1971 Census of England and Wales, Economic activity County Leaflets (Sample Report Title: Census 1971: England and Wales: Economic Activity Leaflet: (Laid before Parliament pursuant to Section 4 (1), Census Act 1920) Shropshire), Table 3 : " Industry and status by area of workplace and sex for County, county boroughs, urban areas with populations of 50,000 or more, conurbation centres".

List England Dep Staffordshire AdmC
Industry Males
[1]
Females
[2]
Married Females
[3]
In employment 526,470 Show data context 301,290 Show data context 206,190 Show data context
    Self-employed 41,090 Show data context 11,000 Show data context 8,230 Show data context
        Self-employed without employees 25,460 Show data context 6,300 Show data context 4,720 Show data context
        Self-employed with employees 15,630 Show data context 4,700 Show data context 3,510 Show data context
    Employees 485,380 Show data context 290,290 Show data context 197,960 Show data context
        Managers 44,290 Show data context 8,650 Show data context 6,000 Show data context
        [Managers] Large establishments 22,260 Show data context 3,130 Show data context 1,920 Show data context
[Managers] Small establishments 22,030 Show data context 5,520 Show data context 4,080 Show data context
Foremen and supervisors 28,820 Show data context 6,340 Show data context 4,640 Show data context
[Foremen and supervisors] manual 23,090 Show data context 2,380 Show data context 1,830 Show data context
[Foremen and supervisors] non-manual 5,730 Show data context 3,960 Show data context 2,810 Show data context
Apprentices, articled clerks and formal trainees 23,200 Show data context 3,930 Show data context 520 Show data context
Professional employees 15,930 Show data context 1,660 Show data context 1,080 Show data context
Family workers 850 Show data context 3,680 Show data context 3,220 Show data context
Other employees (excluding professional) 372,290 Show data context 266,030 Show data context 182,500 Show data context
I. AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY, FISHING 9,740 Show data context 2,200 Show data context 1,460 Show data context
    001 Agriculture and horticulture 9,610 Show data context 2,170 Show data context 1,430 Show data context
        1. Farming and stockrearing 8,000 Show data context 1,890 Show data context 1,220 Show data context
        2. Agriculture contracting 140 Show data context 0 Show data context 0 Show data context
        3. Market gardening, fruit, flower and seed growing 1,470 Show data context 280 Show data context 210 Show data context
    002 Forestry 130 Show data context 30 Show data context 30 Show data context
    003 Fishing 0 Show data context 0 Show data context 0 Show data context
II. MINING AND QUARRYING 18,680 Show data context 1,190 Show data context 790 Show data context
    101 Coal mining 17,250 Show data context 1,020 Show data context 700 Show data context
    102 Stone and slate quarrying and mining 310 Show data context 40 Show data context 10 Show data context
    103 Chalk, clay, sand and gravel extraction 870 Show data context 80 Show data context 60 Show data context
    104 Petroleum and natural gas 10 Show data context 0 Show data context 0 Show data context
    109 Other mining and quarrying 240 Show data context 50 Show data context 20 Show data context
III. FOOD, DRINK AND TOBACCO 14,870 Show data context 6,350 Show data context 4,180 Show data context
    211 Grain milling 270 Show data context 0 Show data context 0 Show data context
    212 Bread and flour confectionery 3,740 Show data context 2,060 Show data context 1,490 Show data context
    213 Biscuits 300 Show data context 370 Show data context 190 Show data context
    214 Bacon curing, meat and fish products 1,670 Show data context 1,380 Show data context 800 Show data context
    215 Milk and milk products 1,330 Show data context 380 Show data context 190 Show data context
    216 Sugar 30 Show data context 10 Show data context 0 Show data context
    217 Cocoa, chocolate and sugar confectionery 260 Show data context 150 Show data context 110 Show data context
    218 Fruit and vegetable products 130 Show data context 170 Show data context 150 Show data context
    219 Animal and poultry foods 250 Show data context 60 Show data context 40 Show data context
    221 Vegetable and animal oils and fats 150 Show data context 30 Show data context 30 Show data context
    229 Food industries not elsewhere specified 360 Show data context 180 Show data context 100 Show data context
    231 Brewing and malting 5,610 Show data context 1,170 Show data context 820 Show data context
    232 Soft drinks 710 Show data context 380 Show data context 250 Show data context
    239 Other drink industries 40 Show data context 0 Show data context 0 Show data context
