Saints home, a female protection society, alms houses for 63 persons, a general dispensary, and several other philanthropic institutions. There are likewise a convent in Blandford-square, and a house of mercy in Union-place; and these, at the census of 1861, had respectively 29 and 61 inmates.

A banqueting-house of the lord mayor of London stood on Conduit-mead, now Stafford-place. Marylebone House stood on a spot now occupied by Devonshiremews; was, with its gardens, converted into a place of public resort, and continued to be such till 1777; and was taken down in 1791. An ancient house, called the Rose of Normandy, stood close to Marylebone House. Boswell, the biographer of Dr. Johnson, lived in Great Portland-street; Sheridan wrote his "Rivals ''in Orchard-street; Gibbon wrote part of his "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire ''in Bentinck-street; Gratton and Mrs. Siddons died in Baker-street; Von Weber died in Great Portland-street; Opie, Fuseli, and Sir W. Chambers lived in Berners-street; Lady M. W. Montague, Dr. Baillie, Romney the painter, and She the painter, lived in Cavendish-square; Constable and R. Wilson, the painters, lived in Charlotte-street; Sir F. Bourgeois lived in Portland-road; Lord G. Gordon and the miser Elwes lived in Welbeck-street; and Burnett, the botanist, was a native. Executions took place till 1783 at Tyburn, at the end of Oxford-street; Lord Ferrers and Dr. Dodd were among the persons executed there; and Thistlewood and his associates were taken in 1820 in Cato-street, now Horace-street.

The parish comprises 1,509 acres. Real property in 1 860, £1,197,996. Pop. in 1851,157,696; in 1861, 161,680. Houses, 16,357. The ecclesiastical arrangement assigns to the parish church a pop. of only 29,098; distributes the rest of the pop. among 15 other charges; and includes 9 chapelries without any assigned pop. The 15 charges with definite limits, and the amounts of pop. severally within their limits are All Souls, Langham-place, 15,268; Christchurch, Stafford-street, 18,335; Trinity, Portland-road, 13,951; St. Mary, Bryanstonesquare, 17,678; St. Thomas, Portman-square, 9,732; St. Luke's, 10,000; St. Andrew's, 5,143; All Saints, Margaret-street, 2,981; St. Barnabas, Bell-street, 8,664; St. Cyprian's, 3,000; St. Paul's, Lisson-grove, 8,856; St. Mark's, Hamilton-terrace, 4,756; All Saints, St. John's Wood, 5,111; St. Stephen's, Portland-Town, 9,621; and St. Matthew's, Maida-hill, 7,972. The 9 chapelries, without defined limits or assigned pop., are Parish chapel, St. John's-Park-road, St. James', Portmanchapel, Brunswick-chapel, Quebec-chapel, St. Peter's under All Souls, St. Paul's under All Souls, and Christchapel-St. John's Wood. The livings of St. Marylebone. All Souls, Christchurch, Trinity, and St. MaryBryanstone-square are rectories, and nine of the others are vicarages, in the diocese of London. Value of St. M Marylebone, £1,240; of All Souls, £850; of Christchurch, £550; of Trinity, £985; of St. Luke, St. Andrew, St. Panl-Lisson-grove, and St. Matthew-Maida-hill, each £300; of St. John's-Park-road, £200; * of Parish-chapel, and St. Barnabas-Bell-street, each £200; of St. Peter under All Souls, £450; of St. Panl under All Souls, £350; of All Saints-Margaret-street, £150;* of St. Cyprian's, £150; of St. Mark's-Hamilton-terrace, £600; of All Saints-St. John's Wood, £400; of St. Stephen's, Portland-Town, £500; of the others, not reported. Patron of St. Marylebone, All Souls, Christchurch, Trinity, St. Mary-Bryanstone-square, St. John's-Park-road, St. James', St. Thomas-Portman-square, St. Peter under All Souls, St. Paul under All Souls, St. Barnabas, St. Mark, and Brunswick-chapel, the Crown; of Parishchapel, the Rector of St. Marylebone; of St. Luke, the Rector of St. Mary-Bryanstone-square; of Portman-chapel, Proprietors; of St. Paul-Lisson-grove, St. MatthewMaida-hill, Quebec-chapel, and Christ-chapel-St. John's Wood, Trustees; of All Saints-Margaret-street and St. Stephen's-Portland-Town, the Bishop of London; of St. Andrew's, alternately the Crown and the Bishop; of All Saints-St. John's Wood, Col. Eyre.

