1881 Census of England and Wales, Tables: Ages, Condition as to Marriage, Occupations and Birthplaces of people, Table 10 : " Occupations of Males and Females in the Division and its Registration Counties".

List City of London PLU/RegD St Botolph SubD
OCCUPATIONS. Males.
[1]
Females.
[2]
1. PERSONS ENGAGED IN THE GENERAL OR LOCAL GOVERNMENT OF THE COUNTRY. 197 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Civil Service (officers and clerks) 8 Show data context -
  Civil Service (messengers, &c.) 10 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Police 159 Show data context -
  Municipal, Parish, Union, District, Officer 20 Show data context -
2. PERSONS ENGAGED IN THE DEFENCE OF THE COUNTRY. 13 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Army Officer (effective/retired) 4 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Soldier and Non-commissioned officer 5 Show data context -
  Militia, Yeomanry, Volunteers 1 Show data context -
  Army Pensioner 2 Show data context -
  Seaman, R.N. 1 Show data context -
3. PERSONS ENGAGED IN PROFESSIONAL OCCUPATIONS (WITH THEIR IMMEDIATE SUBORDINATES). 61 Show data context 53 Show data context
  Clergymen (Established Church) 3 Show data context -
  Minister, Priest of other religious bodies 2 Show data context -
  Missionary, Scripture Reader, Itinerant preacher 1 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Church, chapel, cemetery - officer, servant 3 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Barrister, Solicitor 3 Show data context -
  Law Clerk, and others connected with the law 7 Show data context -
  Physician, Surgeon, General Practitioner 5 Show data context -
  Dentist 3 Show data context -
  Medical Student, Assistant 1 Show data context -
  Subordinate Medical Service - 21 Show data context
  Schoolmaster 8 Show data context 16 Show data context
  Teacher, Professor, Lecturer 2 Show data context 6 Show data context
  School Service, and others connected with teaching - 1 Show data context
  Author, Editor, Journalist 3 Show data context -
  Reporter, Short-hand Writer 1 Show data context -
  Literary, Scientific, Institution, Service, &c. 3 Show data context -
  Civil Engineer 1 Show data context -
  Land, House, Ship, Surveyor 1 Show data context -
  Painter (artist) 2 Show data context -
  Engraver (artist) 1 Show data context -
  Musician, Music Master 3 Show data context 6 Show data context
  Photographer 3 Show data context -
  Actor 1 Show data context -
  Performer, Showman, Exhibition, Service 1 Show data context -
  Billiard, Cricket & other Games, Service 3 Show data context -
4. PERSONS ENGAGED IN DOMESTIC OFFICES OR SERVICES. 153 Show data context 973 Show data context
  Domestic Coachman, Groom 1 Show data context -
  Domestic Indoor Servant 51 Show data context 638 Show data context
  Inn, Hotel Servant 83 Show data context 81 Show data context
  College, Club Service 1 Show data context -
  Office Keeper (not Government) 10 Show data context 59 Show data context
  Cook (not domestic) 4 Show data context -
  Charwoman - 114 Show data context
  Washing and Bathing Service 1 Show data context 77 Show data context
  Hospital and Institution Service - 2 Show data context
  Others engaged in Service 2 Show data context 2 Show data context
5. PERSONS ENGAGED IN COMMERCIAL OCCUPATIONS. 192 Show data context 14 Show data context
  Merchant 22 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Broker, Agent, Factor 12 Show data context -
  Auctioneer, Appraiser, Valuer, House Agent 1 Show data context -
  Accountant 3 Show data context -
  Salesman, Buyer (not otherwise specified) 3 Show data context 4 Show data context
  Commercial Traveller 41 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Commercial Clerk 107 Show data context 8 Show data context
  Officer of Commercial Company, Guild, Society &c. 1 Show data context -
  Bank Service 1 Show data context -
  Life, House, Ship &c., Insurance Service 1 Show data context -
6. PERSONS ENGAGED IN CONVEYANCE OF MEN, GOODS, AND MESSAGES. 431 Show data context 7 Show data context
  Railway Guard 2 Show data context -
  Other Railway Officials and Servants 33 Show data context -
  Omnibus, Coach, Cab, Owner - Livery Stable Keeper 5 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Cabman, Flyman, Coachman (not domestic) 20 Show data context -
  Carman, Carrier, Carter, Haulier 75 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Inland Navigation Service 2 Show data context -
  Bargeman, Lighterman, Waterman 9 Show data context -
  Navigation Service (on shore) 2 Show data context -