    240 Tobacco 20 Show data context 10 Show data context 10 Show data context
IV. COAL AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS 630 Show data context 140 Show data context 90 Show data context
    261 Coke ovens and manufactured fuel 190 Show data context 10 Show data context 10 Show data context
    262 Mineral oil refining 30 Show data context 0 Show data context 0 Show data context
    263 Lubricating oils and greases 410 Show data context 130 Show data context 80 Show data context
V. CHEMICALS AND ALLIED INDUSTRIES 5,650 Show data context 2,030 Show data context 1,260 Show data context
    271 General chemicals 2,680 Show data context 640 Show data context 380 Show data context
    272 Pharmaceutical chemicals and preparations 130 Show data context 10 Show data context 10 Show data context
    273 Toilet preparations 40 Show data context 70 Show data context 50 Show data context
    274 Paint 480 Show data context 190 Show data context 90 Show data context
    275 Soap and detergents 80 Show data context 30 Show data context 30 Show data context
    276 Synthetic resins and plastics materials and synthetic rubber 220 Show data context 170 Show data context 130 Show data context
    277 Dyestuffs and pigments 890 Show data context 200 Show data context 100 Show data context
    278 Fertilizers 120 Show data context 30 Show data context 30 Show data context
    279 Other chemical industries 1,010 Show data context 690 Show data context 440 Show data context
VI. METAL MANUFACTURE 54,060 Show data context 9,430 Show data context 6,360 Show data context
    311 Iron and steel (general) 18,830 Show data context 1,980 Show data context 1,220 Show data context
    312 Steel tubes 6,860 Show data context 1,450 Show data context 1,020 Show data context
    313 Iron castings, etc. 14,470 Show data context 2,280 Show data context 1,500 Show data context
    321 Aluminium and aluminium alloys 3,300 Show data context 600 Show data context 410 Show data context
    322 Copper, brass and other copper alloys 8,450 Show data context 2,200 Show data context 1,590 Show data context
    323 Other base metals 2,150 Show data context 920 Show data context 620 Show data context
VII. MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 49,820 Show data context 10,500 Show data context 7,190 Show data context
    331 Agricultural machinery (except tractors) 1,260 Show data context 220 Show data context 140 Show data context
    332 Metalworking machine tools 5,060 Show data context 880 Show data context 590 Show data context
    333 Pumps, valves and compressors 1,890 Show data context 490 Show data context 360 Show data context
    334 Industrial engines 2,580 Show data context 520 Show data context 390 Show data context
    335 Textile machinery and accessories 40 Show data context 60 Show data context 60 Show data context
    336 Construction and earth moving equipment 2,030 Show data context 310 Show data context 210 Show data context
    337 Mechanical handling equipment 3,120 Show data context 600 Show data context 420 Show data context
    338 Office machinery 830 Show data context 330 Show data context 210 Show data context
    339 Other machinery 6,190 Show data context 980 Show data context 660 Show data context
    341 Industrial (including process) plant and steelwork 12,850 Show data context 1,680 Show data context 1,120 Show data context
    342 Ordnance and small arms 60 Show data context 40 Show data context 20 Show data context
    349 Other mechanical engineering not elsewhere specified 13,910 Show data context 4,390 Show data context 3,010 Show data context
VIII. INSTRUMENT ENGINEERING 1,020 Show data context 670 Show data context 450 Show data context
    351 Photographic and document copying equipment 40 Show data context 0 Show data context 0 Show data context
    352 Watches and clocks 10 Show data context 0 Show data context 0 Show data context
    353 Surgical instruments and appliances 200 Show data context 110 Show data context 90 Show data context
    354 Scientific and industrial instruments and systems 770 Show data context 560 Show data context 360 Show data context
IX. ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING 22,960 Show data context 14,290 Show data context 9,840 Show data context
    361 Electrical machinery 10,650 Show data context 3,590 Show data context 2,310 Show data context
    362 Insulated wires and cables 1,380 Show data context 2,280 Show data context 1,610 Show data context
    363 Telegraph and telephone apparatus and equipment 150 Show data context 40 Show data context 40 Show data context
    364 Radio and electronic components 800 Show data context 450 Show data context 310 Show data context
