Descriptive Gazetteer Entry for Durham

Durham, capital of the co., parliamentary and municipal bor., episcopal city, and market town, 12 miles S. of Newcastle, 60 N. of York, and 256 N. of London by rail -- parl. bor., 967 ac., pop. 15,372; mun. bor., 880 ac., pop. 14,932; 2 Banks, 2 newspapers. Market-day, Sat. Durl am is situated on a rocky eminence ("Dunholme," "Duresme," "Durham,") nearly surrounded by the river Wear. It dates from the 10th century, when the monks of Lindisfarne, after the ravaging of Holy Island by the Danes, rested there with the body of St Cuthbert, and built a chapel for its reception. The present cathedral dates from 1093. The castle, said to have been erected by William the Conqueror, became the chief residence of the bishops of Durham; it is now appropriated to the uses of the university. The university, founded by Cromwell in 1646, and dissolved after the Restoration, was re-established by Act of Parliament in 1833. Besides the university, the educational institutions comprise a grammar-school founded by Henry VIII., a diocesan training-school for schoolmistresses, blue-coat, and other schools. The only industries of any importance are a carpet factory, and a large mill for the mfr. of "Durham mustard." In the vicinity are coal. mines. Butler (1692-1752), author of The Analogy, was bishop. The bor. returns 1 member to Parliament.

(John Bartholomew, Gazetteer of the British Isles (1887))

Linked entities:
Feature Description: "capital of the county, parliamentary and municipal borough, episcopal city, and market town"   (ADL Feature Type: "capitals")
Administrative units: Durham PLU/RegD       County Durham AncC
Place: Durham

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