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1. Hospitals.

In Ireland an attempt is made at each Census to determine the number—not only of permanently diseased (i.e. the infirm), but also of temporarily diseased persons, namely those suffering from various forms of sickness not necessarily incapacitating them permanently from employment. In England and Wales, however, no attempt has hitherto been made in this direction beyond taking account of the number of sick persons returned, on the Census Day, as resident in Hospitals or Infirmaries.

At the last Census 39,184 persons were enumerated in General, Special or Convalescent Hospitals, exclusive of Workhouse and other Poor Law Institutions. The numbers of males and females were practically equal, no excess of males over females having been observed, such as that which had been noted in 1891.

The number of patients enumerated in Hospitals and their proportion to the population are shown in the following Table:—

1851. 1861. 1871. 1881. 1891. 1901.
Number of patients in Hospitals 7,619 10,414 19,585 24,087 27,579 39,184
Proportion in 100,000 of the population 42 52 86 93 95 120

The proportion of hospital accommodation varies enormously in different parts of England, being exceptionally large in London; but throughout England and Wales the proportional increase of hospital accommodation has been much more rapid, in recent years, than has that of the population. The number of Hospitals or Infirmaries (exclusive of those of the Metropolitan Asylums Board) published in the Registrar General's Annual Report for 1901 was 1,460, whereas it had been 1,012 in 1891, 691 in 1881 and only 346 in 1871, Part of the increase in the number is, however, accounted for by the fact that in the earlier Reports many of the smaller Hospitals were not tabulated.

In addition to the 39,184 persons who were enumerated in Hospitals as above defined, there were, at the date of the Census, 2,842 inmates of the Metropolitan Asylums Board Hospitals and Homes.

2. Workhouses.

At the recent Census the total number of pauper inmates of Workhouses, including Workhouse Infirmaries and Schools, was 208,650, of whom 120,285 were of the male and 88,365 of the female sex. From these figures it appears that one in every 131 males, and one in every 190 females was an inmate of a Workhouse Establishment.

Excess of male pauper inmates

The excess of males over females appears not only in the figures for England and Wales as a whole, but also in the figures for each separate county, except Carnarvon (where the figures are nearly equal) and Cornwall, in which county alone the female paupers considerably outnumber the male. At the previous Census also Cornwall had been practically the only county showing a notable excess of female paupers in Workhouses; at both Censuses the excess was partly, although not wholly, due to the large proportion of females as compared with males in the population.

Differences at successive age groups

Table XXXIII in the Summary Volume indicates that at most periods of life there is an excess of male over female Workhouse inmates. At ages from 15 to 35 years, however, the female inmates outnumber the males. That the figures of 1901 are not exceptional in this respect is shown by the fact that practically the same remarks apply to the corresponding figures for the Census year of 1891, The following Table shows the proportions of Indoor Paupers in 1901 per million living of either sex, at successive age-periods.

Ages. Males. Females.   Ages. Males. Females.
Under 5 years 2,642 2,397   35—45 4,697 3,727
5—10 4,900 3,807   45—55 9,345 5,394
10—15 6,199 4,286   55—65 22,995 10,883
15—20 1,041 1,311   65—75 58,152 28,111
20—25 1,171 1,757   75—85 90,303 53,238
25—35 2,162 2,384   85 and upwards 112,515 78,747
        All Ages 7,648 5,260

Previous Occupations of Indoor Paupers

In Table XLII. of the Summary Volume particulars are given concerning the previous occupations of Indoor Paupers. The sub-joined Table which is derived from the summary Table gives the principal occupations, or previous occupations of pauper inmates above 10 years of age in the Workhouse Institutions of England and Wales.1

Males.   Females.
Commercial Clerks 1,079   Domestic Indoor Servants 15,630
Coachmen, Grooms 1,848   Charwomen 8,176
Carmen, Carriers 1,546   Laundry and Washing Services 4,554
Seamen, Merchantmen 2,052   Cotton Operatives 2,128
Dock Labourers 2,355   Tailoresses 1,245
Agricultural Labourers 9,469   Milliners, Dressmakers 1,642
Gardeners 1,232   Shirtmakers, Seamstresses 2,814
Coal Miners 1,570   Costermongers, Hawkers 1,159
Blacksmiths 1,381      
Carpenters, Joiners 2,274      
Bricklayers 1,212      
Bricklayers' Labourers 1,397      
Painters, Glaziers 2,487      
Cotton Operatives 1,218      
Tailors 1,594      
Shoemakers 3,061      
Costermongers 1,521      
General Labourers 22,129      
Other occupations 31,287   Other occupations 7,681
Without specified occupations or unoccupied 16,151   Without specified occupations or unoccupied 32,220
Total 10 years of age and upwards 106,863   Total 10 years of age and upwards 77,249

From this Table it appears that, among male pauper inmates over 10 years of age whose occupations or previous occupations were stated, one-fourth were from the indefinite class of "Labourers," and about one-tenth were described as Agricultural Labourers, while Shoemakers, Painters, Carpenters and Seamen added considerable numbers to the total. Among female pauper inmates the largest share was contributed by Domestic Indoor Servants, Charwomen and Washerwomen, who formed together more than one third of the females over 10 years of age enumerated in Workhouses. Among females 41.7 per cent., and among males 15.l per cent., of the pauper inmates over 10 years of age were returned without specified occupation.

