Occupation and Employment

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1.—Scope of Inquiry.

The form of the questions on the census schedule relating to occupation and to the kindred subject of industry is set forth below:—

Personal Occupation. Employment.

State here the precise branch of Profession, Trade, Manufacture, Service, &c.

Where the occupation is connected with Trade or Manufacture, the reply should be sufficient to show the particular kind of Work done, stating where applicable, the Material worked in, and the Article made or dealt in if any.

(If retired see Instruction 6; see also Instructions 3 ton and Examples.)

  1. If working for an employer state the name and business of present employer (person, firm, company or public body) or, if at present out of work, of last employer, Adding "out of work."
  2. If employing persons for purposes of business, write "Employer."
  3. If working on own account and not employing persons for purposes of business, write "Own Account."

NOTE.—For Domestic Servants and others in private personal service, write "Private."
See Instructions 3 to 8, 11 and Examples.

In 1911 the question relating to occupation was in substantially the same form as in 1921, but that relating to industry was as follows:—


This question should generally be answered by stating the business carried on by the employer. If this is clearly shown in column 101 the question need not be answered here.

No entry needed for Domestic Servants in private employment.

If employed by a public body (Government, Municipal, &c.), state what body.

It will be seen that whereas in 1911 it was left to the discretion of the employee whether this question should be answered, in 1921 all employees were required to state not only the nature of their employers' business but also the name of the employer.

The change in the form of the question was of great assistance in obtaining more accurate and more detailed information in regard to industry For each area lists of the principal employers of labour were compiled from directories,, from the replies of registrars to enquiries on this matter, or by a preliminary scrutiny of the schedules, and the correct industrial code number was marked against each firm, in some cases only after direct enquiry of the firm in question. These lists were then handed to the clerks engaged on industry coding, and the correct classification of all the employees of a firm was thus assured, however indifferently the nature of the employer's business might have been returned on the schedule by the employee. Without the information as to the name of the employer as well as the nature of the employer's business it would have been absolutely impossible to present industrial statistics in the degree of detail shown in the Industry Tables.

2.—Revised Classifications of Occupations and Industries.

The returns of occupation in this census have been tabulated under a scheme differing so much from those in use previously as to preclude the possibility of an exact comparison with previous census results.

This has come about because of failure in the past to maintain a clear distinction between occupation—the employment of the individual, and industry—the employment of the firm, or body of individuals organised under a common directing head.

The classifications used in 1911 and earlier were only in part occupational, being largely industrial in nature. Workers in the professions and the services and in certain numerically important occupations, as clerks, carters, engine drivers, commercial travellers, common to many industries, were distinguished occupationally, but in a large proportion of cases the distinction was industrial rather than occupational, such headings as pig iron manufacture, steel manufacture, tinplate manufacture, bedstead makers, tramcar makers, motor chassis makers, etc., being very common.

These industrial groups afford no information as to the nature of the occupation of the individual concerned, who in the last-mentioned case might be a fitter, machine tool worker, stamper, moulder, tinsmith, draughtsman, storekeeper or timekeeper, each of which occupations is now separately distinguished in the Occupation Tables, without reference to the industry which it serves, while in the Industry Tables all the important occupations serving each industry are set out in detail by sex and age.

This change has been made in accordance with a resolution of the British Empire Statistical Conference of 19202 in favour of separate and independent tabulations by occupation and by industry. This method had suggested itself as the result of reconsideration by those responsible for the Report on the Census of 1911 of the experiment in tabulation by personal occupation described in that report (vol. X, part 1, page viii) as a "decided failure." It appeared on going over the ground again that the view there taken was probably much too pessimistic, and the conference, accepting this opinion, made the recommendation referred to. In order to comply with it, a committee was appointed to which the task of drawing up new and independent classifications of occupations and industries, both for the purposes of the census and of any other occupational and industrial tabulations by government departments, was entrusted. On this committee the departments chiefly interested —the Board of Trade, Home Office, Ministry of Labour, and General Register Office —were represented.

The Conference recommended that "the classification should be based on two lists, the one of industries and the other of occupations, each heading being defined and given a reference number, and the headings should be so arranged as to be capable of grouping into classes according to a fixed and defined system" (Resolution 65) and that "the basic principle of the industrial classification should be the product or type of service and that of the occupational classification the process carried out, and the material worked in" (Resolution 66).

In compiling the occupational classification the committee was faced with the alternative of classifying primarily by process and subdividing by material or of classifying by material and subdividing by process.

Its choice was quickly determined by the fact that similarly named processes often differ radically in their nature according to the material to which they are applied. The operation, for instance, of pickling onions is of a very different nature from that of pickling metals preparatory to tinning or enamelling. In order to avoid such absurdities as would be entailed by primary segregation of picklers of all sorts of materials primary classification by material worked in was adopted. In this way a substantial point of occupational similarity (metal working, rubber working, etc.) was selected for primary classification in preference to such merely verbal similarity as that of picklers just referred to or of spinners of textiles and of metals, etc.

It will be seen on a scrutiny of the list of occupations that the processes to which each kind of material is subjected which are of chief importance, either as regards numbers employed or because they are key processes, have been tabulated as separate occupations, and that the remainder have been divided into two groups, "other skilled workers" and "other" (i.e. unskilled) "workers." Where both material and process can be stated completeness of occupational definition is greatly promoted, e.g. glass beveller, wood turner, etc. But this completeness of description can as a rule be applied only to the more numerically important occupations. Others have to be grouped by one criterion (material or process) only, and in such cases, as already pointed out, material is generally found the more informative.

In some cases, e.g., makers of tobacco, cigars, cigarettes, snuff, there are no processes of sufficient importance to call for separate enumeration, and material worked in becomes the only basis of classification, apart from questions of industrial status and of skill. In such cases it may seem at first sight that the classification tends to become industrial, the separate occupations included under this title being those peculiar to the tobacco industry. But there is a fundamental distinction between this and the corresponding title in the industrial classification. The occupational title includes only those workers who actually manipulate (or direct the manipulation of) tobacco in its processes of manufacture, while the industrial title includes workers of many miscellaneous occupations not directly concerned with the manipulation of tobacco, but in some way subservient to the industry of its manufacture, and so employed therein. (See Table No. 2 of the "Industry Tables," page 118, where the total workers in the industry are returned, under various occupational titles, at 46,381, as against the occupational total of 26,188.)

But although product, being mainly, under modern conditions, a criterion of industry rather than of occupation, is not referred to in the recommendation quoted as to the basis of occupational tabulation, it has proved impossible wholly to exclude its consideration in this connexion. Such titles as safe maker, glovemaker, bootmaker, surgical instrument maker, and (piano) action maker appear in the occupational list. In part this is because the modern movement towards specialisation hi the processes of manufacture is not yet complete, and one worker may still make a whole boot, or at least repair any part of a boot. If he no longer makes the whole boot, the occupation of a maker of boots to measure is that of a boot assembler, and assemblers like the action maker, cutler, and bespoke bootmaker can only be classified by the article assembled, the product of their labour. In their case classification by" material and process may both fail, the former because the materials assembled are often very diverse and the latter because the process of assembling may imply totally distinct occupations according to the article assembled, e.g., piano actions and cutlery. The one feature which distinguishes each of these assembling occupations from any other is the product, and in such cases, accordingly, it is still necessary to use this as a basis of occupational classification. The circumstances of the various cases have, indeed, predetermined the differentiation of the various occupations recognised in industrial life, sometimes on the basis of material and process and sometimes, though to a smaller and gradually decreasing extent, on the basis of product only. It is therefore the business of the framers of a classification not to arm at logical symmetry by having regard to any one or more of these criteria to the exclusion of others, but to recognise the facts of occupational organisation as they exist, and to frame their classification to fit these.

As a result of these changes there are but very few titles in the 1921 list the numbers for which can be compared with those of earlier censuses. With certain minor exceptions the figures for the professional occupations are comparable, as are those for certain others, such as farmers, agricultural labourers, gardeners, gamekeepers, carmen, and motor drivers, which were dealt with on occupational lines in 1911, and for a few occupations necessarily confined to certain industries, such as tram drivers and conductors, railway engine drivers firemen and cleaners, guards, and signalmen.

But the advantages of possessing, for the first time, a truly occupational classification of the workers in the country will, it is believed, greatly outweigh this loss of comparability with earlier records. For instance, we are now for the first time in a position to measure the mortality of certain dangerous occupations, which were formerly not distinguished from others involving no such risk. Cutlery grinding forms a case in point This very dangerous occupation was formerly tabulated under the title "cutler, scissors maker," a title of industrial type which included all makers of cutlery, whatever their personal occupation, and the mortality for which in 1910-12 exceeded the general average by 50 per cent. In 1921 all grinders of metal are distinguished separately as No. 237 of the list, and the number of these, of each sex and various ages, engaged in the cutlery industry, is stated on page 244 of the Industry Tables. For the 3,111 males so employed the mortality (corrected as before for age) in 1921-23 exceeded the general average by 230 per cent., or if the ages dealt with are restricted as in 1910-12, by about 330 per cent. The difference between these two results shows to what an extent the true mortality of dangerous occupations might previously be cloaked by the industrial nature of the so-called occupational tabulation.

General labourers form another case in point. In 1911 labourers engaged in tinplate production were classified to tinplate manufacture, however transitory their association with it, and similarly in other cases, with the result that the number of men working merely as labourers, without any special training or differentiation, was gravely understated in the census report. As this error occurred less in death registration, their mortality in 1910-12 was much overstated at 156.5 per cent. in excess of average. In 1921 attention has been concentrated upon the man's personal occupation of general labourer, i.e., for whatever industry will afford him employment, and these men have been tabulated accordingly as general labourers, with the result that the number at ages 12 and upwards has been increased from 295,342 in 1911, or 2.6 per cent. of all occupied males of these ages, to 714,576 in 1921, or 5.9 per cent. of the total occupied, the Tatter total including men who described themselves either as "general labourers" or as "labourers," since both were classed as general labourers in 1911. This change has had the effect of reducing the excess of mortality for these workers to 44 per cent., a much more credible figure than 156.5 per cent.

In one respect the information afforded by the 1921 tabulation may seem at first sight to fall short of that provided in 1911. For commercial occupations, Nos. 770-789, no information is given as to the nature of the business in which the shopkeeper (770), shop assistant (775), etc., is engaged, whereas in 1911 these workers were distinguished as butchers, grocers, greengrocers, etc. But in reality the information given for the country at large in 1921 is much greater than before. The industrial type of classification followed in 1911 classed those employed in the grocery trade as grocers, without reference to their personal occupation as shopkeepers, shop assistants, roundsmen, etc., merely distinguishing employers from employed, and that without statement of age. The present classification regards the work of the individual as employer or manager, shop assistant, roundsman, etc., as his occupation, and the fact that it is pursued in connexion with the grocery trade as an industrial consideration. It is therefore in the Industry Tables that information as to those employed in the grocery trade is to be found. In Table 3 of that volume the occupation, sex, and age of each employee of the grocery trade, distinguishing wholesale and retail, are given, thus providing information as to the various classes of workers concerned—shopkeepers, shop assistants, warehousemen, etc.— which was previously given only for all grocery employees en masse. (A few occupations serving the grocery trade were not classed to it in occupational tabulation/ e.g., commercial travellers, carmen and clerks, and for these similar information to that in the Industry Tables, 1921, was given in 1911, but generally speaking all workers in the industry, whatever their grade, were classed as grocers by occupation in 1911.)

The industrial classification has been based upon the product made or the service rendered by the employer. It will be seen that in some cases dissimilar products have been grouped under the same heading (e.g., cereal foods and starches soap, candles and glycerine), the reason being that products so grouped are made in the same factory and it is impossible to obtain separate figures for each from the information on the census schedules. It is only possible to compare the industrial figures for 1921 and 1911 to a limited extent because the classification in use in 1911 was not based on modern industrial practice.

The important changes in classification made in 1921 having been thus fully dealt with, it may suffice to state that a historical account of earlier changes both in the information to occupation tabulated and in the method of its classification, will be found in Vol. X (part 1) of the Report on the Census of 1911.

3.—Proportions Occupied at Various Ages.

TABLE XLIII shows the proportion per thousand of males and females occupied at different ages in England and Wales in 1921, distinguishing marital condition for females, and to some extent for males, and compares these proportions with those returned in 1911. It also states the proportions occupied at all ages over 12 and at eleven age groups, for the six chief industrial areas distinguished (see Appendix D), and for each administrative county, with associated county boroughs, if any.

The proportion of males of all ages (over 12) who are occupied has fallen from 88.4 per cent. in 1911 to 87.1 in 1921. The fall is greatest at the earliest age groups, the proportion of boys occupied at ages 12 and 13 being less than half what it was ten years earlier, doubtless as the result of legislation affecting half-time occupation.3 From this age onwards the reduction decreases till at 18 and 19 it is succeeded by an increase from 95.7 to 96.5 per cent. Above this age, however, the effects of the war are manifested by small reductions at 20-24, 25-34 and 35-44. At 45-54 the proportion is unchanged at 96.7 per cent., and above this age fairly substantial increases are recorded, except at ages over 75, which return a considerable decrease.

The proportion of married exceeds that of total males occupied at each age compared in the table. This was so also in 1911. The explanation may be furnished by men debarred by ill-health, physical or mental, from occupation and marriage alike. At every age compared, except 55-64, the proportion of married men occupied has declined since 1911, and at this age the increase for the married is less than that for all males.

Comparing the six industrial districts, we find the largest proportion occupied amongst males of all ages and boys of 12-15 in the West Riding. In later middle life—35-64—Birmingham comes first, and in old age, 65 and upwards, South Wales. At every age compared, except 75 and over, the proportion occupied is lower for London than for any of the other five areas.

Amongst the counties occupation is at a maximum in the industrial areas, the West Riding coming first with 90.1 per cent. at all ages over 12, and Lancashire, Leicester and Derby next. The lowest rates are returned by the residential counties of Rutland, Sussex West, Sussex East, and the Isle of Wight, in the order named.

Examination of the proportions occupied at the various ages reveals nothing of special interest, except the very low figures for Oxford and Cambridge at 20-24 and 25-34. For both counties there was an exceptional decline at both ages on the 1911 proportions, which may be due to the postponement of the census date to a time of year when more students (classed as unoccupied unless professional) are in residence. The highest proportions both at early and late working ages are returned by counties of very diverse types. Thus at 20-24 Monmouth, a mining county, comes first with 98.5 per cent., and Huntingdon and the Parts of Holland next with 98.4 each, the two latter being amongst the most purely agricultural counties in the country (Table XLV). In later life the same diversity appears. At both 55-64 and 65-74 the highest proportions among the English counties are returned by Rutland and Leicester, counties very dissimilar in occupation. At both these ages Devon and Hampshire return exceedingly low proportions, the lowest figures in later life being generally those of agricultural and residential counties.

The proportion of females occupied at all ages over 12 has decreased from 34.1 to 32.3 per cent., the only ages recording increase being 18-24. For the unmarried the proportion remains practically unchanged at 60.9 per cent., decreases for girls under 16 (as for boys of the same ages), and for aged women, being offset by increases at all ages from 16 to 75. Fewer married and widowed women, comparatively, are now at work at all adult ages.


Great variations are shown by the six industrial areas in regard to female occupation, Lancashire coming first with 39.8 per cent. at work and South Wales last with only 18.9, while London, lowest for males, comes second for females with 37.1 per cent. Lancashire has the highest ratios at 12-15 and at 20-44, Birmingham at 16-19, and London at 45-74, South Wales returns the lowest ratios at all ages from 14 to 64. At 18 and 19, the age of maximum female employment, it might be thought that the highest ratios would be returned by the textile counties, but this is not so. Lancashire takes only fourth place, with 84.8 per cent. occupied, being exceeded by Leicester, 87.6 (a textile county, but shown by Table XLIX to be decidedly less so than Lancashire, so far as females are concerned), Warwick, 85.9, and Northampton, 85.1, while the proportion for the West Riding, 78.2 per cent., is exceeded by those for fourteen other counties, including London, Middlesex, Essex, and Hertford. It has already been seen that Birmingham comes first amongst the six industrial areas at this age and Warwick comes second amongst the counties, though Table XLIX shows the proportion of female metal workers in Birmingham to be much less than that of textile workers in either Lancashire or the West Riding. Apart from the fact that there is greater diversity of female occupation in Birmingham, clerks especially being relatively much more numerous than in the textile areas, the explanation seems largely to be found in the probability that the working life of a female textile operative is longer than that of a metal worker. In the country as a whole the proportion of all occupied "females at ages 18 and 19 is shown by Table 4 of the Occupation Tables to be 10.6 per cent., whereas for textile workers it was 10.3, and for metal workers 16.3 per cent. Thus textile workers probably continue their occupation to an age a little above average, and metal workers give it up much under the average age. This seems to be the reason why Birmingham comes first amongst the industrial areas at ages 18 and 19, while Lancashire returns the highest proportion occupied at all ages jointly. For in Birmingham Table 9 of the Occupation Tables shows that girls of 18 and 19 form 11.7 per cent. of the total females occupied, whereas for England and Wales the proportion is 10.6, and for Lancashire only 9.6 per cent.

The diversity in proportion of females occupied at all ages is great also for the counties as compared with that for males, though the extremes are almost represented by those of the industrial areas, 39.8 per cent in Lancashire and 18.9 in South Wales. The highest county proportions are those of the two textile and general industry counties of Leicester and Lancashire, 41.0 and 40.3 per cent. respectively, but it is interesting to note that London comes next with 40.1, a proportion much in excess of the West Riding figure, 33.5. These three counties indeed, Leicester, Lancashire and London, form a group by themselves, all having over 40 per cent. of their females occupied, whereas the next in order, Warwickshire, has only 36.8. Generally speaking, proportions are highest in London and the manufacturing counties, and lowest in South Wales and other mining and agricultural counties, Monmouth, 17.7 per cent., Durham, 19.3, and Glamorgan, 19.6, furnishing the lowest proportions of all.

The changes, since 1911, in the proportions of males and females returned as occupied in the various counties may now be compared. This comparison has already been made for England and Wales; for the six industrial areas it cannot be made; but for the counties (with associated county boroughs) the means of making it is provided by Table XVI of each county part.

The decline, for males of all ages over 12 years, of 13 per thousand occupied, from 884 to 871, which is shown for England and Wales in Table XLIII, is so widely spread over the country that no county records an increase, and one only, the Soke of Peterborough, fails to record a decrease, its ratio at ages 14 and over (the comparison at 12 and over not being available for counties) remaining unchanged at 874 occupied per 1,000 total males. The remaining 62 counties all record declines in males occupied varying from 1 per 1,000 in Surrey to 49 in the Isle of Wight. Next to the latter come Cambridge, with a decline of 37, and Oxford, with one of 35 per 1,000. These figures are probably a result of the postponement of the census to June, when a larger number of students would be in residence, as pointed out on page 89. Non-professional students are included amongst the unoccupied, and the fact that the heavy reduction in the proportion occupied is in both cases confined to the ages liable to be so affected strongly supports this explanation. On the whole the reductions tend to be heavier for the agricultural than for the industrial counties.