  Seaman (Merchant Service) 32 Show data context -
  Ship Steward, Cook 3 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Harbour, Dock, Wharf, Lighthouse Service 39 Show data context -
  Warehouseman (not Manchester) 49 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Messenger, Porter, Watchman (not Railway or Government) 157 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Telegraph, Telephone Service 3 Show data context 1 Show data context
7. PERSONS ENGAGED IN AGRICULTURE. 42 Show data context 9 Show data context
  Farmer, Grazier 2 Show data context -
  Farm Bailiff 1 Show data context -
  Agricultural Labourer, Farm Servant, Cottager 37 Show data context 7 Show data context
  Others engaged in, or connected with agriculture 1 Show data context -
  Nurseryman, Seedsman, Florist - 2 Show data context
  Gardener (not domestic) 1 Show data context -
8. PERSONS ENGAGED ABOUT ANIMALS. 23 Show data context -
  Groom, Horse-keeper, Horse-breaker 10 Show data context -
  Veterinary Surgeon, Farrier 5 Show data context -
  Cattle, Sheep, Pig - Dealer, Salesman 3 Show data context -
  Drover 3 Show data context -
  Dog, Bird, Animal - Keeper, Dealer 1 Show data context -
  Fisherman 1 Show data context -
9. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN BOOKS, PRINTS, AND MAPS. 110 Show data context 39 Show data context
  Publisher, Bookseller, Librarian 2 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Bookbinder 18 Show data context 35 Show data context
  Printer 78 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Newspaper Agent, News Room Keeper 5 Show data context -
  Lithographer, Lithographic Printer 6 Show data context -
  Map and Print - Colourer, Seller 1 Show data context -
10. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN MACHINES AND IMPLEMENTS. 51 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Engine, Machine Maker 6 Show data context -
  Millwright 1 Show data context -
  Fitter, Turner (Engine and Machine) 3 Show data context -
  Agricultural Machine and Implement Maker 1 Show data context -
  Domestic Machinery - Maker, Dealer - 1 Show data context
  Tool Maker, Dealer 3 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Cutler, Scissors Maker 4 Show data context -
  Pin Maker 1 Show data context -
  Watch Maker, Clock Maker 21 Show data context -
  Philosophical Instrument Maker 3 Show data context -
  Electrical Apparatus Maker 2 Show data context -
  Gunsmith, Gun Manufacturer 2 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Musical Instrument Maker, Dealer 1 Show data context -
  Die, Seal, Coin, Medal Maker 1 Show data context -
  Toy Maker, Dealer 1 Show data context -
  Apparatus for other games, Maker, Dealer 1 Show data context -
11. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN HOUSES, FURNITURE, AND DECORATIONS. 216 Show data context 9 Show data context
  Builder 1 Show data context -
  Carpenter, Joiner 64 Show data context -
  Bricklayer 29 Show data context -
  Mason 4 Show data context -
  Plasterer, Whitewasher 3 Show data context -
  Paperhanger 1 Show data context -
  Plumber 9 Show data context -
  Painter, Glazier 32 Show data context -
  Cabinet Maker 38 Show data context 4 Show data context
  French Polisher 5 Show data context -
  Furniture Broker, Dealer 5 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Gas Fitter 7 Show data context -
  House and Shop Fittings - Maker, Dealer 1 Show data context -
  Funeral Furniture Maker, Undertaker 1 Show data context -
  Wood Carver 2 Show data context -
  Carver, Gilder 13 Show data context -
  Animal, Bird &c. Preserver, Naturalist 1 Show data context -
  Artificial Flower Maker - 3 Show data context
12. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN CARRIAGES AND HARNESS. 18 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Coachmaker 4 Show data context -
  Wheelwright 3 Show data context -
  Saddler, Harness, Whip Maker 11 Show data context 1 Show data context
13. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN SHIPS AND BOATS. 8 Show data context -
  Shipwright, Ship Carpenter (ashore) 1 Show data context -
  Ship Rigger, Chandler, Fitter 6 Show data context -
  Sail Maker 1 Show data context -
14. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN CHEMICALS AND COMPOUNDS. 13 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Chemist, Druggist 10 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Manufacturing Chemist 2 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Drysalter 1 Show data context -
15. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN TOBACCO AND PIPES. 74 Show data context 21 Show data context