The old parish church stands in High-street; is now the chapel of ease, called Parish chapel; was built in 1741, on the site of a previous edifice, which figures in Hogarth's "Rake's Progress; ''and contains monuments to the architect Gibbs, the Italian scholar Baretti, and other distinguished persons. The churchyard contains the graves of the astronomer Ferguson, the sculptor Rysbrach, Charles Wesley, Hoyle, Abbadie, Cramer, the painter A. Ramsey, the painter D. Serres, the painter Stubbs, and one of the Dukes of Portland. The new parish church stands in New-road, directly opposite Yorkgate, Regent's Park; was built in 1813-7, after designs by Hardwicke, at a cost of £60,000; is in the Grecian style, with a noble Corinthian portico, surmounted by a tower and cupola; has West's picture of the Holy Family over the communion table; and contains monuments to the painters Cosway and Northcote. All Souls, church stands in Langham-place, Oxford-street; was built in 1822-4, after designs by Nash, at a cost of £16,000; has a circular portico, and an angular or "extinguisher ''spire; and contains Westall's picture of "Christ crowned with Thorns." Trinity church stands in Portland-road; was built in 1825, after designs by Soane, at a cost of £21,800; and is in the classical style, on a variety of models. St. Mary's church, Bryanstonesquare, was built in 1824, after designs by Smirke, at a cost of £20,000; and has a tower 135 feet high. Christ church, Stafford-street, was built in 1825, after designs by Hardwicke. St. Andrew's church was built in 1846-7, after designs by Dukes; is in the pointed style, 78 feet long and 65 feet wide; and has a tower and spire 155 feet high. All Saints church, Margaret-street, was founded in 1850 by Dr. Pusey, and finished in 1859; is in the pointed style of the 12th century, after designs by Butterfield; cost £60,000, of which £.30,000 were con tributed by Mr. Tritton, and £10,000 by Mr. Beresford Hope; stands partly concealed by two projecting houses; consists chiefly of variegated brick; is surmonnted by a tower and spire 220 feet high; and abounds interiorly in very rich decorations. Some of the other places of worship present features of interest. The chapel of St. Ka. therine's hospital, on the E side of Regents Park, contains the tomb of the Duke of Exeter, who died in 1447, and a wooden pulpit gifted by Sir Julins Cæsar. A synagogue in Great Portland-street was built in 186970, at a east of about £24,000. The places of worship within the parish, in 1851, were 20 of the Church of England, with 22,532 sittings; 1 of English Presbyterians, with 1,382 s.; 1 of United Presbyterians, with 680 s.; 6 of Independents, with 3,034 s.; 5 of Baptists, with 3,390 s.; 1 of Unitarians, with 500 s.; 4 of Wesleyan Methodists, with 2,772 s.; 1 of Primitive Methodists, with 100 s.; 2 of the Wesleyan Association, with 198 s.; 1 of Calvinistic Methodists, with 206 s.; 1 undefined, with 200 s.; 1 of the Catholic and Apostolic church, with 800 s.; 3 of Roman Catholics, with 2,260 s.; 1 of the Greek church, with 100 s.; and 1 of Jews, with 333 s. The schools were 46 public day schools, with 11,054 scholars; 195 private day schools, with 4,549 s.; 32 Sunday schools, with 7,415 s.; and 7 evening schools for adults, with 257 s.