Dealing now with the changes recorded for males at the various, age groups, we find that the heavy reduction of 86 per 1,000 for England and Wales at 14 and 15 is common to almost all the counties, two of agricultural type alone, the Parts of Holland and Anglesey recording increases (of 9 and 37). At 16 and 17, where the movement for England and Wales takes the shape of a decline of 6 per 1 000 the county experience is much more varied, 15 recording an increase and 45 a decrease. At 18 and 19 the 8 per 1,000 increase for England and Wales is shared in some degree by 56 counties, 7 showing decrease. At 20-24 the decrease of 5 per 1,000 for England and Wales is shared by 39 counties, while 21 show increases, but no general statement can be made as to the character of either group. At 25-34 the effect of the war is seen at its maximum in a reduction of the occupied by 8 per 1,000 in England and Wales. This reduction is shared by all but three counties, Carmarthen and Brecknock, with small increases, and Flint, with no change. As at each age group between 25 and 64, it is at a maximum, in this case of 40 per 1,000, in the Isle of Wight. The decline tends to be least in the mining and manufacturing counties.

At 35-44 the decline of 5 per 1,000 for England and Wales is shared by 59 counties, while two, Bedford and Rutland, record increases, of 3 in each case, and two, Surrey and Montgomery, no change. As at 25-34, the fall tends to be greater in the agricultural than in the mining and industrial counties. That of 13 for London is exceeded by only four other counties, and that of 45 for the Isle of Wight is quite exceptional, Westmorland, with 18, coming next.

At 45-54 the proportion occupied in England and Wales has remained unchanged, while in 26 counties it has increased, by from 1 to 18 per 1,000, and in 36 decreased, by from 1 to 29 (in the Isle of Wight). Here again the increases, though headed by Surrey (18), apply more to mining and industrial, and decreases to agricultural counties.

At 55-64 the tendency towards increased occupation of elderly men first definitely asserts itself for England and Wales with an increase of 21 per 1,000. Increases are also returned by 44 counties, but experience is much varied, and decreases, many of them substantial, and reaching a maximum of 47 in the Isle of Wight, are returned by 18 counties, all of agricultural type (their proportions of agricultural workers in Table XLV varying from 134 to 413 per 1,000, and their rank in this respect from 4 to 40 out of the 63 counties dealt with).

At 65 and over the changes which have occurred are very similar to those at 55-64. For the country as a whole there has been an increase in the proportion occupied of 23 per 1,000, which is shared, however, by only 25 counties, 38 recording decreases. As these are agricultural counties, with small populations, their decreases are more than counterbalanced by the 25 increases, which include all the more important mining and industrial counties, with their large populations. Thus at all ages from 25 upwards the larger declines in proportion of males occupied are returned by the agricultural counties, and the smaller declines, or increases, by the mining and industrial. This has already been noted for all males, without distinction of age, and it appears that the tendency increases as age advances.

The decline in proportion of females occupied (at ages 12 and upwards) of 18 per 1,000 is shared by all the counties (at ages 14 and upwards) except six, which record slight increases—Northumberland and Durham, Essex and Middlesex, Stafford and the Isle of Ely. The greatest declines, generally speaking, are returned from the agricultural counties, and the greatest of all by six Welsh counties, Cardigan, Montgomery, Carmarthen, Pembroke, Radnor and Brecknock, in the order stated.

4.—Occupations of Males.

As the local distribution within the counties of the occupations of chief importance in each has been dealt with in some detail in the reports on the administrative counties discussion may now be confined to the distribution of occupations throughout England and Wales, taking the administrative county, with its associated county boroughs (see Table 2 of County Reports) as the unit.

With this object Table XLIV has been prepared. It shows the local importance of the occupations and groups of occupations dealt with in each county by stating the numbers of males so returned per 1,000 total males aged 12 and upwards in the county, a method of statement pursued throughout the report unless otherwise indicated, as a measure of the local importance of the occupations discussed.

Thus we see that in the Isle of Ely and in the Parts of Holland (Lincs) 48 per cent. of the man-power of the county is engaged in agriculture, but that in Durham the corresponding proportion is only 2.2 per cent. These rates will be taken as a measure of the local importance of the occupations to be discussed.


[This table occupies pages 94 to 97, and is not currently included in Vision of Britain .]


From Table XLIV Table XLV has been prepared, with the view of obtaining in convenient form a summary of the occupational character of each population dealt with. This table gives a condensed summary for each area dealt with of the occupations of 626 out of the 871 males per 1,000 in England and Wales occupied at ages 12 and over, under the five headings of agriculture, coal mining, other productive occupations (distinguishing metal and textile working), transport and commerce. It thus enables the reader to see at a glance the general occupational character of each county. For instance, we see that Bedford takes only medium rank as an agricultural county, with 180 per 1,000 males engaged in agricultural pursuits—a proportion exceeded by 27 other counties out of the 63—but that it takes a high rank, tenth place, in the list for occupations corresponding with manufacture in general, and eleventh place in that for metal workers, while it ranks much higher for commercial occupations than for transport, workers of the latter type being comparatively few in Bedfordshire. It can also be seen from this table which are the most purely agricultural counties, the Isle of Ely coming first; in which coal miners are relatively most numerous, Monmouth coming first with 354 miners per 1,000 males over 12; and so on. The proportions entered under "Other Productive Occupations," Metal Working, and Commerce have been obtained simply by summing the entries in Table XLIV under the occupational orders and sub- orders indicated. They must therefore differ very slightly in some cases from those which would be got by relating the total of the males so employed to the total occupied, but in obtaining a picture in broad outline of the kind aimed at, minute accuracy is of little importance, and the labour saved by simply summing the figures in Table XMV was allowed to decide in favour of this procedure.

In order to throw further light upon the character of the populations compared columns have been added showing the proportion of female indoor domestic servants per 1,000 total population in each county. This ratio affords a convenient, and on the whole reliable, measure of wealth. It is evidently not an exact measure, as if it were Lancashire would be shown to be the poorest county in England and Wales. But it must evidently vary roughly in accordance with the proportion of each population in sufficiently easy circumstances to afford the luxury of paid domestic service. The character of the gradation itself confirms this, for it will be seen that counties known, on other grounds, to be of "residential type" (favoured as places of residence by the wealthier classes) take high places on the list, and those of distinctively industrial type low places.

With this table available for reference as to the general type, as regards occupation, of the units of area to be compared, the local distribution, throughout England and Wales, of the chief occupations will now be examined.

I. Fishermen.— The fishermen enumerated either on shore, or in vessels which were, in port on census night or arrived there the following morning, numbered 28,808, as against 25,139 in 1911. Table XLIV shows that the following counties contain the largest proportions of fishermen amongst their male populations:— Suffolk East (mainly in Lowestoft M.B.) 34 per 1,000, Lincs. Lindsey (mainly in Grimsby C.B.) 30, Pembroke 29, Cornwall 24, Yorks. East Riding 13, Lincs. Holland 9, Northumberland 6, Devon 6, Isle of Wight 5, Dorset 4, Yorks. North Riding 4, Sussex East 4, Carnarvon 4, Kent 3, Sussex West 3, and Cardigan 3. These are, of course, the counties in which fishing is of most local importance. But it is also of interest to inquire where it is of greatest absolute importance, i.e., where the largest numbers of fishermen are to be found. A populous county like Lancashire may rank high in this respect, though low as regards local importance. The following eight counties return 72 per cent. of all the fishermen enumerated, the percentage for each being as stated:—Lincs. Lindsey 15.7, Suffolk East 12.7, Cornwall 9.6, Norfolk 8.2, Yorks. East Riding 7.5, Lancashire 6.5, Devonshire 5.9, and Northumberland 5.7

II. Agricultural Workers numbered 1,171,298, or 84 per cent. of all males over 12 years of age (Table XLV). Although their number is shown by this table to be far exceeded by those of workers in metals, transport, and commerce, as well as in manufacturing processes, generally, their distribution is such that in 27 out of the 63 counties their number is the highest of all the groups dealt with in the table.

Of these 27 counties 24 take first rank as regards the proportion of their males employed in agriculture, in the following order :—Isle of Ely 481 per 1,000, Lincs. Holland 480, Radnor 423, Montgomery 413, Huntingdon 381, Hereford 369, Suffolk West 365, Rutland 345, Cardigan 337, Lincs. Kesteven 331, Anglesey 316, Cambridge 290, Norfolk 285, Merioneth 280, Westmorland 270, Shropshire 255, Sussex West 240, Pembroke 240, Oxford 234, Cornwall 224, Wiltshire 224, Suffolk East 222, Dorset 220, and Somerset 207. In these 24 counties, accordingly, agricultural workers are not only more numerous proportionately than in any others, but they exceed in number any of the other main groups of occupations distinguished in Table XLV. These are therefore at once the most predominantly and the most exclusively agricultural counties. But although they number 24 out of 63 they contain only about 10 per cent. of the total males over 12 years of age. T hey are, indeed, predominantly agricultural in type because no other industry has developed in them to attract population.

As the county populations dealt with in Tables XLIV and XLV include all their urban inhabitants, even of the largest cities, amongst whom agricultural workers are necessarily few, Table XLVI has been prepared to show the extent to which that section of the county populations for which agriculture is a practical possibility—the dwellers in the rural districts—is engaged in agricultural work.


From this table it appears that the gradation of the counties is much the same whether their total or only their rural populations are considered. Out of the above list of the 24 counties ranking as most agricultural in type when their town populations are included no less than 20 find a place in a similar list for rural dwellers only, and 12 of the first 16 are identical whichever measure is chosen.

The intensity of cultivation in the rural portion of each county is also measured in Table XLVI by the ratio of agricultural workers per 10,000 acres. Naturally this varies much with the nature of the surface, being lowest in such elevated regions as Northumberland (97) and Brecknock (98), where comparatively little cultivation is possible. On the other hand, where the nature of the soil favours intensity of cultivation, proximity to markets being obviously an additional factor in some cases, we get high proportions, the highest being Middlesex 676, Lincs. Holland 525, Isle of Ely 505, Kent 480, Surrey 467, Cambridge 436, Bedford 420, Worcester 415, Essex 414, and Suffolk East 412. Thus the fen country and the neighbourhood of London appear to be the most intensively cultivated, and no northern nor Welsh county employs a high proportion of labour on the soil. Table XLVI also provides a measure of the type of labour employed on the soil, the distinction drawn being between hired labour and that of the farmer himself and members of his family. It thus affords an indication of the average size of farms in each county as businesses, i.e., as regards the number of persons employed, not their area. In this case the most noteworthy feature is the lowness of the ratios for Welsh counties. In each of the 13 counties of Wales and Monmouth there are fewer agricultural labourers returned than farmers and their relatives, whereas the English counties where this is so number only 7 (out of 48). The physical character of these 7—Westmorland, Cumberland, Cornwall, Derby, Lancashire, the West Riding, and Durham—suggests that this feature is characteristic of upland districts, and no doubt this may largely account for it also in Wales, but the facts that it is universal there, and is met with also in the racially kindred counties of Cornwall and Monmouth, suggest that small farming may also be to some extent a Welsh national characteristic. That it is not merely a matter of greater intensity of cultivation leading to the employment of more labourers where the soil is suitable may be inferred from the cases of Anglesey and Flint. In both of these counties the man-power per unit of area exceeds the general average, but, as in all other Welsh counties, little hired labour is employed.

At the other end of the scale, where labourers are relatively most numerous, come, in order, Hertford, Suffolk West, Essex, Berkshire, Middlesex, Suffolk East, Kent, Norfolk, Sussex West, Surrey, Bedford, and Cambridge. These are counties of a very different type. All are situated in the Midlands or South of England, and in all of them intensity of cultivation, as measured by workers per unit of area, exceeds the average. Some light is thrown on the difference between the organisation of agriculture in England and in Wales by comparison of the numbers of sheep and of shepherds in the two countries. From the report of the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries on .Acreage under Crops and Number of Live Stock in 1921, we learn that there were then 10,614,636 sheep in England and 3,216,877 in Wales. The number of shepherds in England was 10,636 and in Wales 604, the number of sheep per shepherd being 998 in England and over 5,300 in Wales. The reason for this remarkable difference is doubtless to be found in the fact that the men classed as shepherds are all hired labourers, and that in Wales sheep are looked after not only by hired labour but very largely by small farmers and their families.

Shepherds are most numerous in the rural portions of the counties of Northumberland, Kent, Norfolk, Wiltshire, the East Riding of Yorkshire, the Lindsey division of Lincolnshire, Dorset, and Hampshire, in the order named, these eight counties returning almost 42 per cent. of the rural total. Their proportion to other agricultural labourers, which may be regarded as a rough measure of the relative importance of sheep farming, is far higher, at 211 per 1,000, in Northumberland, than in any other English county, Rutland (64) and Westmorland (53) coming next. The proportions of 70 per 1,000 in Brecknock and 50 in Radnor may well, however, in view of the small amount of hired shepherd labour in Wales, imply as much development of sheep farming in these counties as in Northumberland.

Coal Miners.— The distribution of this occupation throughout the counties of England and Wales is shown in Table XLV, from which it is seen that coal mining is of chief importance as an occupation in the following counties, the proportion of miners per 1,000 males of 12 and over being as stated in each case :—Monmouth 354, Glamorgan 336, Durham 291, Brecknock 261, Derby 238, Carmarthen 217, Denbigh 215, Nottingham 212, Northumberland 198, Yorks. West Riding 131, Stafford 130, Cumberland 107, Flint 105, Cardigan 66, Leicester 65, Lancashire 59, Shropshire 50, Somerset 46, Pembroke 39, Gloucester 38, Warwick 36, Montgomery 24, Worcester 22, Radnor 19, Hereford 16, Merioneth 15, and Carnarvon 14. Next on the list, according to Table XLIV, comes Anglesey 13, but as there is no coal mining in this county the men so returned were presumably holiday makers, and it is possible that this source of error may affect some of the other county figures quoted.

It is of some interest to consider the absolute as well as the relative numbers of miners in each county. When the figures are viewed from this point of view the great concentration of mining on a small section of the country becomes more apparent. The chief coal mining counties from this point of view are as follows:—

  Number of
Per cent. of
Glamorgan 159,753 16.1
Durham 157,787 15.9
West Riding 155,215 15.7
Lancashire 106,862 10.8
Stafford 64,459 6.5
Derby 63,651 6.4
Monmouth 61,074 6.2
Northumberland 54,861 5.5
Nottingham 49,705 5.0
  873,367 88.1

The first three of these counties return almost half (47.7 per cent.) of the total; and the first seven over three-quarters (77.6 per cent.).

The 990,409 coal miners in England and Wales are distributed as follows amongst the seven occupations distinguished under this heading:—Owners, agents, managers 0.6 per cent., subordinate superintending staff 4.1, hewers and getters 53.0, persons conveying material to the shaft 15.9, persons making and repairing roads 5.8, other workers below ground 9.3, and other workers above ground 11.3 per cent. The ages of these workers are compared on page 129.

050—56. Workers in Metalliferous Mines and Workings are relatively most numerous in the following counties :—Cumberland 47 per 1,000 males over 12, Yorks. North Riding 39, Cornwall 28, Rutland 26, and Northampton 18 per 1,000. All of these except Cornwall occur in the following list of counties in which the iron ore mining and quarrying industry is of chief importance. These return 95 per cent. of the workers so engaged in England and Wales, the number following the name of each county representing its iron mining personnel per 1,000 in England and Wales. These iron mining counties are:—Yorks. North Riding 383, Cumberland 260, Northampton and Soke of Peterborough 132, Lancashire 73, Lincoln 57, Leicester 22, Oxford 16, and Rutland 9 (Table 4 of the Industry Tables). In Cornwall tin, copper and wolfram are mined, and there is a little lead mining in Cumberland, Derby, Durham, Shropshire, and Flint.

072. Stone Miners and Quarriers are much more widespread. The following eleven counties shown in. Table XLIV have comparatively large proportions of their males so employed :—Carnarvon 27 per 1,000 males over 12, Merioneth 15, Cornwall 12, Shropshire 11, Anglesey 11, Radnor 11, Leicester 10, Denbigh 9, Montgomery 9, Brecknock and Derby 8, but Table 4 of the Industry Tables shows that only 38 per cent. of those engaged in the stone quarrying industry work in these counties.

073. Slate Miners, Quarriers.— Over 85 per cent. of the total of these workers are returned by Carnarvon (58 per cent.) and Merioneth (28), where their proportions per 1,000 males are very high—79 and 110 respectively. Cornwall, ranking next to these two counties, has only 2 per 1,000 males so employed, and returns only 4 per cent. of the total workers in the industry.

074. Clay, Sand, Gravel-Pit Workers are of importance only in Cornwall, where they include 33 per 1,000 males over 12. This county returns 46 per cent. of the workers in this industry, Devonshire coming next with 11 per cent.

Order IV. Workers in the Treatment of Non-Metalliferous Mine and Quarry Products.— These workers are of little numerical importance, forming only 0.2 per cent. of the total occupied in England and Wales. They are also widely scattered, showing no local concentrations of great importance. The counties where their importance, stated in each case per 1,000 occupied, is greatest, and the industries mainly accounting for their presence in each, are as follows :—Kent 8 (cement), Cambridge 8 (cement), Durham 7 (coke ovens), Cumberland 6 (coke ovens), Glamorgan 5 (patent fuel and cement), Bedford 4 (cement and concrete), Cheshire 4 (cement and salt), Derby 4 (coke ovens and concrete), and Leicester 4 (concrete). Makers of coke (080—9) amount to 6 per 1,000 males in Durham, and makers of other products (lime, cement, etc., 090—9) to 8 per 1,000 in Kent and Cambridge, and 3 in Leicestershire.

Order V. 1. Makers of Bricks, Pottery and Earthenware.— The highest county proportions for these workers are as follows:—Stafford 47 per 1,000, Huntingdon 38, Soke of Peterborough 14, Isle of Ely 13, Denbigh 13, Flint 13, and Derby 11. In each of these counties except Stafford most of these men appear to be engaged in brickmaking, though in Derby. china and earthenware manufacture is also of importance, employing 1,953 males, or 5.7 per cent. of the total for this industry in England and Wales. The great bulk of those engaged in it, 71.7 per cent. of the whole, are found in Staffordshire, where pottery manufacture is centred in and around Stoke-on-Trent. In this county alone are any of the occupations grouped under the general heading of considerable importance, potters here amounting to 11, and kiln and oven men to 10 per 1,000. Few industries in this country are so strictly localised as china and earthenware manufacture to Stoke, where almost 80per cent. of the workers in it were found. The only other county, besides Derby, where this industry is carried on to any considerable extent is London. The brickmaking industry, on the other hand, is widely spread throughout the country, though the West Riding, Stafford, Lancashire, Kent and Derby, which employ the largest numbers of workers in the order named, account jointly for 43 per cent. of the whole.