    365 Broadcast receiving and sound reproducing equipment 140 Show data context 260 Show data context 190 Show data context
    366 Electronic computers 2,680 Show data context 920 Show data context 620 Show data context
    367 Radio, radar and electronic capital goods 340 Show data context 120 Show data context 70 Show data context
    368 Electric appliances primarily for domestic use 3,120 Show data context 1,830 Show data context 1,330 Show data context
    369 Other electrical goods 3,700 Show data context 4,800 Show data context 3,360 Show data context
X. SHIPBUILDING AND MARINE ENGINEERING 310 Show data context 50 Show data context 50 Show data context
    370 Shipbuilding and marine engineering 310 Show data context 50 Show data context 50 Show data context
XI. VEHICLES 19,970 Show data context 5,130 Show data context 3,620 Show data context
    380 Wheeled tractor manufacturing 40 Show data context 10 Show data context 0 Show data context
    381 Motor vehicle manufacturing 16,280 Show data context 4,500 Show data context 3,230 Show data context
    382 Motor cycle, tricycle and pedal cycle manufacturing 130 Show data context 50 Show data context 40 Show data context
    383 Aerospace equipment manufacturing and repairing 3,020 Show data context 530 Show data context 320 Show data context
    384 Locomotive and railway track equipment 100 Show data context 10 Show data context 10 Show data context
    385 Railway carriages and wagons and trams 400 Show data context 30 Show data context 20 Show data context
XII. METAL GOODS NOT ELSEWHERE SPECIFIED 45,620 Show data context 25,140 Show data context 17,710 Show data context
    390 Engineers' small tools and gauges 2,920 Show data context 490 Show data context 340 Show data context
    391 Hand tools and implements 2,100 Show data context 870 Show data context 600 Show data context
    392 Cutlery, spoons, forks and plated tableware, etc. 340 Show data context 240 Show data context 180 Show data context
    393 Bolts, nuts, screws, rivets, etc. 5,270 Show data context 3,110 Show data context 2,310 Show data context
    394 Wire and wire manufactures 1,220 Show data context 320 Show data context 220 Show data context
    395 Cans and metal boxes 80 Show data context 70 Show data context 70 Show data context
    396 Jewellery and precious metals 210 Show data context 120 Show data context 80 Show data context
    399 Metal industries not elsewhere specified 33,480 Show data context 19,920 Show data context 13,910 Show data context
XIII. TEXTILES 4,340 Show data context 4,200 Show data context 2,800 Show data context
    411 Production of manmade fibres 150 Show data context 50 Show data context 50 Show data context
    412 Spinning and doubling on the cotton and flax systems 1,130 Show data context 700 Show data context 430 Show data context
    413 Weaving of cotton, linen and manmade fibres 20 Show data context 100 Show data context 90 Show data context
    414 Woollen and worsted 20 Show data context 20 Show data context 20 Show data context
    415 Jute 0 Show data context 20 Show data context 10 Show data context
    416 Rope, twine and net 20 Show data context 30 Show data context 10 Show data context
    417 Hosiery and other knitted goods 640 Show data context 1,070 Show data context 730 Show data context
    418 Lace 10 Show data context 0 Show data context 0 Show data context
    419 Carpets 20 Show data context 20 Show data context 10 Show data context
    421 Narrow fabrics 790 Show data context 1,190 Show data context 770 Show data context
    422 Made up textiles 270 Show data context 530 Show data context 340 Show data context
    423 Textile finishing 910 Show data context 350 Show data context 270 Show data context
    429 Other textile industries 360 Show data context 120 Show data context 70 Show data context
XIV. LEATHER, LEATHER GOODS AND FUR 1,240 Show data context 2,790 Show data context 1,700 Show data context
    431 Leather (tanning and dressing) and fellmongery 230 Show data context 90 Show data context 50 Show data context
    432 Leather goods 1,000 Show data context 2,700 Show data context 1,650 Show data context
    433 Fur 10 Show data context 0 Show data context 0 Show data context
XV. CLOTHING AND FOOTWEAR 2,290 Show data context 9,590 Show data context 5,560 Show data context
    441 Weatherproof outerwear 50 Show data context 490 Show data context 280 Show data context
    442 Men's and boys' tailored outerwear 550 Show data context 3,220 Show data context 1,910 Show data context
    443 Women's and girls' tailored outerwear 50 Show data context 300 Show data context 190 Show data context
    444 Overalls and men's shirts, underwear, etc. 60 Show data context 490 Show data context 240 Show data context