The district, or poor law union, is conterminate with the parish; and is divided into the sub-districts of All Souls, Cavendish-square, Rectory, St. Mary, Christchurch, and St. John. All Souls sub-district is bounded, on the N, by New-road; on the E, by the parochial boundary-line; on the S, by the parochial boundary-line along Oxford-street; on the W, by a line drawn northward from Regent-circus, Oxford-street, up Regent the garden of Park-crescent, to New-road. Acres, 112. Pop. in 1851,28,841; in 1861,29,952. Houses, 2,417. Cavendish-square sub-district is bounded, on the N, by New-road; on the E, by All Souls sub-district; on the S, by the parochial boundary-line along Oxford-street; on the W, by a line drawn northward along the W branch of Marylebone-lane, across the end of the S side of Hind-street, along Thayer-street and High-street, up New-road at the point where it is joined by Devonshireterrace. Acres, 113. Pop. in 1851,14,687; in 1861, 15,090. Houses, 1,764. Rectory sub-district is bounded, on the N, by part of New-road; on the E, by Cavendishsquare sub-district; on the S, by the parochial boundaryline along Oxford-street; on the W, by a line drawn northward from the end of Portman-street along the W side of Portman-square, and along Gloucester-street and Gloucester-place, to New-road. Acres, 116. Pop. in 1851,27,663; in 1861,26,692. Houses, 2,143. The decrease of pop. arose almost wholly from the demolition of Calmel Buildings, Orchard-street, on the site of which St. Thomas' church now stands. St. Mary sub-district is bounded, on the E, by Rectory sub-district; on the S, by the parochial boundary-line along Oxford-street to its end; on the W, by the parochial boundary-line continued along Edgware-road to the point where it is joined to Winchester-row; on the NW and the N, by a line drawn along Winchester-row, Homer-place, Middlesexplace, Lisson-grove South, Charlotte-row, and New-road, to the end of Gloucester-place. Acres, 108. Pop. in 1851,22,814; in 1861,22,493. Houses, 2,272. Christchurch sub-district is bounded, on the S, by All Souls, Cavendish-square, Rectory, and St. Mary sub-districts; on the W, by the parochial boundary-line along Edgware-road to the end of Portman-place; on the NW and the N, by a line drawn from Edgware-road up New Church-street along Alpha-road to the point where it is struck at right angles by Park-road, then along Parkroad and Primrose-hill-road to the point where the parochial boundary intersects the Zoological gardens; on the E, by the parochial boundary-line through Regent's-park, across St. Andrew's-place, on to Trinity church. Acres, 518. Pop. in 1851,33,895; in 1861,34,913. Houses, 3,600. St. John sub-district is bounded on the S and the SE, by Christ Church sub-district; on the W, by the parochial boundary-line along Edgware-road; on the N and the NE, by the parochial boundary-line continued past Kilburn-priory, crossing Abbey-road and New Northroad on the borders of Hampstead to Barrow-hill castward up to the point of intersecting Primrose-hill-road close to the Zoological gardens. Acres, 542. Pop. in 1851,29,826; in 1861,32,540. Houses, 4,161. Poorrates of the district, in 1863, £98,603. Marriages in 1863,2,002; births, 5,157,-of which 470 were illegitimate; deaths, 4,048,-of which 1,692 were at ages under 5 years, and 52 at ages above 85. Marriages in the ten years 1851-60,18,394; births, 48,917; deaths, 37,867. The workhouse is in Rectory sub-district; and, at the census of 1861, had 1,600 inmates.

The borough comprises the parishes of Marylebone, St. Pancras, and Paddington; includes, as within these parishes, St. John's Wood, Portland-Town, Bayswater, Westbourne-Grove, Somers-Town, Camden-Town, KentishTown, and part of Highgate; was constituted a borough by the act of 1832; is not a municipal borough, but parliamentary only; and sends two members to parliament. Acres, 5,470. Amount of property and income tax charged in 1863, £365,412. Electors in 1833,8,901; in 1868,23,888. Pop. in 1851,370,957; in 1861,436,252. Houses, 47,896.

(John Marius Wilson, Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales (1870-72))

Linked entities:
Feature Description: "a parish, a district, and a borough"   (ADL Feature Type: "countries, 3rd order divisions")
Administrative units: St Marylebone PLPar/RegD       Middlesex AncC
Place: St Marylebone

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