Order V.2. Makers of Glass and Glassware are of chief local importance in the following counties:—Stafford 5 per 1,000, West Riding and York City 5 each, Lancashire 4, Durham 3, London 3, Middlesex 3, and Warwick 3 (Birmingham industrial area 5). The counties returning the largest numbers, with the percentage of the total for each, are:—Lancashire 25.6, West Riding and York City 20.9, London 15.3, Stafford 8.l, Warwick 4.8, Durham 4.7, Middlesex 4.5, and Essex 4.1, these eight counties thus returning 88 per cent. of the whole.

140-9. Workers in Chemical Processes are of chief relative importance in Cheshire, 11 per 1,000, Essex 5, Lancashire 4, and the West Riding 3 per 1,000.

150-9. Makers of Paints, Oils, etc. , numbered 19 per 1,000 in the East Riding, 4 in Cheshire and 3 in Lancashire. Although the proportion employed is so much higher in the East Riding than in Lancashire, Table 4 of the Industry Tables shows that Liverpool is a rather larger centre of the oil and cake industry than Hull, having 4,997 males so engaged, as against 4,200 in Hull, although occupations 150-9 employ rather more workers in Hull than in Liverpool. These two cities account between them for 49 per cent. of all the workers in the oil and cake industry and 22 per cent. of the makers of paints and oils. The soap-making industry is chiefly centred in Lancashire and Cheshire, where 56 per cent. of the total for England and Wales were returned.

VII and VIII. Metal Workers.— From Table XLV it may be seen that the proportion of these workers is highest in Warwick, Stafford, Worcester, the North Riding, the Soke of Peterborough, the West Riding, Durham, and Northumberland, in the order named. But while proportions such as the 281 per 1,000 returned by Warwickshire and 230 by Staffordshire indicate large local development of the metal industries, metal workers are so essential to all communities that the lowest proportion for any county is that of 27 per 1,000 in Radnor.

The 1,540,235 male metal workers, exclusive of workers in precious metals, are distributed amongst the chief occupations concerned as follows:—

    Number. Per cent.
210-3 Fitters, Tool-setters and Millwrights 213,355 13.9
200 Machine Tool Workers 150,589 9.8
180-9 Foundry Workers in-
cluding 180 Moulders
129,214 8.4
78,504 5.1
90 Smiths 127,681 8.3
244 Engineers 91,620 5.9
160-9 Employers, Managers and Foremen 80,847 5.2
248 Motor Mechanics (so returned) 58,370 3.8
252 Plumbers 49,119 3.2
222 Boiler Makers and Platers 48,138 3.1
213 Fitters' Labourers 45,666 3.0
264 Tinsmiths 34,189 2.2
170-4 Furnacemen and Puddlers 27,220 1.8
255 Rivetters 24,639 1.6
246 Engineers and Mechanics' Labourers 19,174 1.2
265 Toolmakers 19,164 1.2
237 Grinders 15,954 1.0
223 Boiler Makers. and Platers. Labourers 14,783 1.0
245 Mechanics (so returned) 14,207 0.9
224 Brass Finishers and Turners 13,945 0.9
235 Gasfitters 12,238 0.8
238 Polishers, &c. 11,044 0.7
178 Rollers 10,664 0.7
153 Plumbers. Labourers 10,470 0.7
229 Cycle Makers 9,335 0.6
Other occupations separately distinguished. 99,951 6.4

In addition to 1,331,576 classed to the occupations separately distinguished, 82,168 skilled and 126,491 unskilled workers are distinguished as working in metal without further record of the kind of work done.

Of the occupations distinguished, furnacemen and puddlers (170-4) naturally come first, as being mainly concerned in production of iron and steel. Their chief local proportions are as follows:—Staffordshire 12 per 1,000, Carmarthen 11, North Riding 9 (Middlesbrough 17), Flint 9, Glamorgan 6, and West Riding 4 (Rotherham 24, Sheffield 15). Metal rollers, employed largely in iron and steel works, but also in the manufacture of tinplate and galvanised sheet, non-ferrous metal rolling, and other industries (Table 3 of the Industry Tables) are returned in the following local proportions:—Carmarthen 13, Monmouth 6, Glamorgan 4. But the best indication of the distribution of iron and steel production throughout England and Wales is afforded by Table 4 of the Industry Tables, from which it appears that of the total 211,198 male workers in these industries (110-114) in the whole country, 96 per cent. are returned by the following fifteen counties:—West Riding 32.0 per cent., North Riding 12.7, Stafford 12.2, Durham 7.7, Lancashire 7.6, Glamorgan 6.1, Monmouth 4.2, Lincoln 3.3, Cumberland 2.7, Derby 2.4, Worcester 1.5, Northumberland 1.4, Carmarthen 1.2, Northampton with Peterborough 0.7, and Shropshire 0.7. The city of Sheffield alone accounts for 21.4 per cent. of the total, Middlesbrough coming next amongst the towns with 5.2 per cent.

180-189. Foundry Workers , including moulders, 61 per cent. of the whole, furnacemen, 4, and foundry labourers, 35 per cent., but not foremen, amounted in Staffordshire to 28 per 1,000 males over 12, in the Soke of Peterborough to 25, Derbyshire 22, Warwickshire 21, Bedfordshire 19, Worcestershire and the North and West Ridings 17 each, Lincs. Kesteven 16, Lancashire, Lincs. Lindsey, and Shropshire 15 each, and in Durham to 13 per 1,000. In Industrial Area V (Birmingham) the proportion was 32 per 1,000. The list of counties in which the foundry industry (code nos. 130 and 131) is most developed is very similar, 19.5 per cent. of the total employed being returned by Stafford, 12.9 Derby, 10.8 the West Riding, 9.3 Durham, 7.2 Lancashire, 5.0 the North Riding, 3.5 London, 3.3 Warwick, 3.1 Leicester, and 2.7 per cent. by Worcester.

190. Smiths and Skilled Forge Workers , including as they do the village blacksmith, are naturally widely scattered throughout all areas. But industry no. 136, "Other Forging," (i.e. not of chains and anchors), to which the blacksmith is assigned, includes only 24,290 out of the total of 127,681 smiths, so the great bulk are employed in manufacturing industries. Of these the most important, as employing most smiths, are shown by Table 3 of the Industry Tables to be marine engineering and shipbuilding, steel manufacture, locomotive building, manufacture of chains and anchors, motor construction, building and repairing of other vehicles, and agricultural and general engineering. Smiths are returned in the largest proportions by the following counties:—Worcester 26 per 1,000, Stafford 21, Durham 19, and Northumberland and the North and West Ridings 14 each.

200. Machine Tool Workers , being employed in the final stages of metal manufacture (before assembly) are naturally most numerous where these stages are chiefly represented. Thus they number 39 per 1,000 males in the Birmingham industrial area, where 37 per cent. of them are engaged in the cycle and motor industry (Table 2 of the " Industry Tables "). The highest county proportions are:—Warwick 38, Soke of Peterborough (miscellaneous engineering) 34, Bedford (miscellaneous engineering and motors) 20, Stafford 20, and Lincs.—Kesteven and Lindsey (agricultural engineering), Worcester and the West Riding, 18 per 1,000 each.

210. Fitters.— This occupation also points towards the finished product, but here the Soke of Peterborough, with its miscellaneous engineering industry, comes first with 36 per 1,000, and the Birmingham industrial area next with 26. Other high proportions are those for Northumberland 25, Warwickshire 24, Durham and Lincs.—Kesteven and Lindsey 22 each, Cheshire 21, Bedford 20, and Stafford 19.

222 and 223. Boilermakers and Platers and their Labourers.— As 58 per cent. of all boilermakers and platers are employed in the marine engineering and shipbuilding industry (Table 2 of the Industry Tables), these workers are naturally found chiefly where that industry prevails. Thus in the North-East Coast industrial area their proportion per 1,000 males is 19, as against 5 for England and Wales, and the highest county ratios are:—Pembroke 24, Durham 19, Northumberland 17, Hampshire 15, the North Riding 13, Devonshire 12, the Isle of Wight 11, and Cheshire 11. In all of these counties shipbuilders (code nos. 660-9) are also numerous.

244. Engineers.— The constitution of this title shown on page 32 of the Classification of Occupations shows that these workers are concerned rather with the maintenance and repair than with the manufacture of machinery. Perhaps in consequence of this they are found more, on the whole, in the southern than the northern counties, the highest ratios being Northumberland 11, the Soke of Peterborough 11, Middlesex 10, Bedford 9, Essex 9, and London 8 per 1,000 males. In the first two, at least, manufacture is no doubt largely responsible for the number returned.

255 and 256. Rivetters and their Labourers.— As over 66 per cent. of these workers are employed in marine engineering and shipbuilding and repairing, they are, like boilermakers and platers, naturally most numerous in shipbuilding districts. The highest ratios returned include:—North East Coast 16 per 1,000, Durham 17, Northumberland 14, North Riding 9, and Cheshire 5.

237 and 238. Grinders and Polishers.— These very dangerous occupations are much concentrated in Birmingham and Sheffield, ratios per 1,000 males being in England and Wales 2, Warwickshire (and also in the Birmingham industrial area) 14, Worcester 7, West Riding 5 (Sheffield 26), and Staffordshire 5 (Walsall 16, Wolverhampton 15). Just over half the total for England and Wales are found in Warwickshire and the West Riding.

265. Tool Makers are found chiefly in Industrial Area V, Birmingham and District, where 10,253, or 53 per cent. of the total of 19,164 in England and Wales, were enumerated. Their employment is widespread throughout the metal industries, but is naturally most associated with those products which involve the use of machine tools or stamping presses.

A few other instances of notable local concentrations of the metal-working occupations may be quoted from Table 8 of the "Occupation Tables." The Birmingham industrial area, with 5 per cent. of the males over 12 years of age in the country, returns 76 per cent. of the tube drawers and welders (266), in England and Wales (45 per cent. being enumerated in Birmingham C.B.), 75 per cent. of the lock, latch and key makers (243), 34 per cent. of all these workers being in Willenhall, and 27 in the adjoining areas of Wolverhampton, Short Heath, and Wednesfield. The Birmingham area also returns 69 per cent. of all filers (233), 51 per cent. of brass and bronze foundry furnacemen and labourers (184, 185), 46 per cent. of press workers and stampers (254) and of workers in precious metals and electro-plate (Order VIII), 42 per cent. of puddlers (172), 41 per cent. of tool setters (211), and 21 per cent. of brass finishers and turners (224). Plumbers' labourers (253) are specially common in Greater London, where 39 per cent. of the total are found in a population amounting to 19 per cent. of all males over 12, their proportion to plumbers being here 46 per cent., as against 21 in England and Wales. The Yorkshire industrial area, with 9 per cent. of the total population, returns 36 per cent. of all wire drawers and makers (268) and 84 per cent. of the cutlers.

280-289. Workers in Precious Metals and Electro-plate , of whom almost half are goldsmiths and silversmiths, are of local importance chiefly in Birmingham C.B., where they form 37 per 1,000 males, and Sheffield, 24, smaller proportions being returned by London and Middlesex. But more than half the total of these workers were in the two cities first named, 41 per cent. in Birmingham and 15 in Sheffield. There are many more gold than silver smiths in Birmingham, but in Sheffield there are very few goldsmiths, silver and white metal smiths being of chief importance. More than half the total workers in the jewellery industry are found in the Birmingham industrial area.

Order IX. Electrical Apparatus Makers, Electricians are very widespread throughout the country, presumably because many of them are engaged in repair and maintenance rather than manufacture, "electricians" and "electrical engineers" forming 44 per cent. of the total. The highest local proportions are in Middlesex, 19 per 1,000 males, Warwickshire 17, London 15, Essex 14, and Surrey, Cheshire, Lancashire and Hampshire 12 each. Table 4 of the Industry Tables shows that machinery (generators, etc.) and lamps are made in Middlesex, machinery in Warwick, cables, etc., and lamps in London, cables and machinery in Essex and Lancashire, where the town of Stretford returns 8,614 out of 33,176 workers in the electrical machinery industry in England and Wales.

Order X. Makers of Watches, Clocks and Scientific Instruments.— As 61 per cent. of these workers in England and Wales are watch and clock makers and repairers (323) they are naturally widespread throughout the country, nearly all counties returning 1-3 per 1,000. In Cambridgeshire and in York City, however, the proportion rises to 6, and in Middlesex to 4, as a consequence of scientific instrument making in these areas. In England and Wales scientific instrument makers (322) form 23 per cent. of the total workers in Order X, but in Cambridge their proportion is 62 per cent. (Cambridge M.B. 66), in York 60, and in Middlesex 38 per cent. of the total.

Order XI. 1. Furriers, Tanners, etc.— These workers, 2 per 1,000 in England and Wales; are also widely spread, the highest county proportions being:—Northampton 20, London 5, Somerset 5, and Lincs. Kesteven, the East Riding, Denbigh, and Merioneth 4 each. In Northampton an exceptionally large proportion are classed as curriers and leather dressers (334), but in London, which is the chief seat of the English fur industry, returning 4,750 workers out of a total of 6,432 (Table 4 of the Industry Tables), 25 per cent. of these men are furriers (332), as against 9 per cent. in the country at large.

Order XI.2. Makers of Leather Goods (not Boots).— These men also, being largely (37 per cent.) and in the rural districts mainly (67 per cent.) saddlers (344), are widely scattered over all the counties, their proportion, of 2 per 1,000 males in England and Wales, not exceeding 4 in any county. This figure is reached in the Birmingham industrial area, where, especially in Walsall, saddlery and trunks are made (Tables 2 and 4 of the Industry Tables) and in London, which is the chief centre of the bag and trunk industry (338). But such rural counties as Rutland, Suffolk West, and Montgomery have 3 leather goods makers, mainly in their case saddlers, per 1,000 males over 12.

Order XII. Textile Workers.— The local distribution of these men is shown in Table XLV, from which it may be seen that they are much concentrated in a limited number of areas. Their proportion of 27 per 1,000 males in England and Wales is exceeded only by Lancashire 101, the West Riding 94, Leicester 59, Cheshire 52, Nottingham 44, and Derby 36, amongst the counties, these six containing 29 per cent. of the total males over 12, but 92 per cent. of male textile workers.

Almost half the total male textile workers in the country were in Lancashire alone, and over three-quarters in Lancashire and the West Riding, the numbers and proportions of the total in the six counties named being as follows:—

  Textile Workers. Percentage of Total. Females per
1,000 Males.
Persons. Males. Females. Persons. Males. Females.
Lancashire 499,668 182,781 316,887 50.9 49.1 52.0 1,734
West Riding 258,097 110,739 147,358 26.3 29.8 24.2 1,331
Cheshire 51,313 19,726 31,587 5.2 5.3 5.2 1,601
Leicester 35,573 10,705 24,868 3.6 2.9 4.1 2,323
Nottingham 31,545 10,280 21,265 3.2 2.8 3.5 2,069
Derby 26,898 9,508 17,390 2.7 2.6 2.9 1,829
Six counties 903,094 343,739 559,355 92.1 92.4 91.9 1,627
England and Wales 980,928 371,964 608,964 100 100 100 1,637

The large excess of female workers common to all the textile areas is greatest in Leicester and smallest in the West Riding.

Table 4 of the Industry Tables shows that in Lancashire these workers are almost exclusively employed in cotton manufacture, and in the West Riding somewhat less exclusively in the wool and worsted industry, cotton and silk goods being also produced here. In Leicester the hosiery trade is strongly predominant; Cheshire produces mainly cotton, but also some silk goods; Nottingham lace and hosiery; and Derby lace, hosiery and cotton goods.

As textile manufacture is carried out to such an exceptional extent by both sexes working together, it will be convenient in dealing with these occupations to consider both sexes concurrently. The chief textile occupations, with the proportion of the number of persons in each to the total for Order XII in England and Wales, and the proportion of females to total workers in each, are as follows:—

Occupation. Per cent.
of Total
per cent.
of Total
Occupation. Per cent.
of Total
per cent.
of Total
370 Weavers 29.8 80 366 Doublers 2.0 73
365 Spinners and Piecers 11.0 47 364 Strippers and Grinders 0.9 11
367 Winders, Warpers, Beamers, etc. 10.1 93 362 Breakers, Hecklers, Wi1lowrs 0.9 18
363 Card, etc., Frame Tenters 7.1 85 368 Drawers-in and Twisters-in 0.9 29
380-5 Bleachers, Dyers. Finishers, etc. 6.6 22 369 Sizers, Slashers and Tapers 0.7 9
351-9 Foremen and Over- lookers 3.7 7 371 Silk Winders, etc. 0.6 96
379 Lookers and Examiners; Menders 3.6 85 376 Lace Machine Tenters 0.6 24
374 Hosiery Frame Tenters 3.1 78 350-399 All Textile Workers 100.0 62

The proportion of female textile workers as a whole is 62 per cent., and it will be seen from the above statement that certain occupations are almost entirely in their hands, and others in those of males. Although the proportion of 62 per cent. for textile workers as a whole is little departed from in the six textile counties named, varying only from 57 in the West Riding to 70 in Leicester, there are some remarkable variations for particular occupations, as may be seen from the following table.


From this table we see that, for instance, foremen and overlookers, almost exclusively males in Lancashire and Yorkshire, are largely females in Derby and Leicester, and chiefly females in Nottinghamshire; that doublers, elsewhere three-fourths females, are in Cheshire three-fourths males, that lookers, examiners and menders, elsewhere mainly females, are in Lancashire two-thirds males, and that lace machine tenters, who are of numerical importance only in Derby and Nottingham, are almost entirely males in the former county and almost one-third females in the latter. In all these cases the sex proportions compared are based on large numbers, but in the less important counties this is .not so for all occupations. In this case, however, there is little likelihood of variations as great as these being due to chance, for if an occupation is suited to one sex only that sex will be found to predominate in all areas, however small the numbers concerned. The contrasts in Table XLVII must therefore be attributed to variations in local custom, probably dependent in a large measure upon variations in local industry, which may, indeed, lead to differences in the precise significance of the same occupational term in various places. Thus the fact that spinners and piecers are mainly males in Lancashire and mainly females in Yorkshire probably implies that the spinning of cotton is less suited to female labour than that of wool. In some cases the differences are more obvious. In Nottingham, for instance, where the workers in finishing processes (380-385) form 26 per cent. of the total, as against 7 in England and Wales, they are mainly lace warehouse hands (385), a distinctively female occupation, whereas elsewhere most of these workers belong to occupations, such as dyeing, scouring and calendering, etc., which are mainly in male hands.

The relative frequency of the various occupations in the six counties dealt with is compared in Table XL VIII. Naturally this depends much on the industry, hosiery and lace machine tenters being returned by those counties where the hosiery and lace industries are developed, while the scarcity of spinners and weavers in Nottingham may be explained on similar grounds. Presumably in some cases, as in that of the relative excess of winders, etc., in Cheshire, such differences depend on peculiarities of the local development of the industry, while in others, as that of the much larger proportion of finishers in the West Riding than in Lancashire, the difference depends on greater relative importance of the process in question in one branch of the textile industry than another.