    445 Dresses, lingerie, infants' wear, etc. 290 Show data context 2,370 Show data context 1,410 Show data context
    446 Hats, caps and millinery 0 Show data context 0 Show data context 0 Show data context
    449 Dress industries not elsewhere specified 100 Show data context 840 Show data context 570 Show data context
    450 Footwear 1,190 Show data context 1,880 Show data context 960 Show data context
XVI. BRICKS, POTTERY, GLASS, CEMENT, ETC. 31,870 Show data context 25,380 Show data context 18,290 Show data context
    461 Brick, fireclay and refractory goods 5,680 Show data context 1,260 Show data context 930 Show data context
    462 Pottery 18,820 Show data context 22,580 Show data context 16,270 Show data context
    463 Glass 2,030 Show data context 930 Show data context 670 Show data context
    464 Cement 630 Show data context 10 Show data context 10 Show data context
    469 Abrasives and building materials, etc. not elsewhere specified 4,710 Show data context 600 Show data context 410 Show data context
XVII. TIMBER, FURNITURE, ETC. 7,860 Show data context 1,980 Show data context 1,270 Show data context
    471 Timber 2,130 Show data context 360 Show data context 250 Show data context
    472 Furniture and upholstery 2,940 Show data context 1,120 Show data context 680 Show data context
    473 Bedding, etc. 120 Show data context 150 Show data context 120 Show data context
    474 Shop and office fitting 760 Show data context 170 Show data context 90 Show data context
    475 Wooden containers and baskets 720 Show data context 140 Show data context 90 Show data context
    479 Miscellaneous wood and cork manufactures 1,190 Show data context 40 Show data context 40 Show data context
XVIII. PAPER, PRINTING AND PUBLISHING 7,230 Show data context 5,190 Show data context 2,860 Show data context
    481 Paper and board 1,520 Show data context 410 Show data context 220 Show data context
    482 Packaging products of paper, board and associated materials 750 Show data context 1,030 Show data context 620 Show data context
    483 Manufactured stationery 270 Show data context 240 Show data context 70 Show data context
    484 Manufactures of paper and board not elsewhere specified 30 Show data context 20 Show data context 20 Show data context
    485 Printing, publishing of newspapers 1,510 Show data context 640 Show data context 390 Show data context
    486 Printing, publishing of periodicals 60 Show data context 0 Show data context 0 Show data context
    489 Other printing, publishing, bookbinding, engraving, etc. 3,090 Show data context 2,850 Show data context 1,540 Show data context
XIX. OTHER MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 19,040 Show data context 7,010 Show data context 4,810 Show data context
    491 Rubber 15,900 Show data context 3,800 Show data context 2,560 Show data context
    492 Linoleum, plastics floorcovering, leather, cloth, etc. 20 Show data context 10 Show data context 10 Show data context
    493 Brushes and brooms 120 Show data context 110 Show data context 70 Show data context
    494 Toys, games, children's carriages and sports equipment 350 Show data context 640 Show data context 380 Show data context
    495 Miscellaneous stationers' goods 100 Show data context 20 Show data context 20 Show data context
    496 Plastics products not elsewhere specified 2,360 Show data context 2,210 Show data context 1,670 Show data context
    499 Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 190 Show data context 220 Show data context 100 Show data context
XX. CONSTRUCTION 48,550 Show data context 3,310 Show data context 2,190 Show data context
    500 Construction 48,550 Show data context 3,310 Show data context 2,190 Show data context
XXI. GAS, ELECTRICITY AND WATER 9,070 Show data context 1,610 Show data context 1,120 Show data context
    601 Gas 1,910 Show data context 270 Show data context 220 Show data context
    602 Electricity 6,080 Show data context 1,230 Show data context 810 Show data context
    603 Water supply 1,080 Show data context 110 Show data context 90 Show data context
XXII. TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION 28,260 Show data context 5,050 Show data context 3,320 Show data context
    701 Railways 4,180 Show data context 160 Show data context 100 Show data context
    702 Road passenger transport 6,270 Show data context 840 Show data context 500 Show data context
    703 Road haulage contracting for general hire or reward 10,990 Show data context 980 Show data context 670 Show data context
    704 Other road haulage 390 Show data context 20 Show data context 20 Show data context
    705 Sea transport 90 Show data context 10 Show data context 10 Show data context
    706 Port and inland water transport 130 Show data context 0 Show data context 0 Show data context