Condition as to Marriage of Indoor Paupers

Of the pauper males, 16,543 were married men with living wives, but only 10,543 of the pauper females were married women with living husbands. There must therefore have been at the last Census at least 6,000 married men in Workhouses without their wives. (See Summary Vol., Table XXXIII.) Reference to this Table shows that at ages under 45 years the married women exceeded the married men by more than 60 per cent.; while at ages above 45 years the number of married men was more than double the number of married women. A probable explanation of the excess of women, at ages under 45 years is that it is due to the numbers who enter the Workhouses for care during their confinements. As regards the excess of men at ages above 45 years, there are probably many families in which, if the wife be ill, she can be supported at home; whereas, if the husband be ill, he must go into the Workhouse for treatment, his wife meanwhile doing such work as she can, to assist in supporting herself and her children.

3. Lunatic Asylums.

The special inmates of Public and Private Asylums and Hospitals2 for Lunatics or for Imbeciles numbered 90,767, or 1 in every 358 of the population. Among males the number was 41,824 or 1 in 376 of the male population; and among females it was 48,943, or 1 in 343 of the female population. A few of these 90,767 inmates were voluntary boarders, not certified to be suffering from any form of insanity. The statistics concerning those -who were so certified have already been dealt with from various points of view on pages 155-160.

The Schedules contained statements as to the occupation or former occupation of 32,574, or 78 per cent. of the male inmates, and 19,371, or 40 per cent. of the female inmates of Asylums. For purposes of tabulation all such statements have been taken as referring to former occupations, the whole of the inmates being classed as unoccupied. An abstract has, however, been made of the statements as to occupation, and this is given. in Table XXXVIII. of the Summary Volume.

The 52,574 formerly occupied male inmates were in the proportion of 3.2 per 1,000 to the occupied males in the country. They were, however, very irregularly distributed among the several occupational groups. No fewer than 7,984 of them were returned under one or other of the occupations in Order XXII, which mainly consists of indefinite headings, and 6,131 of these were returned either as "General Labourer" or merely as "Labourer." Again, to 1,000 males engaged in the occupations grouped under Order XXII., 11.7 male inmates of Asylums were returned under those occupations; while, to 1,000 males engaged in all other occupations, there were only 2.6 male inmates of Asylums. It is clear, therefore, that the former occupations of inmates of Asylums were much less definitely returned than were the occupations of the population generally. Closer examination of the figures leads to the conclusion that those whose occupations were indefinitely returned belonged almost exclusively to Industrial and other occupations, to which Orders VI and IX-XXI are approximately equivalent. If this be assumed to be the case, the male inmates of Asylums formerly engaged in these occupations were to the males engaged in them at the time of the Census in the proportion of 3.3 to 1,000; the corresponding figure for all other occupations in the aggregate being 2.9 to 1,000.

The 19,371 formerly occupied female inmates were in the proportion of 4.6 per 1,000 of all the occupied females in the country This proportion is not fairly comparable with the proportion in the case of males, for reasons similar to those already adduced when dealing with the statistics of the retired. As in the case of males, however, the irregular distribution of the inmates among the several occupational groups, and the excess under indefinite headings, point to a want of precision in the returns. No fewer than 8,727, or 45 per cent. of the total female inmates whose former occupations were stated, were, described as domestic servants. They were in the proportion of 6.6 to 1,000 females engaged in domestic service at the time of the Census. The corresponding proportion for charwomen was 13.3 per 1,000, while that for female costermongers, hawkers, and street sellers, exceeded 20 per 1,000. A partial explanation of these very high proportions may be that many of the women from other employments who eventually become insane, drift into such occupations as charing or street- selling at an early stage of physical or mental decline.

4. Prisons.

The total number of persons (including unconvicted persons and a number of military and naval offenders) under detention in civil prisons at the date of the Census was 17,480, of whom 14,636 were males and 2,844 females. Accordingly there was one male prisoner to every 1,075 of the male, and one female prisoner to every 5,907 of the female, sex. Out of equal numbers living there were 5.5 male prisoners to one female prisoner., The proportion of male prisoners to population was lower at the recent Census than it had been in 1891, and the decrease would have been greater, but for the fact that during the late war some military and naval offenders were confined in the civil prisons. Table XXXIV of the Summary Volume shows the ages and condition as to marriage of the 17,480 persons under detention, and Table XLIII gives a classified list of the occupations they had followed before incarceration. In the latter case the information was derived from returns furnished by the chief Resident Officers.

In the following Table the proportions to population of the prisoners of each sex at several ages, are given for the last two Censuses. From this it appears that among males the proportion of prisoners was highest in 1891 at ages 25-35, and in 1901 at ages 20-25, and among females in 1891 at ages 25-35, and in 1901 at ages 35-45. In both sexes the proportions, after the ages respectively specified, become gradually smaller at each successive age-group.

Prisoners per 100,000 living at each Age.
1891. 1901.
Males. Females. Males. Females.
15-20 103 12 88 6
20-25 218 24 212 21
25-35 221 38 176 39
35-45 186 36 154 41
45-55 136 27 108 21
55-65 121 14 96 12
65-75 65 7 63 6
75 and upwards 21 2 21 2

Reformatory and Industrial Schools

In addition to the 17,480 persons detained in Prisons at the date of the Census there were in Reformatory and Industrial Schools 19,245 juveniles, of whom 15,188 were boys, and 4,057 were girls. The number of boys was about 6 per cent. greater than the corresponding number in 1891; the numbers of girls at the two Censuses were nearly identical.

1 In Summary Table XXXVIII are shown the occupations of pauper workhouse inmates who were over 60 years of age, and who are therefore classed as "retired."

2 The Institutions here referred to include Military, Naval, and Prison Establishments for the Insane in addition to the Lunatic and Imbecile Asylums summarized in Table 17 of the County Parts and Table XXII of the Summary Volume.

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