Other counties in which textile workers are found, although to a limited extent, are Suffolk West (silk and hair cloth) 24 males and 23 females per 1,000 over 12, Worcester (carpets and rugs) 20 and 25, Westmorland (woollens and hosiery) 13 and 16, Somerset (woollens, lace, and flax and hemp) 12 and 10, Cumberland (cotton and wool) and Flint (artificial silk and wool) 10 and 16 each. The products quoted against each county refer to the industries in which the textile workers are chiefly engaged.

Order XIII. Makers of Textile Goods and Articles of Dress.— As these, like the textile workers, are drawn largely from both sexes, males and females will be considered together.

Nearly all, except for a few sack and tarpaulin makers, are makers of dress.

Employers and managers, forming 6 per cent. of the total, are relatively numerous, no doubt as a result of the large number of small businesses concerned. Tailors (404), numbering 204,705, or 24 per cent. of the total, are the most important numerically. No less than 63 per cent. of the tailors are females, the female excess being on the whole greatest in those counties where factory production is most developed, e.g. the West Riding, Lancashire, Gloucester, and Stafford (but less in Lancashire than in the others mentioned). On the other hand, in London, where the numbers are greatest of all but the trade is of a different class, females are in only a small majority. Bootmakers are of next importance to tailors, numbering 153,990, or 18 per cent. of the total Of these 65,326, nearly all males are "bootmakers and repairers (no doubt almost entirely the latter) and 88,664 boot factory operatives, of whom many are females, though the 17,785 clickers and cutters amongst them are almost entirely males. Dress and blouse makers, almost entirely females, come next, forming 17 per cent. of the total, and after them the much less numerous groups of milliners, hat makers, and glove makers, in the order named.

Workers in this order are chiefly returned from the following counties:—Northampton 238 per 1,000 males, Leicester 126, Bedford 49, Norfolk 45, London 33, and Gloucester 32, bootmakers accounting for 180 per 1,000 in Northampton, 89 in Leicester, 32 in Norfolk and 18 in Gloucester, hat makers for 18 in Bedford, and tailors for 15 in London. Bootmaking is even more concentrated in Northampton and Leicester than tailoring in London, Lancashire and the West Riding, nearly 60 per cent. of all the factory bootmakers in the country (code nos. 413 and 414) being returned from Northampton and Leicester (33 and 27 per cent. respectively), as compared with 56 per cent of tailors from London, the West Riding and Lancashire (25, 16, and 15 per cent. respectively). When population is taken into account the contrast becomes very much greater, 114 males and 57 females per 1,000 over 12 being returned as factory bootmakers in Leicester and Northampton, but only 9 males and 14 females per 1,000 as tailors in London, Lancashire and the West Riding.

The production of women's clothing, as well as that of men's, is much developed in London, where 21 per cent. of the totals of both milliners and dressmakers were returned, as against 25 per cent. of tailors, the population of London being 12 per cent. of that of England and Wales. Milliners are especially numerous in Bedfordshire, where their proportion of 7 per 1,000 is much higher than in London (5) or any other county. Hat formers and sewers (409, 410), 66 per cent. of whom were females, are also of special importance in Bedfordshire, where 30 per cent. of the total were enumerated, and where their proportion per 1,000 females was 64, Hertford, 5, coming next. It must be noted that the number of hat sewers and trimmers (code No. 410, 81 per cent. of whom were females) in Bedford may be understated. The census was taken during the off-season for the straw hat trade, and it is very possible that if this had not been the case the numbers returned would have been considerably larger.

Of the 7,915 glove makers, 82 per cent. of them females, in England and Wales, 2,995, or 38 per cent., were in Somerset, where the proportion per 1,000 females was highest at 11, Worcester 7, Oxford 5, and Wilts, and Dorset 3 each, coming next.

An occupation of importance for females, for whom it constitutes 19 per cent. of the total of Order XIII, but almost unrepresented amongst males, is that of sewers, stitchers, sewing machinists (419). These women are mainly employed in clothing manufacture, 11 per cent. in tailoring, 16 in dress and blousemaking, 20 per cent. in the manufacture of shirts, collars and overalls, 8 in that of underclothing, and 11 in that of miscellaneous articles of clothing (industry no. 359), while 9 per cent. are engaged in making up hosiery garments. They are especially numerous in Leicestershire, 28 per 1,000, Nottingham 22, London 13, Somerset 13, Essex 11, and Lancashire 10 per 1,000, the average for the country being 7.

Corset makers, almost entirely females, are of local importance chiefly in the Soke of Peterborough, 10 per 1,000, Hunts. 7, Leicester 5, West Suffolk 5, Hants. 4 (Portsmouth C.B. 16) and Northants. 4 per 1,000. The counties where this industry employs most females are shown by Table 4 of the Industry Tables to be Hampshire, London, Leicester, Gloucester, Northampton, and the Soke of Peterborough, which together return over 60 per cent. of all engaged in the industry of corset making.

Order XIV. I. Makers of Foods.— These occupations are naturally very widespread, bakers forming much the largest occupation in the group. The highest proportions per 1,000 males in the counties are 25 in Berkshire and 18 in Gloucester, which compare with 10 in England and Wales. The Berkshire rate is due to development of the biscuit making industry in Reading, and the Gloucestershire to that of sugar confectionery in Bristol. These are the food industries most characterised by local concentration the other two of chief importance, gram milling and bread making, being distributed over the country more or less in proportion to population (Table 4 of the Industry Tables). The other chief centres of the biscuit-making industry are London and Middlesex, Liverpool, and Cumberland (Carlisle); and of confectionery making, London and Middlesex, Birmingham, and the City of York.

It may be noted that while over most of the country males form the large majority of persons (chiefly bakers) engaged in the bread-making industry, the sex ratio is reversed in most of the northern counties (see page 123).

Order XIV.2. Makers of Drinks.— These workers are also widespread, the average of 3 per 1,000 for England and Wales being chiefly exceeded by Stafford 9, West Suffolk 8, East Suffolk 7, and Norfolk, Hertford and Lincs. Kesteven 6 each. The Staffordshire figure is chiefly due to the brewing industry in Burton, where the county ratio of 9 rises to 164 per 1,000 males, but the occupations as classified do not as a rule distinguish between the makers of beer and of other drinks, brewers and maltsters forming a very small proportion of the whole, even in Burton. In East Suffolk maltsters are specially numerous, forming 26 per cent. of all makers of drinks. Males engaged in the distilling industry, mainly in London, numbered only 2,785, as against 75,496 in malting and brewing, and 11,735 in the production of mineral waters.

Order XIV.3. Makers of Tobacco, Cigars, etc.— These workers, of whom almost three-fourths are females, are greatly concentrated in London, Bristol, Liverpool, and Nottingham, where 72 per cent. of the males were enumerated, 29 per cent. in London, 23 in Bristol, 9 in Liverpool, and 11 in Nottingham (C.B.), ratios per 1,000 males over 12 being in London 1, Bristol 12, Liverpool 2, and Nottingham 8.

Order XV.1. Workers in Wood , of whom 44 per cent. are carpenters, are very evenly distributed throughout the country, the general proportion of 34 per 1,000 males being seldom widely departed from. Carpenters are perhaps more equally distributed than any other occupation, the range from 10 per 1,000 in Monmouth to 24 in Anglesey, with a mean of 15 for England and Wales, being exceptionally limited. By far the highest county proportion for woodworkers is 102 per 1,000 in Buckingham, where, owing to the development of the chair-making industry, cabinet makers french polishers and wood turners and machinists jointly account for 42 per cent. of the total. These three occupations are also relatively important in London, where 31 per cent. of the total males engaged in furniture making work.

Order XV.2. Other Workers in Furniture (Upholsterers, etc.) . Like the cabinet makers, these men are much more numerous in Buckingham, where they form 7 per 1,000 males, than in any other county, London, Middlesex, and a few others coming next with 3.

Order XVI.I. Makers of Paper, etc.— As in the case of tobacco workers, referred to on page 87, the separate occupational processes falling under this heading are so numerous that it has not been possible to distinguish them except in the single case of vatmen and machine men, who form but 12 per cent. of the total. The remaining 88 per cent., however, are all engaged in the direction or discharge of operations in the manufacture of paper. On this fact is based the distinction between the 17,904 males occupied as makers of paper, etc., and the 32,759 (Table 2 of the Industry Tables) engaged, whether in manufacturing processes or otherwise, in the paper-making industry.

The counties where the proportion of paper makers is highest are Westmorland, 11 per 1,000, Kent 9, Buckingham 8, and Hertford 6 per 1,000 males; but Lancashire, with only 3 per 1,000, returns more paper makers than any other county, 26 per cent. indeed of the total, Kent coming second with 22 per cent. Table 4 of the Industry Tables shows that of 32,759 males engaged in the industry, 23 per cent. were returned as working in Lancashire, 22 per cent. in Kent, 7 per cent. in London, and 5 per cent. in the West Riding and in Herts.

Order XVI.2. Printers, etc.— Of these men, 24 per cent. are compositors, 20 per cent. hand and 4 machine, 20 machine attendants, 13 "printers," so returned, and 9 per cent. employers and managers; bookbinders and photographers coming next.

The proportion of 10 per 1,000 males for the group as a whole is most exceeded in London where the ratio is 24 (Greater London 23). Some of the adjacent counties come next:- Herts. 21 Middlesex 20, Essex 17, Surrey and Oxfordshire each 16. Greater London indeed returns over 43 per cent. of these workers, and the Administrative County 28 per cent. Apart from the London area, the highest ratio returned is that of Gloucestershire, 14 per 1,000 males, which includes Bristol with 21 per 1,000.

Order XVII. Builders, etc.— These workers are naturally scattered all over the country where building is in progress, and the general average of 36 per 1,000 males for England and Wales is therefore not greatly departed from in any counties except Carnarvon and Merioneth, where the ratios of 84 and 66 respectively are accounted for by the large numbers of slate workers engaged in the local slate industry. Elsewhere the range is only from 29 in London to 55 per 1,000 in Herts and Montgomery.

As the chief interest attaching to these workers is in reference to building construction it may be well to exclude from the total the platelayers and contractors' labourers, two large occupations not directly associated with building. Of the remainder, builders' labourers form 17 per cent., 37 per cent. bricklayers and their labourers, 11 per cent. masons and their labourers, and plasterers, 5 per cent. Other workers of importance in the building trade, as carpenters painters and plumbers, whose work is of a different nature, are not included in Order XVII. There is little of interest attaching to the local distribution of these workers, as they are returned in more or less similar proportions from all counties, except that, as already mentioned, slate workers are of special importance in Carnarvon and Merioneth (33 and 19 per 1,000 males). Stone cutters (575) are also numerous, 13 per 1,000, in Carnarvon. The proportion of bricklayers and their labourers to masons and their labourers, however, varies significantly. In most counties, as in England and Wales, the former are in a large majority, but in certain counties in the West and North of England (Somerset, Devon, Cornwall, Westmorland) and in most Welsh counties, the ratio is reversed, indicating greater use of stone as building material.

Platelayers and navvies are also returned in very similar proportion from most counties, the distribution of the latter not pointing to the progress of any very large local works of construction at the time of the census. The highest ratios are for certain Welsh counties, Montgomery, with 18 per 1,000, being highest of all. In this county the majority were in two rural districts, Newtown and Llanidloes, and Llanfyllin, where their proportion reached a high figure, owing to the construction of a pipe line for the Liverpool water supply.

Order XVIII. Painters and Decorators.— Over three-fourths of these workers are house or general painters, employed chiefly in the building and contracting industries (code nos. 462-9). Their employment, therefore, varies very much in proportion to the amount of house painting done in various localities. Comparing the proportions for the various counties we find, accordingly, that they are high in those of a residential and low in those of an industrial type, particularly in Wales and the North of England, as well as in some rural counties. The highest ratios per 1,000 males over 12 are:— Surrey 25, Middlesex 24, Sussex East 24 (Brighton 31, Hastings 31, Eastbourne 30), London and Greater London both 23, Isle of Wight 23, Herts. 21, and Berks. 21; and the lowest Northumberland 9, Durham 9, Rutland 9, Lincs. Holland 9, Isle of Ely 8, Cumberland 8, Monmouth 8, Cornwall 7, with the Welsh counties lowest of all, and ranging from 11 in Carnarvon to 4 in Carmarthen.

600-9. Workers in Rubber, etc.— The proportion of these workers is only 1 per 1,000 males in England and Wales, but Table 4 of the Industry Tables shows that the rubber industry is much concentrated in certain localities, Birmingham and Manchester accounting for 36 per cent. of the males employed in the industry. In Warwickshire the proportion of rubber workers per 1,000 males is 7 (Birmingham 10), in Wiltshire 11, Lancashire 3 (Manchester 9, Preston 8, Salford 7), and in Essex 2 (West Ham 5).

660-9. Builders of Ships and Boats (working in mixed or undefined materials). It may be seen from Table 2 of the Industry Tables that these workers form only a small proportion of those engaged in shipbuilding, metal workers, especially platers, fitters and rivetters, being of much more importance. It is only when, owing to the fact that various materials are worked in, occupation cannot be denned except in "terms of the ship as product, that assignment is made to this heading. The distribution of these workers can therefore form but an index to that of workers in shipbuilding generally. The highest county ratios are those for Northumberland and the Isle of Wight, 15 per 1,000 males over 12, Durham 14, Yorks. East Riding and Pembroke 10, Hampshire 9, Cheshire 8, and Devonshire, Kent and the North Riding 7 each. It will be noted that all the counties containing royal dockyards appear in this list. The ratio for the North-east Coast industrial area is 15.

Tables 2 and 4 of the Industry Tables show the distribution of the marine engineering and shipbuilding industry, in which 278,348 males were engaged. Of these, 102,664, or 37 per cent., were working in Industrial Area IV (North-east Coast), and 45,564, or 16 per cent. in Industrial Area II (Lancashire and Cheshire), 11 per cent. in Hampshire and the Isle of Wight, and 6 per cent. in Devon.

700-9. Railway Transport Workers.— These include only men engaged in the actual conduct of railway traffic, excluding large bodies of railway workers not so engaged, as platelayers, shopmen, clerks, and so forth.

As railways are so widespread throughout the country it might be thought that the proportion of these men returned by the different counties would be fairly uniform, but in fact it varies greatly, ranging from 12 per 1,000 in Suffolk West to 115 in the Soke of Peterborough, with a general average of 23. The Peterborough ratio is quite exceptional, Cumberland 49 and the Isle of Ely 48 coming next. The reason is that this administrative county consists almost entirely of a single town, Peterborough M.B., which is a great railway centre, Cumberland coming next because it contains another railway centre, Carlisle. These two towns, each with a proportion of 141 per 1,000, and Crewe 132, illustrate the tendency of railway workers to aggregate at nodal points on the main systems, Doncaster 76, York 66, Swindon 45, and Derby 42 being other examples. It is chiefly the drivers firemen and cleaners who display this tendency, their proportion of the whole being over 50 per cent. in each of the three towns first mentioned, though in England and Wales it is less than one-third.

710-729. Road Transport Workers, 38 per 1,000 in England and Wales, reach a maximum of 66 in London, a figure of considerable interest in relation to the London traffic problem. Berks and Sussex East come next with 47 each. The proportion is consistently low in Wales and Monmouth, none of the thirteen counties concerned reaching the average for England and Wales. It is somewhat curious that the proportion of horse drivers (718,719) to motor drivers (720,721) is highest in the large towns and lowest in the rural districts. Taking motor drivers as 100, the proportion of horse drivers is in England and Wales 122, in the county boroughs 155, in the other urban areas 115, and in the rural districts only 82. In London it is 125, No doubt the comparative economy of the horse and motor for short and long hauls respectively may have much to do with this apparently greater progress of the newer form of traction in the country districts. But it is strange that the counties of Warwick and Stafford, in the centre of English motor manufacture, record excess of horse drivers even for their rural districts. Motors in fact are not most used where most made. There are excesses of horse drivers of 40 per cent. in Warwickshire (rising to 47 in Birmingham and 45 in Coventry C.B.) and of 92 per cent. in Staffordshire, whereas in other counties, many of them remote from the centre of motor production, motor drivers are in the majority. These include, amongst others, Berks., Carnarvon, Dorset, Kent, Hants., Middlesex, Oxford, Surrey, Sussex East, Sussex West, Westmorland, and Wiltshire. Only one northern county is included in this list, and in Lancashire and Yorkshire horse drivers are in a large majority. In this comparison tram drivers have been excluded from consideration.

730-749. Water Transport Workers , of whom 45 per cent. were seamen, 9 per cent. bargemen and boatmen, and 38 per cent. dock labourers (including stevedores), are naturally much concentrated in certain counties containing seaports. The highest proportions per 1,000 males are those of the East Riding 92 (Hull 141), Anglesey 76, Essex 50, Pembroke 43, Lincs. Lindsey 43 (Grimsby 144), Glamorgan 40, Hants. 36, Cheshire 33, and Lanes. 32. In London the proportion is 26, in Durham 25, and in Northumberland 23. The highest county proportions for seamen are:— Anglesey 64 East Riding 36, Hants. 25 Pembroke 25, Cardigan 24, Glamorgan 22, the Isle of Wight 21 and Essex 20; and for dock labourers (743-5) the East Riding 44 Lincs. Lindsey 22, Essex 21, Lanes. 15, Gloucester 15, and London 14.

750-769. Other Workers in Transport consist chiefly of messengers, porters, and postmen, who together form 88 per cent. of the total. They are much more numerous in London than elsewhere, the highest county ratios being London 48, Middlesex 34, and Essex 30. The lowest proportions are returned by the rural districts and counties, and by certain mining and manufacturing counties. No Welsh county attains the England and Wales average of 22 per 1,000, the Welsh range being from 8 to 17. The lowest English ratios are those for Durham 9, Monmouth 11, and Cumberland, Derby, Northampton, Staffs., and Westmorland 12 each. The rural districts as a whole return a ratio of 9 per 1,000.

Order XXIII. Workers in Commerce, Finance, and Insurance (other than clerks) consist mainly of shopkeepers and their assistants. The latter (code no. 775) form almost one-third of the total, but the former are included with a number of other workers under heading 770, "Proprietors and Managers of Wholesale and Retail Businesses." The number of these latter engaged in retail distributive trade can be shown from Table 2 of the Industry Tables, to be about 340,000, or about 80 per cent. of the whole, this being the total for occupation 770 in the retail industries numbered 603-670. They thus form about 35, and salesmen and shop assistants 32, per cent. of the total for Order XXIII, about four-fifths of the latter being engaged in retail trade. Apart from these occupations (770 and.775) the order is made up chiefly of commercial travellers 8, hawkers 4, insurance agents and canvassers 4, brokers, etc. (771) 3, roundsmen 3, insurance officials 2, and auctioneers 1 per cent. of the total for the order.