  Tobacco Manufacture, Tobacconist 73 Show data context 21 Show data context
  Tobacco Pipe, Snuff Box &c. Maker 1 Show data context -
16. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN FOOD AND LODGING. 351 Show data context 49 Show data context
  Innkeeper, Hotel Keeper, Publican 45 Show data context 11 Show data context
  Lodging, Boarding House Keeper 4 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Coffee, Eating House, Keeper 28 Show data context 5 Show data context
  Beerseller, Ale, Porter, Cider Dealer 2 Show data context -
  Cellarman 19 Show data context -
  Wine, Spirit - Merchant, Agent 4 Show data context -
  Milkseller, Dairyman 11 Show data context -
  Cheesemonger, Butterman 2 Show data context -
  Butcher, Meat Salesman 71 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Provision Curer, Dealer 8 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Poulterer, Game Dealer 3 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Fishmonger 13 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Corn Miller 1 Show data context -
  Baker 46 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Confectioner, Pastrycook 19 Show data context 7 Show data context
  Greengrocer, Fruiterer 30 Show data context 6 Show data context
  Mustard, Vinegar, Spice, Pickle Maker, Dealer 2 Show data context 5 Show data context
  Grocer. Tea, Coffee, Chocolate Maker, Dealer 42 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Ginger Beer, Mineral Water Manufacturer, Dealer 1 Show data context -
17. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN TEXTILE FABRICS. 45 Show data context 33 Show data context
  Woollen Cloth Manufacture 1 Show data context -
  Cloth, Worsted, Stuff, Flannel, Blanket Dealer 4 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Silk, Silk Goods, Manufacture - 2 Show data context
  Cotton, Cotton Goods Manufacture - 3 Show data context
  Flax, Linen - Manufacturer, Dealer - 1 Show data context
  Hemp, Jute, Cocoa Fibre Manufacture 1 Show data context -
  Rope, Twine, Cord - Maker, Dealer 2 Show data context -
  Mat Maker, Seller 1 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Sacking, Sack, Bag - Maker, Dealer - 1 Show data context
  Others working and Dealing in Hemp - 2 Show data context
  Weaver (undefined) - 2 Show data context
  Dyer, Printer, Scourer, Bleacher, Calenderer (undefined) 2 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Factory Hand (textile, undefined) 2 Show data context -
  Carpet, Rug Manufacture 3 Show data context -
  Draper, Linen Draper, Mercer 21 Show data context 6 Show data context
  Fancy Goods (Textile) Manufacturer, Worker, Dealer 5 Show data context 5 Show data context
  Trimming Maker, Dealer 2 Show data context 5 Show data context
  Embroiderer 1 Show data context 2 Show data context
18. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN DRESS. 477 Show data context 508 Show data context
  Hatter, Hat Manufacture 20 Show data context 20 Show data context
  Straw - Hat, Bonnet, Plait Manufacture - 3 Show data context
  Tailor 262 Show data context 261 Show data context
  Milliner, Dressmaker, Staymaker 1 Show data context 123 Show data context
  Shirt Maker, Seamstress - 53 Show data context
  Hosiery Manufacture 1 Show data context -
  Hosier, Haberdasher 13 Show data context 4 Show data context
  Glover, Glove Maker - 1 Show data context
  Shoe, Boot - Maker, Dealer 148 Show data context 20 Show data context
  Wig Maker, Hair Dresser 17 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Umbrella, Parasol, Stick - Maker, Dealer 13 Show data context 15 Show data context
  Accoutrement Maker 1 Show data context -
  Old Clothes Dealer, and others 1 Show data context 7 Show data context
19. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN VARIOUS ANIMAL SUBSTANCES. 37 Show data context 48 Show data context
  Tallow Chandler, Candle, Grease Manufacture 2 Show data context -
  Soap Boiler, Maker 4 Show data context -
  Bone, Horn, Ivory, Tortoise-shell - Worker, Dealer 3 Show data context -
  Others 2 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Furrier, Skinner 11 Show data context 13 Show data context
  Tanner, Fellmonger 1 Show data context -
  Currier 4 Show data context 3 Show data context
  Leather Goods, Portmanteau, Bag, Strap &c., Maker, Dealer 4 Show data context -
  Hair, Bristle - Worker, Dealer 1 Show data context -
  Brush, Broom, Maker 4 Show data context 4 Show data context
  Quill, Feather - Dresser, Dealer 1 Show data context 27 Show data context
20. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN VARIOUS VEGETABLE SUBSTANCES. 70 Show data context 31 Show data context
  Oil Miller, Oil Cake - Maker, Dealer - 1 Show data context
  Oil and Colourman 3 Show data context -
  India Rubber, Gutta Percha - Worker, Dealer 2 Show data context -
  Waterproof Goods - Maker, Dealer 1 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Willow, Cane, Rush Worker, Dealer, Basketmaker 6 Show data context -
  Hay, Straw (not plait), Chaff, Cutter, Dealer 2 Show data context -
  Sawyer 1 Show data context -
  Wood Turner, Box Maker 6 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Cooper, Hoop Maker, Bender 11 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Cork, Bark - Cutter, Worker, Dealer 6 Show data context -
  Paper Manufacture 8 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Envelope Maker 1 Show data context 7 Show data context
  Stationer, Law Stationer 16 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Card, Pattern Card Maker 1 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Paper Box, Paper Bag Maker 3 Show data context 12 Show data context
  Ticket, Label Writer 3 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Others - 1 Show data context
21. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN VARIOUS MINERAL SUBSTANCES. 106 Show data context 7 Show data context
  Miner, in other or undefined Minerals 1 Show data context -
  Coal Merchant 1 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Coalheaver 3 Show data context -
  Coke, Charcoal, Peat - Cutter, Burner, Dealer 1 Show data context -
  Gas Works Service 3 Show data context -
  Stone Cutter, Dresser, Dealer 2 Show data context -
  Brick, Tile - Maker, Burner, Dealer 1 Show data context -
  Paviour 3 Show data context -
  Railway Labourer, Navvy 1 Show data context -
  Earthenware, China, Porcelain, Manufacture 3 Show data context -
  Glass Manufacture 8 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Earthenware, China, Glass Dealer 5 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Waterworks Service 3 Show data context -
  Goldsmith, Silversmith, Jeweller 22 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Gold, Silver, Beater 1 Show data context -
  Others 1 Show data context -
  [Iron Manufacture] 4 Show data context -
  [Steel Manufacture] 1 Show data context -
  Blacksmith 12 Show data context -
  Whitesmith 1 Show data context -
  Nail Manufacture 1 Show data context -
  Ironmonger. Hardware Dealer, Merchant 6 Show data context -
  Other Iron and Steel Manufacture 1 Show data context -
  [Coppersmith] 2 Show data context -
  Tin, Tin Plate, Tin Goods - Manufacturer, Worker, Dealer 6 Show data context -
  Brass, Bronze Manufacture. Brazier 11 Show data context -
  Metal Burnisher, Lacquerer - 1 Show data context
  White Metal, Plated Ware, Manufacture. Pewterer 1 Show data context -
  Wire Maker, Worker, Weaver, Drawer 1 Show data context 1 Show data context
22. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN GENERAL OR UNSPECIFIED COMMODITIES. 328 Show data context 129 Show data context
  General Shopkeeper, Dealer 101 Show data context 53 Show data context
  Pawnbroker 9 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Costermonger, Huckster, Street Seller 16 Show data context 16 Show data context
  Manufacturer, Manager, Superintendant (undefined) 8 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Contractor (undefined) 2 Show data context -
  General Labourer 134 Show data context -
  Engine Driver, Stoker, Fireman (not railway, marine or agricultural) 6 Show data context -
  Artizan, Mechanic (undefined) 23 Show data context 11 Show data context
  Apprentice (undefined) 5 Show data context 2 Show data context
  Factory Labourer (undefined) 16 Show data context 6 Show data context
  Machinist, Machine Worker (undefined) 8 Show data context 37 Show data context
23. PERSONS WORKING AND DEALING IN REFUSE MATTERS. 16 Show data context 1 Show data context
  Town Drainage Service 3 Show data context -
  Chimney Sweep, Soot Merchant 6 Show data context -
  Scavenger, Crossing Sweeper 1 Show data context -
  Rag Gatherer, Dealer 6 Show data context 1 Show data context
24. PERSONS WITHOUT SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS. 27 Show data context 84 Show data context
  Persons returned by Property, Rank &c. and not special occupation 27 Show data context 84 Show data context
[UNKNOWN OCCUPATION] 91 Show data context 1,472 Show data context
  [Occupation recorded but of unknown meaning] 1 Show data context 2 Show data context
  [Blank field, or illegible] 90 Show data context 1,470 Show data context