    707 Air transport 20 Show data context 10 Show data context 10 Show data context
    708 Postal services and telecommunications 4,920 Show data context 2,490 Show data context 1,660 Show data context
    709 Miscellaneous transport services and storage 1,270 Show data context 540 Show data context 350 Show data context
XXIII. DISTRIBUTIVE TRADES 41,770 Show data context 48,560 Show data context 32,610 Show data context
    810 Wholesale distribution of food and drink 3,210 Show data context 1,250 Show data context 900 Show data context
    811 Wholesale distribution of petroleum products 470 Show data context 60 Show data context 50 Show data context
    812 Other wholesale distribution 3,820 Show data context 3,350 Show data context 2,260 Show data context
    820 Retail distribution of food and drink 11,300 Show data context 13,190 Show data context 9,630 Show data context
    821 Other retail distribution 13,210 Show data context 27,550 Show data context 17,800 Show data context
    831 Dealing in coal, oil, builders' materials, grain and agricultural supplies 2,860 Show data context 1,100 Show data context 710 Show data context
    832 Dealing in other industrial materials and machinery 6,900 Show data context 2,060 Show data context 1,260 Show data context
XXIV. INSURANCE, BANKING, FINANCE AND BUSINESS SERVICES 7,090 Show data context 8,690 Show data context 4,800 Show data context
    860 Insurance 3,000 Show data context 1,850 Show data context 1,000 Show data context
    861 Banking and billdiscounting 1,340 Show data context 2,550 Show data context 930 Show data context
    862 Other financial institutions 870 Show data context 1,410 Show data context 810 Show data context
    863 Property owning and managing, etc. 570 Show data context 420 Show data context 220 Show data context
    864 Advertising and market research 130 Show data context 250 Show data context 170 Show data context
    865 Other business services 1,120 Show data context 2,170 Show data context 1,640 Show data context
    866 Central offices not allocable elsewhere 60 Show data context 40 Show data context 30 Show data context
XXV. PROFESSIONAL AND SCIENTIFIC SERVICES 24,810 Show data context 52,450 Show data context 38,410 Show data context
    871 Accountancy services 1,490 Show data context 1,000 Show data context 560 Show data context
    872 Educational services 13,190 Show data context 31,540 Show data context 24,710 Show data context
        1. Maintained primary and secondary schools 7,480 Show data context 23,360 Show data context 18,330 Show data context
        2. Other primary and secondary schools 340 Show data context 1,250 Show data context 870 Show data context
        3pt. Universities 500 Show data context 440 Show data context 320 Show data context
        3pt. Colleges of education 390 Show data context 610 Show data context 480 Show data context
        3pt. Establishments for further education 3,040 Show data context 2,230 Show data context 1,820 Show data context
        4. Educational administration 1,180 Show data context 3,370 Show data context 2,690 Show data context
        5. Educational establishments not elsewhere specified 260 Show data context 280 Show data context 200 Show data context
    873 Legal services 990 Show data context 1,540 Show data context 790 Show data context
    874 Medical and dental services 5,930 Show data context 17,160 Show data context 11,620 Show data context
        1. Hospital and consultant services 3,800 Show data context 13,130 Show data context 8,940 Show data context
        2. Local authority health services 1,030 Show data context 2,160 Show data context 1,560 Show data context
        3. General medical services 630 Show data context 1,020 Show data context 800 Show data context
        4. Dental services 290 Show data context 550 Show data context 160 Show data context
        5. Other medical services 180 Show data context 300 Show data context 160 Show data context
    875 Religious organisations 950 Show data context 380 Show data context 250 Show data context
    876 Research and development services 410 Show data context 180 Show data context 130 Show data context
    879 Other professional and scientific services 1,850 Show data context 650 Show data context 350 Show data context
        1. Architects, surveyors and consulting engineers 1,470 Show data context 450 Show data context 230 Show data context
        2. Other scientific and technical services 70 Show data context 40 Show data context 10 Show data context
        3. Professional and scientific organisations 0 Show data context 20 Show data context 10 Show data context
        4. Veterinary surgery 50 Show data context 70 Show data context 40 Show data context