The workers in this order are of course very widely distributed, but their proportion per 1,000 males (as also per 1,000 total population) is much higher in Greater London, and lower in the rural areas, which largely shop in the adjacent towns, than elsewhere. The rate of 76 per 1,000 for England and Wales is chiefly exceeded by Middlesex 116, Sussex East 113, Surrey 110, London 102, (Greater London 105), Essex 90, the Isle of Wight 90, Carnarvon 88, Sussex West 87 and Cheshire 87 per 1,000. At the opposite end of the scale are found chiefly mining and agricultural counties (the proportion for the aggregated rural districts being 42) as follows:—Monmouth 46, Durham 47, Carmarthen 48, Staffs. 51, Lincs. Kesteven 51, Brecknock 51, Wilts. 52, Montgomery 54, Hunts. 55 and Hereford 56. For commercial travellers the proportion of 6 per 1,000 for England and Wales is exceeded by only a few counties—Middlesex 13, Surrey 10, London 9 (Greater London 10), Essex 9, Gloucester 8, and Leicester 7. Sussex East, Lancashire, and the West Riding each return 6 per 1,000. Concentration in the London area is very noticeable.

While over three-fourths of shopkeepers are males, 53 per cent. of shop assistants are females. This proportion varies a good deal in different counties, and exhibits some association with the nature of the local industry. Where this calls almost entirely for male labour, as in many mining districts, the proportion of female> shop assistants tends to be high, but the converse does not always hold, the West Riding, with its large demand for women workers, returning about the same proportion as England and Wales, and Lancashire not much less. In London and its neighbourhood female shop assistants are relatively few, forming 48 per cent. of the total in London, Essex, Herts., and Surrey, 47 in Middlesex, and 52 in Kent, as compared with 53 m England and Wales. The highest county proportions for females are:—Durham 64 per cent., Cornwall 64, Monmouth 62, and Northumberland, Devon, Staffs., North Riding of Yorkshire, Glamorgan, and Carmarthen 60 per cent. each. The proportion of shop assistants (of both sexes) to total population is highest in Greater London and certain residential counties, and lowest in the rural districts and in rural and industrial counties. Comparing with the general average for the country ot 17 per 1000, we have London and Greater London both 21, Middlesex 22, Surrey 21, Sussex East 24, the Isle of Wight 21, the Soke of Peterborough 20, and Kent, Hants, and Sussex West each 19; and at the opposite extreme Staffs. 12, and Derby, Leicester, Northants., and Lincs. Kesteven each 13. For the rural districts as a whole the Proportion is only 9 per 1,000. This probably explains the low rates for such counties as Bucks., the Isle of Ely, Rutland, and Westmorland, each 14 and Lincs. Kesteven 13. All the Welsh counties except Carnarvon (18) return rates below the general average.

In addition to the 1,063,120 males and 496,056 females classified to commercial finance and insurance occupations, Table 2 of the Industry Tables shows 172,385 male and 170,769 female clerks as engaged in the industries (nos. 600-699) grouped under commerce and finance. Of these the most important, with the numbers of males and females employed, are as follows:—

Males. Females.
684 Banking 42,597 17,950
685 Insurance 25,887 24,901
651 General export trading 17,287 12,608
652 Departmental stores, general shops, and like mixed businesses 6,069 14,212
635 Wholesale dealing in textiles and clothing 9,601 7,575

It should therefore be remembered, in considering the numbers of workers in commerce and finance, that these are subject to increase by about 16 per cent. for males and 30 per cent. for females if the clerks employed by commercial and financial undertakings are taken into account.

It should be noted, further, that in certain cases it is impossible to maintain a clear differentiation between production and distribution. This applies particularly to bakers and pastry cooks, 78,410 in number, including 14,181 employers and managers (Industry Tables no. 2), to bootmakers, 73,287, of these 9;603 being employers and managers, and to certain other makers and sellers of clothing. In all these doubtful cases, where the same individual commonly acts both as producer and distributor, the rule followed in the classification assigns the workers in question to the productive heading; but it must be remembered, in forming any estimate of the number of persons engaged in commerce, that a very large proportion of those assigned to such headings are really engaged in trade rather than in manufacture.

800-809. Public Administration.— Of the 237,551 males so employed, about 49 per cent. are civil service officials and clerks, 25 per cent. local authority officials and clerks, and 26 per cent. police. They are comparatively numerous in London and its neighbourhood, and few in the more purely agricultural and industrial counties.

Order XXV. Professional Occupations.— The percentage shares of the principal constituents of this very miscellaneous group of 306,830 males are as follows:— Teachers 24.0 (music teachers 1.6), professional students 12.1, medical practitioners 7.5 (making, with dentists 2.9, mental attendants and sick nurses 3.7, and other subordinate medical service 1.8, a total of 15.9 per cent. engaged in one form or other of medical work in its widest sense), Church of England clergymen 7.2, consultant engineers 6.8, solicitors 4.9 (making, with barristers, a total of 5.8 legal practitioners), journalists, etc. (870) 3.7, analytical and research chemists 3.4, Nonconformist ministers (826) 3.3, architects 3.1, artists 2.7, chartered and incorporated accountants 2.4. These occupations account in all for 90 per cent. of the total for the order.

The proportion of professional workers per 1,000 total population is, generally speaking, much higher in London and the residential counties than in those of an industrial or agricultural type. The general average of 8 is most exceeded in Cambs., Oxford and Cardigan 16 each, Middlesex and Carnarvon 13 each, Berks., Herts., East Sussex and Merioneth 12 each, and Greater London 11 (County of London 10). At the opposite extreme come Durham, the Isle of Ely, Lincs. Holland, and Staffs., 5 each, and Derby, Hunts., Lanes., Lincs. Lindsey, Monmouth, Northants., Notts., the Soke of Peterborough, and the West Riding, 6 each. In all the Welsh counties except Glamorgan (7) and Pembroke (8) the general average is exceeded. This form of statement represents the number of workers in proportion to the population to be served, but if the number is regarded as a proportion of the total males of working age, as in Table XLIV, the result is very much the same.

Although it might be expected that the country districts would largely depend upon the towns for professional services as they do for shopping the relative numbers of professional workers do not confirm this to any serious extent. Their proportion of 7.4 per 1,000 population in the rural districts compares with 10.3 in London and 8.8 in the smaller towns, but with only 7.0 in the county boroughs, the general average being 8.1. This is partly due to the fact that whereas the clergy of the Established Church form but one-fourteenth of the total professional workers in England and Wales, their proportion in the rural districts is no less than one-sixth. This extreme concentration upon the rural areas is peculiar to this occupation for none of the other professional callings, clerical or other, which resemble it in providing services in or close to the homes of the people, display it, as may be seen from the following statement of numbers of professional men per 1,000 population.

Priests, Monks
Solicitors Medical
(not Music)
England and Wales 0.58 0.08 0.27 0.39 0.61 1.82
London 0.37 0.10 0.15 0.54 0.93 1.67
County Boroughs 0.30 0.07 0.21 0.28 0.53 1.63
Other Urban Districts 0.47 0.08 0.33 0.49 0.64 2.06
Rural Districts 1.32 0.09 0.31 0.34 0.50 1.81

For Roman Catholic and Nonconformist clergymen the proportion to population does not depart greatly from the general average in any type of area, except that Nonconformists are relatively few in London; but Church of England clergy are three or four times as many, in proportion to population, in the rural districts as in any other type of area. The other professions dealt with are also distributed much more in accordance with population than the Anglican clergy. Presumably the parochial system has prevented the clergy from accompanying their parishioners in the movement from country to town.

Order XXVI. Persons employed in Entertainments and Sport comprise chiefly managers and lessees, 9 per cent., musicians 23, actors 12, and stage hands, etc. (887) 9 per cent. of the total. They are naturally more numerous in London and the more urban counties than in the more rural and industrial. In London their proportion per 1,000 males is 9, and in the rural districts 3. The position of West Suffolk, with 26 per 1,000, is unique. It is due to the considerable numbers of men and boys employed in the horse training and racing establishments at Newmarket.

Order XXVII. Workers in Personal Service numbered 339,944, of whom 21 per cent. were hotel keepers and publicans, 18 indoor domestic servants, 11 barbers, etc. (920), 7 caretakers and office keepers, 6 restaurant keepers, 5 barmen, and 5 per cent. waiters. They are relatively most numerous in London and certain residential counties, including Oxford and Cambridge, and least so in the industrial, mining, and agricultural counties. Compared with the general average of 24 per 1,000 males over 12 for England and Wales, the highest county ratios are:—London 48, Sussex East 58 (Brighton 59, Eastbourne 65, Hastings 55), Oxford 43, Berks. 38, Cambs. 37, Sussex West 36, and the Isle of Wight 34; and the lowest, Carmarthen 11, Durham and Monmouth 12, Glamorgan 13, and Anglesey, Cumberland, the Isle of Ely, Pembroke, and Stafford, each 15 per 1,000.

It is of interest to note that the number of gamekeepers and watchers, which can be but little affected by the recent change in classification, has fallen from 17,148 aged 12 and over in 1911 to 9,367 in 1921, a reduction by 45 per cent. in the ten years.

The proportionate number of indoor domestic servants (900) is naturally influenced to an exceptional extent by the class of area concerned, as may be seen from the following list of highest county proportions, which compares with the general average of 4 per 1,000:—Oxford 17, Cambs. 14, Berks. 14, Sussex East 13, London 12, Rutland and Sussex West 10. With these may be contrasted that for Durham—0.6 per 1,000. Of these men, 48 per cent. are shown by Table 2 of the Industry Tables to be employed in private domestic service (industry no. 760), 17 in hotels and public houses (774,775), 10 in restaurants (772,773), 3 in lodging and boarding houses (771) and 3 per cent. in clubs (776).

Order XXVIII. Clerks (not Civil Service or Local Authority ).—The great bulk of the workers under this heading are classed simply as clerks, those distinguished as company secretaries, 2 per cent. of the whole, heads of clerical departments 3 per cent., draughtsmen, 5 per cent., and costing and estimating clerks 3 per cent., amounting in all to but 13 per cent. of the total. In the case of females, who form such a large proportion of clerks that it will be convenient to deal with them along with the males, the proportion not distinguished in any of the ways mentioned amounts to 98 per cent.

The distribution of clerks throughout England and Wales is, on the whole, very similar for both sexes. Its chief feature is great relative abundance in and around London. Thus Middlesex, with 91 male and 56 female clerks per 1,000 males and females over 12, comes first amongst the counties for both sexes, Essex (74 and 47) second for males and third for females, and London (64 and 50) second for females and fourth for males. For Greater London the proportions are 74 for males and 52 for females, as against 41 and 27 for England and Wales, 34.7 per cent. of all male, and 39.0 per cent. of all female clerks being enumerated in Greater London. At the opposite extreme for each sex we find the more purely agricultural industrial and mining counties, such as Rutland, the Isle of Ely, Suffolk West, Hunts., Lincs. Holland and Kesteven, Cornwall, Monmouth, and Durham, together with nearly all the Welsh counties.

In England and Wales as a whole 43 per cent. of the total number of clerks were females, this proportion being most departed from in Warwickshire, in which county alone, as also in its two chief towns, Birmingham and Coventry, female clerks were in excess (forming 55 per cent. of the total in the county, 57 in Birmingham and 53 in Coventry) and in Wales and Monmouth, where the proportion of females is exceptionally low (35 per cent. in Wales and 33 in Monmouth). Only four English counties—Ely 30, and Derby 33, Lincs. Lindsey 34, and Hunts. 34—return a lower proportion of females than Wales and Monmouth (34). Next to Warwick, females were relatively of most importance in London, Leicester, and Northants. (49), Sussex East (48), and Hants, and Worcs. (47 per cent. of the total). For Greater London the proportion was 46 per cent.

The proportion of female to total clerks varies to a remarkable extent with the industry or service in which they are employed, no doubt to some extent in accordance with its demand for typing, which is so largely in female hands. Thus Table 2 of the Industry Tables shows that of the rank and file of clerks (939) employed, females formed the great majority in the following industries— (615) retail meat trade 89 per cent. (613) retail dairy trade 87, (627) retail drug trade 86, (636) retail drapery 84, (617) retail fish and poultry 83, and (611) retail grocery and provisions 79 per cent. In typewriting and translation offices (682), where the bulk of the work no doubt is typing, the proportion of females is 89 per cent. But in most of the cases of retail trade quoted the work is probably more at the pay desk than the typewriter. At the opposite extreme to these trades come the railways, employing 72,045 rank and file clerks, of whom only 14 per cent. were females. In banking the female proportion was 30, and in insurance 49 per cent. If the higher grades of clerical workers were taken into consideration as well as the rank and file the proportions of females quoted would be slightly, but only slightly, reduced.

The figures already quoted on page 114 show that 30.3 per cent. of male and 39.7 per cent. of female clerks are employed in commerce and finance (industries 600-699) and amongst these 7.5 per cent. of males and 4.2 of females in banking and 4.5 per cent. of males and 5.8 of females in insurance.

940-2. Warehousemen and Storekeepers.— These workers most abound in London and the textile counties, the general average for England and Wales of 11 per 1,000 being most exceeded by Leicester 21, London 19, Lanes. 17, the West Riding 17, and Essex, Gloucester, Warwick and Middlesex each 14. It may be noted that the ratio for Greater London, 17, is less than that of 19 for the county. In this respect warehousemen resemble packers (944-949), whose ratio of 7 for Greater London compares with 9 in the County of London, and contrast with clerks (Greater London 74, London 64) and teachers (Greater London 6, London 5). Presumably the warehouseman or packer finds it necessary to live close to his place of work in London in a larger proportion of cases than the clerk or teacher.

Order XXX. Stationary Engine Drivers, etc.— Of these men 23 per cent. are employed in coal mining, and they are consequently most numerous in mining counties, the general average of 11 per 1,000 being most exceeded by Monmouth 25, Glamorgan 25, Carmarthen 21, North Riding 21, Durham 19, Flint 19, Cumberland 18, the West Riding 17, and Staffs. 17.

970, 1. General and Undefined Labourers.— The difference insignificance of this term as employed in 1921 and in 1911 has already been described on page 88. Of the total of 714,576 males so classified, 516,040, or 72 per cent., described themselves as "general labourers" in accordance with the instruction on the schedule that "unskilled workers" accustomed to employment indifferent kinds of work should describe themselves as "general labourer." The remaining 28 per cent. returned themselves as labourer, notwithstanding the instruction that the term labourer must not be used alone. With certain exceptions (see Classification of Occupations, page 195), these men have been classed as "labourers not otherwise described" (971), and are here included with general labourers so described.

These workers are to be found to some extent in practically all industries and services, but especially large numbers are found in building and contracting, gas, water and electricity supply, iron and steel production, manufacture of chemicals, saw mills and timber dealing, brick making, coal dealing, tramways, electrical cable, etc., making, vegetable oil and oilcake making, and cement making these industries accounting for about 27 per cent. of the total.

Local agrees with industrial distribution in being very widespread. On the whole the proportions per 1,000 males tend to be highest in counties containing important seaports, such as, especially, Cheshire, Lancashire, the East and North Ridings, Hampshire, and Essex, and lowest in some of the most exclusively rural counties.

Order XXXII. The Unoccupied and Retired form 129 per 1,000 males over 12 in England and Wales. As 53 per cent. of these are boys under 16 years of age chief interest attaches to the retired (992), who numbered 392,426, or 22 per cent. of the whole. For these the general average of 28 per 1,000 is most exceeded in the following counties:—the Isle of Wight 66, Cornwall 51, Westmorland 51, Sussex West 50, Devon 49, Sussex East 48, Cardigan 47, and Radnor 47. At the opposite extreme come Glamorgan 16, Monmouth 18, Warwick 20, and Staffs. 21. The proportion is low in all six industrial areas, ranging from 16 in South Wales to 24 in Greater London. The tendency to retire to the country is shown both by these lists of counties and by the proportion of retired in the different classes of area. For London this is 20 per 1,000, for the county boroughs 22, smaller towns, 31, and rural districts, in the aggregate, 38. To some extent these differences are accounted for by location in the smaller urban and rural districts of lunatic asylums, whose inmates formed 14 per cent. of the total classified as retired.

5. Occupations of Females.

These are very much less diversified than those of males. Though, as will be seen, the returns contain evidence that women are now finding their way into many occupations in which they were formerly unrepresented, still the great bulk of occupied females are found even now to be accounted for by a very limited number of occupational headings. These, with the percentage of the total occupied so employed in each case, are as follows:—Personal service 33, textile workers 12, makers of clothing (Order XIII) 11, shopkeepers and shop assistants (see page 113) 9, clerks 8, and teachers 4, leaving only 23 per cent. otherwise employed. These, and all other occupations employing any appreciable number of female workers, will now be considered in the order of tabulation, as for males. Those of chief importance are set forth in Table XLIX, which corresponds with the Table XL1V for males.

Order II. Agricultural Workers are relatively few in number, the total of females so employed being only 7 per cent. of that of males. Their occupations are similar, the proportion of the whole who are returned as farmers, 23 per cent., comparing with 21 for males, and of labourers, 39 per cent. with 47 for males. Farmers' relatives assisting in farm work are 19 per cent. for females, and only 7 for males.

It is of interest to inquire in what parts of the country females take most share in agricultural work, but the choice of a measure for doing so is a matter of some difficulty. If, for instance, we employ the proportion of agricultural workers to total females of working age (12 and over) we obtain the anomalous result trial in Durham, where, as will be seen, females take an exceptionally large snare in agricultural work, this proportion is no higher than in England and Wales, and in the rural districts of the county is much lower than the rural average, agriculture being relatively of little importance in this county. It has seemed best, on the whole, to compare the numbers of female to male agricultural labourers in each county. In this way we can compare the extent to which females elect to participate in the actual manual work of agriculture in the various counties, uninfluenced by the extent to which they may be involved in its superintendence by family circumstances— widowhood or parentage.


[This table occupies pages 118 to 121, and is not currently included in Vision of Britain .]

In the country as a whole the number of female agricultural labourers is 5.9 per cent. of that of males, but this proportion is very largely exceeded in a small number of counties. These are:—Northumberland 36.6 per cent., Durham 33.0, Carmarthen 24.8, Middlesex 17.0, Lincs. Holland 14.8, the Isle of Ely 14.3, Pembroke 12.4, Kent 10.8, and Cardigan 10.7. These counties seem to comprise three foci of female employment: (1) Northumberland and Durham, two contiguous counties in the extreme north, surrounded by three counties of very moderate female employment— Cumberland 5.3, Westmorland 5.8, and the North Riding 2.9; (2) Carmarthen 24.8, Pembroke 12.4, and Cardigan 10.7, three contiguous counties in the south-west angle of Wales, immediately to the north of which the female proportion falls to 2.8 in Montgomery and 3.0 in Merioneth; and (3) the Holland Division of Lincolnshire 14.8 and the Isle of Ely 14.3, again two contiguous counties surrounded by. others by no means remarkable in this respect. In Middlesex and Kent the high proportions for females may be due to provision of work suited to them by market gardening. In Middlesex a relatively very large number of females were returned as gardeners' labourers, and in Kent there were many pea and fruit pickers. The latter statement applies also to the Isle of Ely and to Lincs. Holland, especially the former, in the rural districts of which the proportion of females over 12 years of age employed in agriculture is higher (at 110 per 1,000) than in those of any other county, Lincs. Holland coming next with 72, followed by Pembroke 68, Cardigan 67, and Carmarthen 58 per 1,000. This ratio is fairly high in Northumberland (48), but low in Durham (11), that for the rural districts of England and Wales being 20. In the rural districts of Wales as a whole it is 32 per 1,000.