Notes:

The following notes to the table appeared in the original report.

1 This table is a very special case: The original Table 10 as published by Division in the 1881 census reports was limited to data for Registration Divisions, their component Registration Counties, and just those Urban Sanitary Districts with populations of over 50,000. Data presented here for counties and higher-level units are taken from the published reports, as usual, but we also include in A Vision of Britain through Time data for Registration Districts, sub-Districts and Civil Parishes which never appeared in the original reports. These were specially created for us by the History Data Service at the University of Essex and derive from the complete transcription of the individual-level Enumerators Book data coordinated by the Genealogical Society of Utah.
2 In creating these data, each occupation listed in the enumerators books has been assigned as far as possible to the relevant category used in the published reports, but some additional categories with labels in square brackets unavoidably appear. Unlike the published statistics for higher-level units, these specially-calculated data for districts and parishes include persons under 15 or over 65. For these and other reasons, no attempt has been made to ensure that county totals for the districts or parishes match the published county totals. The remaining notes are those that appeared below the original published table.
3 NOTE.--Persons returned as engaged in more than one occupation have been referred to the one that appeared to be of most importance; or if there was no difference in this respect, to the one first given by the person in his or her return. In some cases special rules have been followed: e.g. "Clergyman and Schoolmaster" in combination has always been referred to "Schoolmaster"; a Member of Parliament or Peer engaged in any branch of commerce or industry has always been referred to this latter, not to "Peer, M.P.".
4 The numbers returned under any heading include Labourers, Apprentices, and Assistants, as well as Masters, but not Clerks, Messengers, Errand boys, Porters, or Watchmen, for which occupations there are special headings. Civil, Military, and Naval Clerks, Law, Bank, Insurance, and Railway Clerks, and Government and Railway Porters, are, however, exceptions to this rule. Many young persons, being Apprentices or Assistants, have therefore been referred to occupations usually followed by adults. Women also, chiefly widows or orphans carrying on the business of their deceased husbands or fathers, will sometimes be found under occupations commonly followed by men only.
5 Persons returned as retired from any business have not been referred to that business. Inmates of workhouses have been referred to their trades, unless their age or infirmities showed that they were past work. But persons who might be supposed to be only temporarily separated from their usual employment, such as Prisoners, and Patients in General Hospitals, have been classed under their usual occupations.
6 In some cases, for convenience of space, the male designation, e.g. "Schoolmaster", alone is given, instead of "Schoolmaster, Schoolmistress".

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This website does not try to provide an exact replica of the original printed census tables, which often had thousands of rows and far more columns than will fit on our web pages. Instead, we let you drill down from national totals to the most detailed data available. The column headings are those that appeared in the original printed report. The numbers presented here, which are the same ones we use to create statistical maps and graphs, come from the census table and have usually been carefully checked.

The system can only hold statistics for units listed in our administrative gazetteer, so some rows from the original table may be missing. Sometimes big low-level units, like urban parishes, were divided between more than one higher-level units, like Registration sub-Districts. This is why some pages will give a higher figure for a lower-level unit: it covers the whole of the lower-level unit, not just the part within the current higher-level unit.


Acknowledgments:

We are grateful to the following contributors. If you make use of the data in your own work, please follow any instructions given here on acknowledgment and re-use.

(1) Kevin Schurer (Department of Geography, University of Cambridge). Role: editor. Restrictions on use: the data cannot be accessed, although the Vision of Britain system may present them graphically (any other use requires the contributor's permission.)

(2) Matthew Woollard (UK Data Service, University of Essex). Role: editor. Restrictions on use: the data cannot be accessed, although the Vision of Britain system may present them graphically (any other use requires the contributor's permission.)