        5. Other professional services 260 Show data context 70 Show data context 60 Show data context
XXVI. MISCELLANEOUS SERVICES 26,340 Show data context 34,720 Show data context 25,010 Show data context
    881 Cinemas, theatres, radio, etc. 650 Show data context 640 Show data context 470 Show data context
    882 Sport and other recreations 1,110 Show data context 900 Show data context 750 Show data context
    883 Betting and gambling 890 Show data context 1,280 Show data context 1,060 Show data context
    884 Hotels and other residential establishments 1,090 Show data context 2,340 Show data context 1,730 Show data context
    885 Restaurants, cafes, snack bars 1,090 Show data context 2,780 Show data context 2,290 Show data context
    886 Public houses 2,380 Show data context 4,840 Show data context 4,030 Show data context
    887 Clubs 670 Show data context 1,640 Show data context 1,480 Show data context
    888 Catering contractors 230 Show data context 900 Show data context 700 Show data context
    889 Hairdressing and manicure 750 Show data context 3,870 Show data context 1,830 Show data context
    891 Private domestic service 540 Show data context 3,520 Show data context 2,000 Show data context
    892 Laundries 400 Show data context 1,400 Show data context 910 Show data context
    893 Dry cleaning, job dyeing, carpet beating, etc. 190 Show data context 810 Show data context 590 Show data context
    894 Motor repairers, distributors, garages and filling stations 12,990 Show data context 3,760 Show data context 2,450 Show data context
    895 Repair of boots and shoes 310 Show data context 70 Show data context 60 Show data context
    899 Other services 3,050 Show data context 5,970 Show data context 4,660 Show data context
        1. Funeral services 220 Show data context 30 Show data context 30 Show data context
        2. Photography 190 Show data context 140 Show data context 70 Show data context
        3. Welfare and charitable services 660 Show data context 4,200 Show data context 3,140 Show data context
        4. Community service not elsewhere specified 70 Show data context 150 Show data context 120 Show data context
        5. Service of Commonwealth and foreign governments 50 Show data context 10 Show data context 10 Show data context
        6. Trade associations 170 Show data context 200 Show data context 150 Show data context
        7. Other services 1,690 Show data context 1,240 Show data context 1,140 Show data context
XXVII. PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND DEFENCE 21,020 Show data context 10,840 Show data context 6,360 Show data context
    901 National government service 6,140 Show data context 4,110 Show data context 2,300 Show data context
        1-4. Armed forces 1,630 Show data context 90 Show data context 20 Show data context
        5. Defence departments (civilian staffs) 1,480 Show data context 500 Show data context 380 Show data context
        6. Other national government service 3,030 Show data context 3,520 Show data context 1,900 Show data context
    906 Local government service 14,880 Show data context 6,730 Show data context 4,060 Show data context
        1. Police 3,450 Show data context 1,010 Show data context 580 Show data context
        2. Fire service 940 Show data context 140 Show data context 40 Show data context
        3. Other local government service 10,490 Show data context 5,580 Show data context 3,440 Show data context
Industry inadequately described 2,230 Show data context 2,780 Show data context 2,080 Show data context
Workplace outside United Kingdom 130 Show data context 20 Show data context 0 Show data context

Comments:

1 All data values have been multiplied by ten, as the original data are from a 10 per cent sample.

Click on the triangles for all about a particular number.

This website does not try to provide an exact replica of the original printed census tables, which often had thousands of rows and far more columns than will fit on our web pages. Instead, we let you drill down from national totals to the most detailed data available. The column headings are those that appeared in the original printed report. The numbers presented here, which are the same ones we use to create statistical maps and graphs, come from the census table and have usually been carefully checked.

The system can only hold statistics for units listed in our administrative gazetteer, so some rows from the original table may be missing. Sometimes big low-level units, like urban parishes, were divided between more than one higher-level units, like Registration sub-Districts. This is why some pages will give a higher figure for a lower-level unit: it covers the whole of the lower-level unit, not just the part within the current higher-level unit.