049. Workers above Ground in Coal Mines.— Of 3,023 females so employed in England and Wales, 2,324, or 77 per cent., were returned from Lancashire, where 11 per cent. of male coal miners were found.

100-119. Makers of Bricks and Pottery.— These are almost entirely pottery workers, makers of bricks and unglazed tiles (102) forming less than 5 per cent. of the whole. The remainder are mainly potters (105), 26 per cent. of the whole, painters and decorators, 35 per cent., and kiln and oven workers, 2 per cent. of the total, those classified merely as "other workers" forming 29 per cent. Of these women no less than 79 per cent. were enumerated in Staffordshire alone (66 in Stoke C.B.), where 55 females per 1,000 aged 12 and over were so employed. In this county brick and pottery making are chiefly in the hands of females, whereas elsewhere male workers are in large excess. For the whole group 100-119 the sex proportions are:—England and Wales 37 per cent. females, Staffordshire 55. For brick and unglazed tile makers (102) the contrast is still sharper—England and Wales 16 and Staffordshire again 55 per cent. females. In England and Wales 88 per cent. of all pottery painters are females, 53 per cent. of potters (105) 50. per cent. of dippers and glazers, and 6 per cent. of kiln and oven workers.

The only counties besides Stafford where the general average of 2 per 1,000 females is exceeded are Derby 6, Worcester 5, and Shropshire 3.

150-9. Makers of Paints and Oils are not of numerical importance except in the East Riding, where their proportion is 5 per 1,000 females over 12 (7 in Hull C.B.).

Order VII. Metal Workers (not precious metals ).—The 109,074 females so employed in England and Wales form 7 per 1,000 females aged 12 and over, or 2.2 per cent. of the total occupied—a very different proportion from that for males. The chief metal working occupations in female hands, with the percentages of total female metal workers employed in each, are as follows:—Press workers and stampers 20.6, machine tool workers 15.8, glazers, polishers, &c., 4.3, solderers 4.1, japanners 4.0, moulders, mainly core makers, 2.6, tinsmiths 2.6, grinders 1.6, smiths 1.5, other distinguished occupations of less numerical importance 12.2, and miscellaneous undistinguished occupations (278, 279) 30.7. The only item in this list calling for comment is that of smiths. Of the 1,665 females so returned, 641, or 38 per cent., were in the Urban District of Rowley Regis, in Staffordshire, which includes the locality of Cradley Heath, long noted for the forging of chains and anchors, largely by female labour. Industry Table No. 4 shows that of 1,404 females engaged in this industry 775 were in Rowley Regis, where also nearly 40 per cent. of the 5,573 males were found. The metal working occupations in which females take the largest share are as follows, the code number and percentage of female to total workers being stated in each case:-254 pressworkers and stampers 81,262 solderers 75 241 japanners 64,225 card clothiers etc., 40,232 file cutters 38,269 wire workers 34 238 polishers etc 30,250 picklers 24,228 cutlers (so returned 14, 200 machine too workers 10,249 welders 10,237 grinders 10,263 tinners 10, 267 typewriter repairers 9 259 sand blasters 8, 233 filers 8, 243 lock makers 8, 264 tinsimths 8 and 224 brass finishers and turners 7 per cent.

The metal working occupations are very concentrated for females in the Birmingham industrial area, where 53 per cent. of the total so employed in England and Wales were enumerated. Their proportion per 1,000 females, 7 in England and Wales, is here 72, with an additional 11 employed as precious metal workers 56 per cent. of the total of these being found in this area. The ratios are very much higher for each of the three counties concerned—Warwick 59, Stafford 39, and Worcester 38 —than for any others, Carmarthen 18 (due to employment of women in the tinplate industry) being the only other county with a proportion in excess of the general average.

Order VIII. Workers in Precious Metals.— Of these nearly half are polishers and scratch brushers, most of this work being done by females. Most of these workers have already been seen to live in and around Birmingham, but over 30 per cent. were found in the West Riding, nearly all in Sheffield.

Order IX. Electrical Workers.— Scrutiny of the occupations, comprised in this order, in which females are most employed shows that they are concerned with the manufacture rather than with the installation and maintenance of electrical apparatus. Taking code nos. 301-304, 308 and 309 as of the former nature, and nos. 305-307, 310 and 311 as of the latter, we find that in the former group 29 per cent. of the personnel are females, and in the latter less than 1 per cent. Their share is still higher, 34 per cent., in the miscellaneous unspecified occupations (318, 319), which cover many of the lamp making processes, mainly in female hands—see Table 2 of the Industry Tables, which shows that almost one-third of these miscellaneous workers (318, 319) are engaged in lamp making. Table 4 of the same volume shows that 77 per cent. of all females employed in the incandescent lamp making industry in England and Wales were employed in London and Middlesex.

Order XI.1. Furriers, Tanners , etc.—Over half of these workers are furriers (332), an occupation in which females outnumber males by 73 per cent., although few are employed in the other occupations comprised in this group. London returns 65 per cent. of the furriers, who are there in the ratio of 2 per 1,000 females over 12.

Order XI.2. Makers of Leather Goods are found especially in the Birmingham industrial area and in Greater London, which together return 71 per cent. of the total. Their proportion is 5 per 1,000 in the Birmingham area (54 in Walsall, 3 in Birmingham and 5 in Staffordshire). In London it is 2 per 1,000.

Orders XII and XIII.—Females employed in making textiles, textile goods and articles of dress have been dealt with already, along with males in the same occupations.

430-49. Makers of Foods.— Of these workers 33 per cent. were females, the occupations employing most females being bakers, who formed 28 per cent. of female food makers, and confectionery makers (435), 20 per cent. The latter occupation alone in this group is mainly (75 per cent.) in female hands. The proportion of female to total bakers in England and Wales was 24 per cent., but in most of the northern counties, as noted on page 110, females were in excess. In both Cumberland and Durham they formed 64 per cent. of the total, in the North Riding 57, in the West Riding 52, in Lancashire 51, and in Westmorland 50 per cent. of the total. In the Midlands and South the proportion of females in this occupation is quite small.

460-469. Makers of Tobacco, etc.— This work is mainly in the hands of females who form 73 per cent. of the total so occupied. The particular occupations concerned are not distinguished in the tabulation. The same four towns, London, Bristol, Liverpool, and Nottingham, which return 72 per cent. of the males so employed, return 70 per cent. of the females, their proportions per 1,000 being in London 3 Bristol 24, Liverpool 11, and Nottingham 10. The proportion of females to total workers reaches a maximum, for these four towns, of 84 per cent. in Liverpool.

Order XV. Workers in Wood and Furniture.— These occupations are not of much importance for females, who form only 5 per cent. of the total so employed. The occupations chiefly concerned, and the proportion of the total female workers in this order so employed, are:—Upholsterers 30 per cent., french polishers 19, basket makers 6, packing-case makers 6, and wood turners and machinists 5 per cent. As with males, these occupations are of special importance in London (4 per 1,000) and Buckinghamshire (8 per 1,000 females), Fifteen per cent. of the basket-makers were returned from Bucks.

510-9. Makers of Paper, etc.— Females take an important share in these occupations, forming 29 per cent. of the total workers so employed. They are of chief local importance in the same four counties as males, Bucks, Herts., Kent; and Westmorland each returning 3 per 1,000.

520-49. Printers, Bookbinders, etc.— The proportion of females in these occupations is considerable—30 per cent. of the total. It is highest for machine assistants (56 per cent., as against machine minders 6 per cent.), bookbinders (52 per cent.), photographers (44 per cent.) and miscellaneous unspecified occupations ("others") (59 per cent.). These four groups form 83 per cent. of the female total. As with males, the highest county proportion is that for London, 9 per 1,000 females, Herts, and Bucks. 8 and Beds. 7 coming next. Indeed, the Greater London ratio of 7 per 1,000 is not equalled in Table XLIX by that of any county remote from London.

Order XVI.3. Makers of Stationery and Cardboard Boxes, and other Workers in Paper.— The great majority—81 per cent.—of these workers are females, the two chief occupations concerned, cardboard box making and envelope and paper bag making, being almost entirely in their hands, though 77 per cent. of the directing staff—employers, managers and foremen—of the sub-order as a whole are males. Cardboard box makers, who form 54 per cent. of the female total, are of chief local importance in the counties of Gloucester 8 per 1,000 (Bristol 15), London 4, and Northants. 4 per 1,000.

Orders XVII and XVIII. Builders and Painters ,—There are practically no females engaged in these occupations.

600-9. Rubber Workers.— Of these 39 per cent. are females. Like the males, they are of special importance in Manchester, 7 per 1,000 females, and Birmingham, 6 per 1,000, in each of which almost 20 per cent. of the total were enumerated.

Order XXII. Transport and Communication.— The only occupations under this heading of any importance for females are those of telegraph and telephone operators and messengers, 27 per cent. of the first, 83 of the second, and 13 per cent. of the third being females. Together, these three occupations account for 73 per cent. of all females employed in transport and communication.

Order XXIII. Commerce, Finance and Insurance.— In this order there are only two occupations distinguished which are of much importance for females. These are Nos. 770, proprietors and managers of wholesale and retail businesses, and 775, saleswomen and shop assistants, which together account for 94 per cent. of the whole. The proportion of shop-keepers in the former group can be shown to be about 92 per cent. for females in the same way in which it was shown to be 80 for males. It follows that about 92 per cent. of all females employed in business (other than clerks) are saleswomen or retail shop keepers, similarly; the proportion of the total engaged in retail trade can be shown to be 84 per cent. The ratio of female to male shop assistants and of both to total population in different parts of the country, and the numbers of female clerks employed in connexion with commerce and finance, have already been considered in the corresponding section for males.

800-9. Public Administration.— Civil servants form 77 per cent. of these workers, nearly all the remainder being local authority officials and clerks. A new feature of this census is the entry for female police, who numbered 278 in England and Wales, 130 of these being in Greater London. Civil servants are also of special importance in the London area, where alone the general average of 4 per 1,000 over 12 is considerably exceeded. For Middlesex this ratio is 10, and for Greater London. London, and Surrey 8 each.

Order XXV. Professional occupations.— In this order females are in considerable excess, their total of 359,982 comparing with 306,830 for males. This is mainly due to the large numbers of females in the teaching and nursing professions, these jointly accounting for 86 per cent. (teachers 57, sick nurses and mental attendants 29) of the total For the rest professional students, mainly no doubt of teaching and nursing, make up 3 per cent of the total nuns, scripture readers and other religious workers (code Nos 821,827) over 3, midwives 1J, and painters and other artists over 1 per cent. of the total.

But though teachers and nurses still constitute the great bulk of female professional workers, increase of the numbers returned under the more learned professions, which till recently included no females amongst their members is a remarkable feature of this census. For most of these professions comparison can be made with the records of previous censuses, for inclusion in the occupation depends, not on the method of classification followed in the Census Office, but on admission to a roll of professional practitioners maintained by the profession itself. Even this, however, is only true in the main, for in 1911 medical officers, e.g., of the army and navy, were classed as army and navy officers, but in 1921 as members of the medical profession. And so for chaplains, etc. But ignoring slight sources of discrepancy such as this we may compare the members of the medical profession, with which the admission of women commenced first and has proceeded furthest in 1911 and 1921, as follows:—

  1911. 1921.
Males 22,992 22,965
Females 477 1,253

While the number of males remained stationary, as a consequence of the war, that of females increased by 163 per cent., and their proportion of the total rose from 2 to 5 per cent. The only professional occupations distinguished in the census tabulation in which women are not now represented are the Established and Roman Catholic churches, whereas in 1911 barristers, solicitors and engineers also were exclusively males. Now we have to note 46 females as consultant engineers, 20 as barristers, and 17 as solicitors, while female Nonconformist ministers (826) have increased from 3 to 147, veterinary surgeons from 2 to 24, and architects from 7 to 49.

As regards local distribution, the counties returning most and fewest female professional workers in proportion to the population served are much the same as those already noted for professional men, Berks., Cambs., Middlesex, Oxford, and East Sussex returning some of the highest, and Durham, Northumberland, the Isle of Ely, Notts., Staffs., and the West Riding some of the lowest proportions for both sexes. Generally, as for males, proportions are higher in the residential than in the industrial counties. The range of variation for sick nurses is great, Carmarthen, with 0.9 per 1,000 population, and East Sussex, with 5.5, forming the extremes. Other ratios notably exceeding the general average of 2.5 are Sussex West 4.8, the Isle of Wight 4.5, London 4.0 (Greater London 3.6), Surrey 3.9, Kent 3.7, Somerset 3.7, Westmorland 3.6, and Carnarvon 3.6. At the other extreme we get next to Carmarthen, Durham 1.1, Glamorgan 1.4, Monmouth 1.4, Staffs. 1.5, the Isle of Ely 1.5, Derby 1.6 and Lincs. Holland 1.6. Broadly speaking, nurses are most abundant in the large towns and progressively less so till a minimum is reached in the rural districts, while for teachers the reverse applies, proportions being high in the rural districts (for female teachers only—see page 115) and much lower in London and the county boroughs. Doubtless more nurses are required in the towns to staff hospitals, which serve also the rural districts, and more teachers in the rural districts because classes are necessarily smaller. The proportion of teachers might perhaps be expected to vary but little as between the residential and industrial type of county, being determined, so far as the state schools are concerned, chiefly by legal requirements. But the following lists seem to show that the type of county does influence the provision of teachers. Comparing with the general average of 5.4 per 1,000 population we have, on the one hand, Berks., Cambs., Hunts., Oxford, Rutland, Suffolk West, Sussex East and West, and Westmorland all with 8 per 1,000, and, on the other, Durham, Northumberland, the West Riding Derby, the Isle of Ely, Lanes., Leicester, London, Notts, Staffs and Warwick all with 4.5-5.0. The second list is indeed of a much more urban type than the first but it may be doubted whether so wide a discrepancy is to be explained entirely as a consequence of this.

Order XXVII. Personal Service.— Attention has already been directed to the very large proportion, almost one-third, of all female workers so employed. As this proportion refers only to the gainfully occupied, it would, of course, be immensely increased if account could also he taken of those females occupied with the domestic duties of the home, although classified as unoccupied because not working for payment or profit. Even the workers for payment or profit in personal service, however, form 33 per cent. of all females returned as occupied, and over 10 per cent. of all females aged 12 and upwards. Of these workers in personal service, 69 per cent. are indoor domestic servants, 7 per cent. charwomen, 7 per cent. lodging house keepers, 6 per cent. laundry workers, 3 per cent. waitresses, 2 per cent. publicans, etc. (914), and 1 per cent. each, barmaids, restaurant keepers, and caretakers and office keepers, leaving only 3 per cent. in all other forms of personal service.

900. Indoor Domestic Service thus remains by far the most important, in. the numerical sense, of the occupations pursued by females. In it they outnumber males by 19 to 1, forming 95 per cent. of the total so employed.

The local distribution of these workers, who form 23 per cent. of all occupied females, has already been considered in connexion with Table XLV. Their numbers are there related to the total population of each county, but the result is practically the same if they are stated in proportion to females over 12, as in Table XLIX, or indeed if workers in personal service generally are stated in either of these ways. By any one of these four methods of statement Sussex East, Sussex West and Surrey occupy positions amongst the first four in the list, in the order named, and by each of them Stafford, Warwick, and the chief textile and mining counties are grouped together at the bottom of the list. For the details of this distribution reference may accordingly be made to Table XLV.

912. Lodging and Boarding House Keepers.— Females in this occupation form 94 per cent. of the total for both sexes, and, as already noted, 7 per cent. of all females engaged in personal service. Their local distribution is of interest as an indication (except in the cases of Oxford and Cambridge) of the importance to the various areas of tourist traffic. The highest county proportions per 1,000 females are as follows:—The Isle of Wight 33, Sussex East and Cardigan 25 each, Sussex West 23, Merioneth 22, Carnarvon 20, Radnor 19, Westmorland 17, Flint 17, Devon 16, the North Riding and Denbigh 15 each, Somerset 13, Dorset, Lincs. Lindsey, Oxford, Hants, and the East Riding 12 each, Cornwall, Cumberland, Kent, Norfolk, and Suffolk East 11 each, Anglesey and Cambridge 10 each. The numbers so employed are relatively larger in the small towns than elsewhere, the proportion per 1,000 females, 7 in England and Wales, being 4 in London, 8 in the county boroughs, 9 in the smaller towns, and 4 in the rural districts.

916. Waitresses.— These workers, in contrast to the last mentioned, are relatively numerous in London, where their ratio of 8 per 1,000 is exceeded by Radnor, 10, alone amongst the counties, Carnarvon, 7, and Sussex East and Westmorland, 5 each, coming next. The numbers so employed diminish with decreasing urbanisation, being 4 per 1,000 in the county boroughs, 2 in the smaller towns, and 1 in the rural districts. The ratio of 8 for London considerably exceeds that of 6 for Greater London, thereby probably indicating that these workers on the whole have to live near their work. Excess for London is the general rule for manual workers (makers of clothing and foods, workers in wood and paper, packers, etc.) unless, as with laundries, the places of employment are largely suburban. For teachers and clerks, on the other hand, the Greater London ratio is the larger, so it seems probable that non-manual workers tend to live farther from their work. Similar facts for males are quoted on page 116.

918. Laundry Workers.— Females form 92 per cent. of the total in this occupation, the majority of males serving the laundry industry being employed in other capacities. Their local distribution is very similar to that of domestic servants and of workers in personal service generally, ratios being highest for those counties where there is sufficient wealth to pay for personal service. That for Middlesex, 15 per 1,000, is highest of all, but this is largely due to concentration of the London laundry industry in Acton and Willesden, over 9 per cent. of all the female laundry workers in Greater London being returned by these two Middlesex areas. (In Acton their ratio was 69, and in Willesden 21 per 1,000.) Middlesex apart, East Sussex heads the county list, as also for domestic servants and personal service generally, its proportion being 14 per 1,000. Next come Surrey and Berks., each 13, Oxford, Herts, and London, each 11 and Dorset, Kent, Rutland, Hants and the Isle of Wight, each 10 (Greater London 11). At the other extreme we have such counties as staffs. Derby, Durham, and Glamorgan, each 3, the proportions in Wales being generally low, in no case exceeding, and only in that of Radnor equalling, the general average of 7 for England and Wales.

922. Charwomen, Office Cleaners.— This occupation ranks next to domestic service, as regards numbers employed, in the personal service group. It is associated to a remarkable extent with city life, the proportion per 1,000 females being 17 in London, 9m the county boroughs, 5 in the smaller towns, and 3 in the rural districts In Greater London the ratio is 13, and the only counties besides London where the general average of 8 is exceeded are Lanes, and Warwick, 9 each. The low position of these counties, as regards domestic servants, in Table XLV, is thus to some slight extent explained and compensated.

930-39. Clerks.— The females so employed have already been dealt with, along with the males.

940-2. Warehousewomen and Storekeepers.— The large majority, 74 per cent., of females in these occupations are classed as assistants, whereas for males the proportion of assistants is only 17 per cent. This is, however, only an illustration of the general rule that the average age of occupied females is much less than that of occupied males. In this case 61 per cent. of the females, but only 25 per cent. of the males, are under the age of 25. There are three counties in which this occupation is of special importance for females. Against a ratio of only 2 per 1,000 for England and Wales, Stafford returns 12, Warwick 11, and Leicester 10. This is largely because the occupation is much more in female hands in these counties than elsewhere. The three counties named return 43 per cent. of all the females, but only 10 per cent. of the males, in this occupation in England and Wales. In the country generally 18 per cent. of these workers are females, but in this group of counties 49 per cent., and in Staffs. 57 per cent., are females.

944-9. Packers (other than textile packers ). — This is mainly a women's occupation, 61 per cent. of all so classified being females. The general average of 6 per 1,000 females is most exceeded by Gloucester 16 (the proportion of female packers in this county being 77, and in the tobacco industry 89, per cent.), the East Riding 12, London 11, Notts. 10, and Essex, Warwick and Worcester 8 each. For Greater London, in accordance with the rule pointed out on pages 116 and 126 for manual workers generally, the proportion is 9.

6. Age Distribution in Occupations. — Males.

The proportion, per 1,000 at all ages, of males of each of the 12 age groups distinguished in the occupational tables is shown in Table L for the most important occupations and groups of occupations, and for those of chief interest from this point of view.

The facts having been thus made available for reference, it must suffice here merely to call attention to a few of their most striking features. To avoid repetition, the words "excess" and "deficiency" will be used to imply relative excess or deficiency in the proportion at any age per 1,000 at all ages for any occupation as compared with the same proportion for all occupied males. Thus, this latter proportion for ages (last birthday) 20-24 being 116, a proportion of 174 at this age for any occupation would represent 50 per cent. excess.

Order II. Agricultural Workers.— The average age is high, excess being recorded at each age over 45. But at each of the first three ages distinguished, the proportion of youths is also in excess. This is due entirely to high figures for agricultural labourers at these ages, whereas excess in later life is the rule for all the types of agricultural workers distinguished in the table. It would appear that youths in agricultural districts commonly undertake at least temporary work for a time on the land, then at about 15-20 migration to the cities and recruitment for the services lessen the proportions for those remaining. But about middle life this tendency exhausts itself, and partly perhaps as a result of change from other pursuits to agriculture, but certainly also as a consequence of the low mortality of these workers, they become progressively more numerous again as life advances, large excess being attained in old age. This movement sets in later in life, and does not progress so far, in the case of agricultural labourers as of the other agricultural occupations distinguished. The excesses at the highest ages are particularly large for gardeners.


Coal Miners are in excess at ages under 35, and in deficiency at all higher ages, The tendency of the proportions returned to relative decrease as life advances being Very definite. As a result the proportion of coal miners under 35 years of age is 55.8 per cent., whereas that of all occupied males is only 47.6. This youthfulness is most pronounced in the case of workers conveying material to the shaft, 54 per cent. Of whom are boys under 20 years of age, and less than 6 per cent. Men over 45. Hewers and getters are mainly in the prime of life, being in excess only at ages 20-45, with very small proportions in old age. Workers making and repairing roads from the oldest class of miners distinguished including comparatively few boys, and many old men. Their proportion under 35 is only 37 per cent. Workers above ground are in large excess at ages under 20, in some deficiency at each age 20-60, and again in some excess at 60-70. Few miners work in any capacity at ages over 70, but relatively more above ground than elsewhere.

Metal Workers as a whole are decidedly young, showing excess at all ages 16-34, and deficiency at all other ages. This feature, which is noted also in most of the county reports, may be a consequence of the large recruitment of these occupations during the war. It applies in greater or less degree to most of the separate occupations included in the table, smiths and, naturally, employers, managers and foremen, being the chief exceptions. Motor mechanics and men describing themselves merely as mechanics or mechanical engineers are particularly youthful.

Electrical Workers are still more youthful. They also show excess at each age 16-34 and deficiency at all others, but in considerably greater degree.

Leather Dressers, etc., and Leather Goods Makers are, on the whole, above the average age, the latter particularly so, showing excess at all ages over, and deficiency at all under, 35. They include the saddlers, whose ages are particularly high, presumably because of small demand for new entrants into this trade.

Textile Workers rule young on the whole, but not so young as metal workers. They show excess at all ages under 20, and at no others. These excesses are greatest for the earliest working ages, 31 per cent. of all occupied boys of 12 and 13 in England and Wales being textile workers (Table LII), but abolition of the half-time system4 has, since the date of the census, put an end to this state of affairs. The figures for the separate occupations present some features of interest. Card frame tenters (363) show excess, generally speaking, at ages under 25 and over 55, with deficiency in middle life. Spinners and piecers are very young (showing excess at each age under, and deficiency at each age over 25), especially in the wool and worsted industry. Weavers are considerably older, approximating much more closely to the average age distribution, but in their case the position as between cotton and wool is reversed, cotton weavers being decidedly young, and wool and worsted weavers old.

Order XIII. Makers of Dress are, on the whole, old, showing in the mass excess at all ages over 45, and at no others. This applies to the two largest occupations in the order, tailors and non-factory bootmakers. Factory boot operatives are much younger men.

Workers in Wood are for the most part of or above average age. This applies particularly to carpenters, who share with other workers associated with the building industry the feature of large excesses at the latest age periods. Pattern makers, on the other hand, share the youthfulness of the metal workers, with whose industry they are associated.

Makers of Paper show excesses only at ages under 25, and Printers and Bookbinders at those under 18 and over 25. In the case of the latter, it may be noted that while hand compositors include many elderly men, very few machine compositors are over 60.

Order XVII. Builders, etc.— These are of exceptionally advanced age, the order as a whole showing deficiency at each age under, and excess at each age over, 35. This applies alike to bricklayers, plasterers and masons, excess of age being highest for the latter, whose proportion over 65 is more than double the average. Builders' and bricklayers' labourers also include few young men, but their proportions at the highest ages are far below those of the skilled operatives. Navvies are particularly old, very few being under 20, and large excesses occurring at each age over 45.

Order XVIII. Painters resemble the building operatives, with whose work they are associated, in showing excess at ages 35 and under 70, while at all ages under 35 their numbers are comparatively low.

Railway Transport Workers resemble members of other services (civil service, police, postmen) in showing large excesses in the prime of working life, 18-44 in their case, and deficiency at all other ages. This concentration is at its maximum in the case of drivers firemen and cleaners and of porters, with excesses only between the ages of 18 and 35, which include more than half the total in each case, and deficiencies at all other ages. These are also the youngest of the railway men, shunters and pointsmen showing excesses between 20 and 45, and signalmen and guards between 25 and 65, with deficiencies at other ages in each case.

Road Transport Workers as a whole show the same concentration on early adult life as railway men, but in even greater degree, only the three age periods between 20 and 35 showing excess. This applies chiefly to motor drivers, horse drivers being in excess at all ages between 35 and 65, and horse keepers at all ages over 35. Van boys and guards are naturally very young, 73 per cent. being under 18 and 85 under 20, but men at all ages are so returned.

Water Transport Workers are on the whole considerably older than either railway or road men, their numbers being in excess at all ages between 25 and 65, and at no others. This is largely due to the high age of dock labourers, who may be compared in this respect with navvies. They are in excess at all ages between 35 and 70, and at no others. Seamen and deck hands are very much younger, their excesses being confined to ages between 16 and 35, as are those of firemen to ages between 20 and 45. Officers are somewhat older than the crews they command, but the oldest of the water transport occupations is that of boatmen and bargemen, with excesses at all age periods over 35, and at no others.

Messengers (758) are almost entirely boys, 62 per cent. being of ages 14 and 15, and only 10 per cent. over 20.

Porters (759) on the other hand are largely men of mature age, their numbers being in excess at all ages between 45 and 70, as also at 18 and 19.

Order XXIII. Workers in Commerce and Finance are on the whole of mature age, excesses being limited to ages over 35, which include 60 per cent. of the whole This is mainly due to the shopkeepers, etc. (770), who form so large a part of these workers. Their excesses occur at the same ages, but are of larger extent, the proportion over 35 being 77 per cent. Shop assistants, on the other hand, are young, excess for them being limited to ages under 35, which include almost 71 per cent. of the whole. Costermongers are chiefly of mature age, returning excesses, like shopkeepers, at all ages over 35, but the proportion over this age, 64 per cent., is considerably less than for shopkeepers. Newspaper sellers are very young, excesses being limited to ages under 20, which include 52 per cent. of the whole.

Order XXV. Professional Workers are of particularly mature age, excesses being returned at all ages over 25, which include 84 per cent. of the whole. The chief cause of this is the longevity of many of these occupations. Another consideration, applying to the separate occupations but not to the order as a whole, is that youths in training are not, as in other cases, included with the occupation for which they are preparing, but form by themselves a separate occupation, "professional students" (868). The difference in treatment is due to the fact that the apprentice is already a worker at his craft, whereas the professional student is not.

This feature of maturity is most developed in the case of the clergy of the Established Church, whose excess at each age from 55-64 onwards is the highest in Table L, except at 65-69, where it is equalled by that of wool and worsted weavers. Diminished recruitment of the ranks of the clergy of late years must contribute to this result as well as their well-known longevity. Barristers and solicitors are also amongst the most mature of the workers dealt with, but not so much so as the clergy, their ages being broadly similar to those of farmers. Medical practitioners are not quite so old. Their proportions at the highest ages are decidedly less, but at 45-54 their excess is the greatest in Table L. Consultant engineers and architects are younger still, though they also are in excess at each age from 25 onwards and at no others. Analytical chemists form an exception to the professional rule being in excess at each age between 18 and 35, and at no others. They are believed to include many youths engaged in performing routine laboratory tests. Teachers resemble workers in various other services in showing excesses confined to the mid period of working life—between 25 and 65 in their case.

Order XXVIII. Clerk s are chiefly youths and young men, being in excess at all ages 16-35, and no others. Their ages are similar to those of shop assistants, except that the latter include many, and clerks few, boys under 16.

General and Undefined Labourers (970-971) are, like dock labourers and navvies, men of over average age, showing excess at all ages over 45, and deficiency at all earlier ages. The proportion over 45 is 40 per cent., as compared with 32 for all occupied males, but for dock labourers it is 45, and for navvies 52 per cent. Navvies are indeed considerably the oldest of these three kindred groups of unskilled elderly labourers, who presumably tend rather to drift into these occupations as others fail than to choose them deliberately in early life.

Out of Work (979).— Notwithstanding the instruction on the schedule that the usual occupation should be stated whether the worker was in employment or not at the time of the census, 50,865 males (and 23,479 females) were returned simply as out of work. It is of interest to note that 55 per cent. of these were under 25 years of age. This may not be so much a case of inaccurate return of occupation by the younger men as of inability to return any occupation on the part of young men who had not obtained work after discharge from military service. The excess is greatest at the earliest ages, which can be little affected by this consideration, but which probably included many boys who had not yet succeeded in finding the job they wanted.

7. Age Distribution in Occupations.—Females.

Occupied females are naturally very much younger than occupied males, only 30.8 per cent. of the former, as against 52.4 per cent. of the latter, being more than 35 years old. This youthfulness applies most of all to the industrial employment of females, personal service, which covers 33 per cent. of the whole, showing excess over the general average for the occupied in Table LI at every age over 35, and deficiency at all earlier ages. Generally speaking, it is, as might be expected, the occupations longest in female hands which return excesses for the numbers employed in later life. These include, in addition to personal service, agriculture, some processes in dress manufacture, shopkeeping (770), and sick nursing.

The fact that agricultural workers return excesses at each age from 45 upwards is largely due to the very high ages of those returned as farmers, who form almost a quarter of the whole. Of these farmers 59 per cent. are widows, nearly always, no doubt, carrying on the farms of their late husbands. Farmers' relatives, also, who form over 18 per cent. of the total agricultural workers, are of high age, showing excess at each age from 35 on. Perhaps a better indication, therefore, of the ages of females taking to agricultural work as a means of livelihood rather than through force of family circumstances would be furnished by the figures for those returned as agricultural labourers, who form 39 per cent. of the whole. In their case excess is limited to the years between 16 and 25, and between 55 and 70. Under 25 these labourers are nearly all single; over 55 mainly married and widowed. It seems, therefore, that this is an occupation entered by girls on leaving school and given up on marriage, like industrial employments, but that some elderly married and widowed women also are forced, probably by adverse circumstances, to take it up. In view of these facts it may perhaps be more appropriate to associate agriculture with the factory occupations, as attracting chiefly young females before marriage, than with personal service, which draws its personnel so largely from later life.

The uniformity with which industrial occupations other than those connected with the textile and clothing industries return excesses in early life, ending at age 20-24, that of marriage in so many cases, is very noticeable in Table LI. The list includes potters, chemical workers, makers of paints, oils, soap, etc., metal and precious metal workers (of every occupation distinguished in the table), electrical workers, furriers and leather workers, makers of foods, drinks and tobacco, printers, and paper workers. For shop assistants, telephone operators, barmaids, waitresses, and clerks the distribution is of the same general type, but the period of excess includes ages 25-34.

Textile occupations are continued later in life by females than other factory work in association with a practice of continuing at work after marriage to a very much greater extent than applies to female occupations generally. The proportions per cent. of married to total female workers at various ages in textile working and in all occupations are as follows:—

  20— 25— 35— 45— 55—64
Textile workers 15 41 51 43 28
All occupations 6 19 30 30 33

This fact no doubt accounts for the greater age of textile than of other factory workers.

Amongst the textile workers some occupations are continued considerably later in life than others the former including card frame tenters and weavers and the latter spinners and piecers, especially in wool and worsted, for whom no excess is recorded at any age over 20. For these workers as a whole there is large excess in childhood, which tends to disappear towards 20, with a second period of excess in many cases at 25-44. The ages of makers of dress vary considerably with the occupation. Where this is of the factory type (tailors, bootmakers), the age distribution approximates to that of other industrial occupations; but dress and blouse making, a traditionally female craft, occupies many elderly women. Although the great majority of the workers in commerce and finance are shop assistants, the ages of the much smaller number of shopkeepers (770) are so high that they dominate the whole order of commercial workers, which, like the shopkeepers, shows excess at every age from 35.4 onwards, whereas all the excesses for shop assistants occur earlier in life.

As with males, professional workers are chiefly of mature age. Over half are teachers and over a quarter sick nurses, the latter showing excess at all ages over 25 and under 70, whereas with teachers other than music teachers, 76 per cent. of whom were in the service of local authorities, the influence of pensioned service is probably seen in cessation of excess after age 60. This does not apply to music teachers, only 1.3 per cent. of whom were in similar service, and who return excesses for all ages over 25. Nurses are in the same position in this respect as music teachers. In the case of mental attendants, 84 per cent. of whom were employed by local authorities, we may note the tendency pointed out in the case of males to concentration of employment upon the prime of working life in the services, excesses being returned only at 20-24 and 25-34. Similar concentration may be noted also for females employed in public administration, for whom excesses are recorded only between 20 and 45.

The feature of excess at all ages over 35, already noted for workers in personal service generally, is not fully shared by domestic servants, who form 68 per cent. of the whole. They indeed return excess at all ages between 45 and 70, but they also resemble the factory occupations in presenting excess for juvenile workers between 14 and 20, after which age the influence of marriage may be seen in the form of slight deficiencies up to 45.

Other occupations in personal service fall into two distinct groups so far as the ages of the workers are concerned—those of elderly and those of young women. Domestic service is intermediate in type, departures from average being far less than in other cases. Thus whereas for all occupations jointly the proportion of workers over 45 years of age is 17.9 per cent., and for domestic servants 18.7, it is no less than 71.4 per cent. for lodging and boarding house keepers, next to whom come charwomen 58.7, innkeepers 53.3, restaurant keepers 40.3, and laundry workers 29.3 per cent. At the opposite extreme are barmaids with 7.5 per cent. and waitresses with 3.7 per cent. over 45.

Clerks and Typists are in excess at all ages 16 to 34, after which relatively few retain this occupation.

Tables LII and LIII deal with the ages of males and females in various occupations from another point of view than that of Tables L and LI. Instead of showing the proportions at different ages of the workers in each occupation dealt with they show how males and females of each age distinguished are occupied. We see for instance that of boys at work under the age of 14, 31 per cent. are textile workers and 22.7 Per cent. messengers, while for girls of the same age the proportion engaged in textile Processes is no less than 57.2 per cent. In accordance with what has already been pointed out in connexion with Table LI, the proportion of occupied females engaged in personal service reaches its maximum as late in life as 65-69. These tables are inserted for purposes of reference where this point of view is of interest, and do not call for comment, which would involve repetition of much of that already made on Tables L and LI.




8.— Occupations of Foreigners.

The occupations of the resident foreign-born population of alien are given in Table 7 of the Occupation Tables. Foreigners engaged in occupations numbered 101 638 males and 30,694 females, and formed 8 per 1,000 of the male occupied population of the country, and 6 per 1,000 of the female.

Of the male occupied foreigners, 22 per cent. were born in Russia, 16 in Poland 11 in Italy 7 in France and 6 in Germany. Of the females, 25 per cent. were born in France, 18 in Russia, 12 in Poland, 7 in Italy and 6 in Belgium.

It is not proposed to attempt any detailed analysis of the table but merely to note the more important points which it discloses. Among the males makers of textile goods and articles of dress were 216 per 1,000 occupied, two-thirds of whom were tailors. Forty-four per cent. of the tailors were born in Russia and 42 per cent. in Poland. Persons engaged in commerce and finance (not clerks) amounted to 174 per 1,000, of whom nearly two-thirds were shopkeepers, but less than one-eighth shop assistants. Of the shopkeepers, 29 per cent. were Russians, 21 Poles, and 14 Italians. Personal service employed 142 per 1,000, 33 per cent. of whom were Italians, 14 Swiss, and 13 French. Domestic servants (45 per 1,000), waiters (35), hair dressers (23) and restaurant keepers (13 per 1,000 occupied foreigners) formed the majority of those included in this group. Of the domestic servants, 32 per cent. were Italians, 27 French and 17 Swiss. The foreign waiters, who formed nearly a quarter of all the waiters in the country, were 44 per cent. Italians and 18 per cent. Swiss, but only 6 per cent. were returned as born in Germany. Hairdressers were 26 per cent. Poles, 15 per cent. Italians, and 15 per cent. Germans, while nearly two-thirds of the foreign restaurant keepers were Italians. There were 598 foreign male laundry workers in the country, of whom 547 were Chinese.

Other workers returned in appreciable numbers were officers and crews of merchant vessels (78 per 1,000), 24 per cent. of whom were Scandinavians and 12 Asiatics; workers in wood and furniture, 49 per 1,000 (44 per cent. Russians, 17 per cent. Poles), professional men, 43 per 1,000, and clerks, 39 per 1,000. There were 296 foreign tile layers and mosaic workers and 170 paviours and asphalters, of whom 284 and 162 respectively were Italians.

Nearly one-quarter of the females were makers of textile goods and articles of dress, including tailoresses 105 per 1,000, and dressmakers 60 per 1,000: of the tailoresses 46 per cent. were Russians and 35 per cent. Poles; and of the dressmakers 34 per cent. were born in France, 20 per cent. in Russia, and 15 in Poland. Workers in commerce and finance (not clerks) were 116 per 1,000, but whereas amongst the males shopkeepers were nearly five times as numerous as shop assistants, female shop assistants (53 per 1,000) were in excess of the shopkeepers (46 per 1,000). Professional workers (168 per 1,000) were mainly teachers (86 per 1,000) or nuns (33 per 1,000); 72 per cent. of the nuns and 63 per cent. of the teachers were French. Those engaged in personal service numbered 330 per 1,000 and were mainly domestic servants (243 per 1,000). Of these latter 28 per cent. were French, 13 Swiss and 9 per cent. were born in Belgium. Clerks numbered 63 per 1,000, nearly a quarter of whom were French and nearly one-fifth Russian.

9. — Industries.

Information on this subject was obtained from the column on the census schedule headed "Employment" (see page 85) the nature of the employer's business being regarded as the industry of all the employees engaged for the purposes of that business, no matter what their individual occupations might be. In the case of persons who were "employers" or who were working "on own account, their personal occupation was also their industry.

The number of persons of both sexes, so tabulated under each of the industrial headings used, is stated in Table 1 of the Industry Tables, together with a summarised statement of their occupational distribution in each case.

A further tabulation in Tables 2 and 3 of the Industry Tables of those engaged in each industry by their occupations furnishes a fairly complete survey of the occupational distribution of the man power of the different industries of the country.

Full details of the industrial classification, together with the instructions issued to the clerks who were employed upon coding, are published in the Classification of Industries. These instructions embody the procedure adopted in respect of the various points of principle which arose, and it will be as well to note here some of the more important of these rulings.

In the case of Government factories and shipyards, the employees were not classed in Order XVIII (public administration and defence), but were included in a special section under the industry to which the establishment would have been classed, if not a government undertaking.

Employees of public utility undertakings (gas, water, electricity, trams, etc.) were similarly dealt with, those employed by the central government, local (municipal) authorities, railways, and tramway companies being separately distinguished in appropriate cases.

Railway-owned engineering works, docks, shipping services, hotels, etc., were not included under railway transport, but special provision was made for them under their appropriate sections.

These rulings need little explanation, since, e.g., to quote an industrial figure for steam locomotives and railway plant (code nos. 151 and 152) which disregarded the personnel of the works at Swindon, Crewe, Doncaster, Stratford, etc., would be to omit two-thirds of the workers in the industry. In all cases, however, the information regarding the activities of such public authorities has been brought together so that the grand total of their employees can be readily ascertained.

In cases where a firm or business was engaged in more than one industry (e.g. chains, and bolts and nuts) the employees have been classed, so far as the information on the schedule would permit, to the particular industry in which they were engaged, or, where that information was lacking, to the principal industry of the firm.

It will be noted that in a few instances industries which are assigned separate code numbers in the classification have been grouped. These cases are:—

061 Fire Clay Goods (including Fire Bricks), grouped with 062 Other Bricks and Tiles (not Glazed Tiles).
174-7 Self-propelled Vehicles (not steam), grouped with 178 Cycles.
190-3 Ship Building and Repairing, and 194-7 Marine Engineering, grouped with 198-201 Ship Building and Repairing and Marine Engineering.
223 Bolts, Nuts, Rivets, grouped with 238 Screws.
250 Jewellery, grouped with 252 Imitation Jewellery.
260 Cotton Carding and Spinning, grouped with 261 Cotton Doubling and Thread Mills.
320 Textile Bleaching, grouped with 321 Textile Printing, 322 Textile Dyeing, and 323 Textile Finishing.
400 Saw Mills and Joinery Works, grouped with 641 Dealing in Timber.
462 Bricklaying, 463 Masonry, 464 Slating and Tiling, 465 Painting, Decorating, Glazing, 466 Plastering, and 467 Plumbing and Gasfitting, grouped with 468 Building (so returned) and 469 Public Works Contracting.
602 Dealing in Grain and Forage Wholesale, grouped with 603 Dealing in Grain and Forage Retail.

These departures from the original classification are due to the grouped industries being, in many cases, carried on by the same firms, and to the consequent impossibility of ascertaining from the information on the schedules in which of them the employees were engaged.

It has been mentioned previously that the statement of the employer's name as well as the nature of his business is essential for any detailed tabulation of industry from an enumeration of the population (page 86). In answering this question many people stated the name of their employer but omitted the nature of his business. Where the employer was a large and well-known firm, this omission was of no account, but in the cases of the smaller firms it caused serious delay and expense. For Greater London alone a staff of over a dozen clerks was employed for many weeks in rectifying these omissions by reference to directories, and although for the rest of the country the matter was less serious by reason of the lists of the larger employers of labour already referred to (page 86, it was still necessary to keep a few clerks on this work until the assignment of industry code numbers was completed.

The amount of information contained in the Industry Tables is so great as to preclude anything like a detailed examination of the figures, and it is only possible to deal with it on very general lines.

In examining the results of this tabulation it must not be overlooked that of the 17,178,050 occupied persons, no less than 378,598, or a little over 2 per cent could not be assigned to any industry. Table 2 shows that of 312,617 males not classed to any industry, nearly 90,000 were general or undefined labourers and over 35 000 were members of the Defence Force. Of the 65,981 females, 8,622 were domestic servants and 9,540 were clerks. In pleasure resorts and in areas which contain numbers of hotels and boarding houses it is not safe to assume that domestic servants who omitted to answer the question regarding employment were in private service.

The industrial distribution of the occupied population into certain main industrial groupings is as follows:—

  Persons. Males. Females.
Number. Propor-
tion per
Number. Propor-
tion per
Number. Propor-
tion per
I. Fishing 40,246 2 38,616 3 1,630 0
II. Agriculture 1,123,962 65 1,038,490 86 85,472 17
III. (1) Mining and Quarrying 1,231,730 72 1,222,933 101 8,797 2
III. (2) XIV.—Manufacturing Industries (including Building). 6,732,981 392 4,777,066 394 1,955,915 386
XV. Gas, Water, Electricity 162,767 9 158,172 13 4,595 1
XVI. Transport and Communication. 1,203,566 70 1,164,459 96 39,107 8
XVII. Commerce and Finance 2,275,148 132 1,533,404 127 741,744 146
XVIII. Publjc Administration and Defence 1,335,879 78 981,144 81 354,735 70
XIX. Professions 514,776 30 272,267 22 242,509 48
XX. Entertainments and Sport 122,004 7 81,081 7 40,923 8
XXI. Personal Service 2,046,825 119 523,946 43 1,522,879 301
XXII. Other Industries or Industry not stated 388,166 24 321,140 27 67,026 13
    Total 17,178,050 1,000 12,112,718 1,000 5,065,332 1,000

From this it will be seen that 39 per cent. of the working population are directly dependent for their livelihood upon the manufacturing industries (using that term in its widest sense), 13 per cent. are employed in the wholesale and retail distributive trades, and in banking insurance or other commerce or finance, and 12 per cent. in personal service, the latter including hotels, restaurants, hairdressing, etc., in addition to private personal service.

The males in the manufacturing industries outnumber the females by about 2 to 1. In personal service, on the other hand, there are nearly three times as many females as males; and in the professions the males are only slightly in excess of the females, who greatly outnumber males in education and sick nursing.

It may be noted that the excess of males (272,267 as against 242,509 females) in the professional industries, Order XIX, contrasts with an excess of females of similar degree in the professional occupations (see page 125). This contrast is entirely due to the fact that the industrial tabulation assigns 46,189 male and 142,763 female teachers employed by the Local Education Authorities to public Administration and Defence, whereas the occupational tabulation assigns them to the professions. The excess of females amongst these council school teachers is so great that without them the professional industries show a male excess and with them the professional occupations a female excess.

If the industries are roughly grouped according to the needs which they meet, regarding agriculture as principally concerned with food production, and including the appropriate distributive industries with the manufacturing industries, we find that 33 per cent. of the occupied population are engaged in connection with the supply of coal, food, and clothing (coal 7 per cent.; food 12 per cent.; clothing 14 per cent.). A further13 per cent. are concerned with the production or sale of metals, metal goods and vehicles; while 6 per cent. are in the building, woodworking and furnishing industries.

Turning now to the individual industries or groups of allied industries which afford employment to the largest numbers of persons, the following 20 industries, each of which employs over 180,000 persons, embrace 58 per cent. of the working population, 59 per cent. of the males and 55 per cent. of the females.

Industry. Persons. Males. Females. Females per
cent. of total
in the industry
760 Private Personal Service 1,232,046 227,380 1,004,666 81
30 Coal Mining 1,132,668 1,126,258 6,410 1
010-019 Agriculture 1,123,962 1,038,490 85,472 8
462-469 Building arid Contracting 720,670 711,842 8,828 1
720-729 Local Government 688,938 445,058 243,880 35
700-719 Central Civil Government and Defence 646,941 536,086 110,855 17
260-269 Cotton Manufacture 595,555 227,558 367,997 62
530 Railway Transport 548,673 531,491 17,182 3
150-159 Engineering (not Marine or Electric) 529,826 497,312 32,514 6
635-636 Dealing in Textiles, Drapery and Clothing 342,613 157,786 184,827 54
340-341 Tailoring 288,200 126,451 161,749 56
190-201 Marine Engineering and Shipbuilding 283,443 278,348 5,095 2
609-611 Dealing in Grocery and Provisions 272,470 180,865 91,605 34
774-775 Hotels, Inns, Public Houses 240,620 127,285 113,335 47
270-275 Wool and Worsted Manufacture 237,335 106,005 131,330 55
440-447, 459 Printing and Bookbinding 225,948 160,795 65,153 29
110-114 Iron and Steel Manufacture 216,056 211,198 4,858 2
174-178 Manufacture of Cycles and Motors 199,086 183,119 15,967 8
353 Manufacture of Boots, Shoes and Slippers 195,237 143,159 52,078 27
652 Departmental Stores, General Shops, etc. 189,924 116,711 73,213 39
  Total of the above Industries 9,910,211 7,133,197 2,777,014 28

Out of the 20 industries in the list 9 have over 33 per cent. and 11 have over 25 per cent. of their staff females.

The total numbers of persons employed by Government departments, by local authorities, and by railway companies in any capacity whatsoever (differing from the figures given in the preceding statement for the reasons stated on page 138) are as follows:—

  Persons. Males. Females.
Local Government 862,746 614,771 247,975
Central Civil Government and Defence 733,982 618,765 115,217
Railway Companies 682,139 658,323 23,816

The number of persons employed by local authorities includes the staff in their schools and colleges, the personnel of privately owned educational establishments alone being shown under "Education—not government or local authority" (code No. 735). The total number of persons engaged in schools (not poor law schools) and colleges, or employed by Education Authorities was 353,503—105.810 males and 247,693 females.

Industries employing the
largest numbers of males.
Industries employing the
largest numbers of females.
Industry. Number
ber of
cent of
Industry. Number
ber of
cent of
030 Coal Mining 1,126,258 1 760 Private Personal Service 1,004,666 81
010—019 Agriculture 1,038,490 8 260—269 Cotton Manufacture 367,997 62
462—469 Building and Contracting 711,842 1 720—729 Local Government 243,880 35
700—719 Central Civil Government and Defence 536,086 17 635—636 Dealing in Textiles, Drapery and Clothing 184,827 54
530 Railway Transport 531,491 3 340—341 Tailoring 161,749 56
150—159 Engineering (not Marine or Electric) 497,312 6 342 Dress and Blouse Making 146,330 97
720—729 Local Government 445,058 35 771 Lodging and Boarding Houses 136,258 91
190—201 Marine Engineering and Shipbuilding 278,348 2 270—275 Wool and Worsted Manufacture. 131,330 55
260—269 Cotton Manufacture 227,558 62 774—775 Hotels, Inns, Public Houses 113,335 47
760 Private Personal Service 227,380 81 700—719 Central Civil Government and Defence 110,855 17
110—114 Iron and Steel Manufacture 211,198 2 777 Laundries, Job Dyeing and Dry Cleaning 103,224 83
174—178 Manufacture of Cycles and Motors 183,119 8 732 Medicine and Care of the Sick and Infirm (not Government or Local Authority) 97,628 70
  Total of the above 6,014,140     Total of the above 2,802,079  

The industries in the list for males account for 50 per cent. of the occupied male population, and those for females for 55 per cent. of all occupied females. Four industries appear in both lists, viz., private personal service, central civil government and defence, local government and cotton manufacture. With these exceptions no industry in the male list has more than 8 per cent. of its staff females, and no industry in the female list has much more than half its staff males.

It has been noted for the manufacturing industries that less than one-third of the personnel are females, considerably more than half of whom are engaged in the textile and clothing trades. In most of the industries included in these sections the female employees outnumber the male. In the other manufacturing industries females are, generally speaking, much in the minority. A few exceptions may, however, be noted — button making with 70 per cent. of the staff females, tin boxes, canisters and containers 68, tobacco 67, sugar confectionery 66, paper and cardboard goods and stationery 65, incandescent lamps 64, matches 64, needles and pins 60, cocoa and chocolate 58, blue and polishes 57, photographic plates, films and papers 52, and earthenware and china 51 per cent. females.

The occupational distribution of the workers in the different industries is fully set out in Tables 2 and 3 of the "Industry Tables," and this information is also given in summary form in Table I, which divides the occupations into nine groups and shows the proportions in each group per 1,000 engaged in the industry. The last column of the table shows the extent to which the various industries utilise unskilled labour, which may be regarded as transferable from one industry to another.

The proportions employed in the groups vary, of course, in accordance with the nature of the industry. In cases where the product of a factory is turned out in small packages for sale, the proportion of warehouse and packing staff is naturally high. Instances are blue and polishes, with 25 per cent. of the staff warehouse hands or packers; drugs and fine chemicals 35, pins 25, and cereal foods and starches 27 In the chemical industries the proportion of professional staff is high and in the distributive industries the proportion of clerical staff is higher in the wholesale than in the retail branches. The explanation of these differences is generally obvious, but m some cases the reasons for the varying proportions are not so apparent, for example in cotton manufacture the clerical staff is 2 per cent. of the total, but in asbestos manufacture it is no less than 13 per cent.

The age distribution by occupations in the various industries is given in Table 3 of the Industry Tables. The age constitution of the various occupations without reference to industry has been dealt with on pages 127-136, and the statements made there apply, broadly speaking, to the occupations in the various industries. In government factories and shipbuilding yards and in railway factories a tendency may be noticed for the average age of the employees to be higher than those in other similar works.

In dealing with occupations, some reference has been made in a few cases to the concentration of industries in certain areas. Table 2 of the Industry Tables shows the distribution of industry over six of the large industrial areas of the country, and Table 4 affords the same information, in somewhat less detail, for the counties and certain towns. In this latter table no information is given as to the distribution of the coal-mining industry, which it was decided, after consultation with the Ministry of Labour, to omit. As some curtailment of the full tabulation had proved to be necessary, it appeared that this information could be dispensed with to least disadvantage in the case of coal mines. In this case the industrial classification coincides so closely with the occupational (over 87 per cent. of those in the industry being coal miners) that the local distribution shown in the occupation tables (see Table XLV, and Tables 16 and 17 in the County Volumes) should meet all practical purposes.

The numbers given in the Industry Tables refer to those who were definitely returned as working in the several areas, not as in the occupation tables to those who were enumerated therein.

It is not possible to do more than quote a few examples of the local concentration of industries in addition to those already mentioned. Almost one half of the workers in mineral oil refining were returned as working in Glamorganshire. The glass bottle making industry is chiefly centred in the West Riding, Lancashire, London, Durham and Essex, which counties include 87 per cent. of the total in the industry, the West Riding alone accounting for 45 per cent. Other glass manufactures are carried on mainly in Lancashire, Staffordshire and Warwickshire, which counties included 64 per cent. of the workers; over one third of the males in the industry were at work in St. Helens. Of the 24,810 persons in the tinplate industry, 22,333 were in the South Wales area. Three-quarters of those in the iron and steel tube trade worked in the Birmingham area. In this area, which includes Coventry, 70 per cent. of those in the cycle and motor accessory trade were found to work. The manufacture of small brass goods (code Nos. 224-226) is practically confined to Birmingham, 17,611 out of the 24,056 employed in the industry working in that city. Sugar refining is not carried on to any large extent outside West Ham, Liverpool and London, which together returned 85 per cent. of the total, but the birth of the beet sugar industry in this country is reflected by the appreciable numbers returned for Norfolk and Nottinghamshire. Nearly 60 per cent. of those engaged in the manufacture of linoleum and leather cloth worked in Lancashire and over 80 per cent. of those in the gramophone and gramophone record industry in London and Middlesex.

The industry tabulation of 1921 differs to a certain extent from that of 1911 for two reasons. Firstly, in 1911 some discretion was left to employed persons, as already pointed out, as to whether they should or should not state the nature of their employer's business, whereas in 1921 new methods have been adopted for ascertaining this in all cases. Secondly, the industry tabulation of 1921 has been carried out independently of the occupation tabulation, and not as in 1911, when industry was largely inferred from occupation. Such inference can only be made with safety in certain cases, such as coal mining. For these reasons any comparison between the first two census industry tabulations must be made with considerable reserve, and without necessarily attributing significance to small variations. Nevertheless it is hoped that the following comparative statement of persons engaged in various industries as returned at each of the censuses 1881-1921 may be of some interest. This table was originally prepared at the request of the Committee on Industry and Trade, appointed in 1924 under the chairmanship of Sir Arthur Balfour, and, while it is not intended to serve as material for any close or detailed comparisons, it nevertheless affords a general indication of industrial movements during the period covered. Attention must be paid to the note at the head of the table.

It has been necessary in some cases to re-group industries in order to compare the 1921 figures with those of previous years; and any differences between the 1921 figures as given in this table and those quoted in the previous paragraphs or given in the Industry Tables must be ascribed to this cause.

TABLE LIV. Number (in thousands) of Persons aged 10 years and over in England And Wales engaged in certain Industries, as returned at each Census 1881-1921. Proportions per 10,000 Occupied so engaged, and Intercensal Increase or Decrease per cent.

[This table occupies pages 143 to 145, and is not currently included in Vision of Britain .]

1 Column 10 contained the question relating to personal occupation.

2 Report of the Conference. Cmd. 648.

3 Under the "Employment of Women, Young Persons and Children Act, 1920 (10 & 11 Geo. 5, Ch. 65)" no child may be employed in any industrial undertaking. The expression "child" means a person under the age of 14 years.

4 See note on page 89. [i.e. note 3, above]

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