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Arthur Young


places mentioned

1784 Tour of Suffolk

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A FIVE DAYS TOUR TO WOODBRlDGE, &c.

By the Editor.

JULY 21, 1784. The Count de la Rochefaucauld, his brother, and Mons. Lowzoski, being desirous of seeing the objects most deserving attention in Suffolk, I was happy in an opportunity of attending them, to explain such parts of our husbandry as are the most instructive: and, as I never make the least journey without taking some notes, I trouble the reader of this work with my little journal.

To Sudbury. At Shimpling, the Reverend Mr. Fiske practices the bean culture as a preparation for wheat so successfully, that I wish he would publish an account of it. About Alpheton, the soil is a heavy wet loam on clay marle; but hollow draining understood, except which the husbandry is indifferent, and the crops neither fine nor clean..The soil changes much from Melford to Sudbury; dry good turnep land, well managed, and the products very great. Rents 20s. At Sudbury they have a considerable manufacture of says, which is at present flourishing, so that no workman is in want of work, which was not the case in the American war, and still less in the Spanish, which hurt them most of all. A weaver of fays earns from 10 to 12 s. a week, if a good hand; but many less. Wool-combers 14 and 16 s. The fays are made in pieces of 27, 30, and 42 yards, one of 27 yards, at 2s. a yard, will cost about 3d. a yard weaving. The same master-manufacturers here conduct the combing, spinning, and weaving branches. Others buy the spun wool to employ the weavers. They have also a silk manufactory here, established by the London mercers about 14 or 15 years ago, on account of the dearness of labour in Spittlefields: these men earn more than the fay weavers, many 14, 15, and 16 s. a-week; but they had much more in London, even to a guinea and 30s. No baize made here. Calamancoes at Lavenham. Took the road to Colchester through a rich and well cultivated country. At Newton made enquiries; farms are large, rising to 200 and 300 l. a year; but many small ones; rents on an average 14 or 15 s. an acre: The course, 1 turneps, 2 barley, 3 clover, 4 wheat, which is unexceptionable. The turneps are used for fattening both oxen and sheep, some of the former in stalls, and some on the land; barley follows ploughed for thrice, but sometimes only once, when the season is unfavourable; the product four quarters on an average, rising to five and even six. The clover is left only one year; but if trefoil and ray-grass is mixed two and even three, in which case wheat is not sown but oats: this management is very bad; for when a layer is left two or three years (especially the latter) pease should be dibbled if the land is dry, and beans if it be stiff, after which the wheat succeeds to great profit; whereas in the method here pursued, oats are taken to much less advantage. Wheat yields three quarters on a medium.

Between this place and Stoke, I remarked very fine forward turneps; much finer than any I had seen, the devastation of the fly having been very general about Bury. At Stoke, repeating my enquiries, I found that the course on the light land was the same as before, with the addition of sometimes taking a crop of pease or oats after the wheat, which is bad: some very weedy fields of oats confirmed this intelligence. On the heavy lands, of which there are large tracts, though not near the road, their course, 1 fallow, 2 barley, 3 clover, 4 wheat; but the barley is sometimes so bulky as to destroy the grass, in which case they repeat barley again with clover. Rents about 15s. Much very fine country about Nayland, with some fine meadows, so level that they reproach 1he owners for not making use of the river for irrigation; these meadows do not probably let for more than 20 or 30s. an acre; but watered with skill, they would be cheaper at 3l. Leaving Nayland, as we rise on the hill, the view back on Stoke and that place is very pleasing.

Nothing could hurt me more, than to see a great range of common covered with fern (pteris aquilina ) furze, (culex europaus ) and other spontaneous growth sufficiently luxuriant to shew the goodness of the land; and yet, within two miles of Colchester, a very populous place, that, I question not, complains of the high price of provisions in fight of land thus miserably neglected.

At Colchester I made enquiries into the state of the baize manufactory, which is carried in that town to a great extent. This fabric, like that of Sudbury, flourishes very much at present, so that all hands are fully employed, and the masters can scarcely get their work done; but the American war was a great injury to it, and the Spanish much more, so that many hands were then out of employment for months together. This declension was marked to me by the carriage of the manufactures to London, for at present four or five waggon loads go every week whereas in the Spanish war none went: each waggon is calculated to carry 250 pieces, worth 5l. each, or 1250 l. per waggon, or about 5000 l. a week: I apprehend there must be some error in this account, as 250,000 l. a year is very inconsiderable for such a town as this.

The weavers earn 10 s. a week, besides finding employment for their wife and child at 4 s. a week more. They have several sorts of fabrics here, the chief of them are made mostly of short cloathing wool, of an inferior quality, mixed with some long combing wool. They make baize two yards wide in this manner, which fell undyed at 3 s a yard. Most, if not all their manufactures are for foreign consumption, especially for the Spanish Am Crucywel erican demand. A few for the Portuguese, but not in considerable quantity; but at Coggleshall they are entirely in that branch.

Great numbers of combers are here, who earn more than the weavers; the consequence of which is, that they will not work more than three or four days a week, and spend the rest at the alehouse.

The manufactory is exceedingly improved by means of a mechanical addition to the loom, which enables one weaver to do the business of two. In wide stuffs they formerly had two hands to a loom, now only one. The number of looms in the place guessed at 5co. Many women weave and earn nearly as much as the men. Much lambs wool used. None of the manufacture ever goes to London by water.

To Mistley. Passed Lawford, where I had been more than once with the late very ingenious Mr. Brand, of whose great mechanical abilities I made mention in the Farmer's Tour .

July 22, viewed the beautiful seat of Mr. Rigby, which always struck me as one of the most interesting places to be seen in England: it is not my purpose to dwell long on descriptions of this nature, but I cannot avoid touching slightly upon a few of the principal features of so fine a place. Those who have seen it will recollect the uncommon variety in the declivities which form the lawn. Not a level acre is to be seen; no hill without its accompanyment of wood; of groves that thicken into rich masses of shade; and of single spreading oaks that scatter their lighter tints over the chequered scene. Not a hillock without its delicious prospect of the Stour, which spreads in vast sheets of water as clear as crystal, with an opposite shore of a rich woodland country. The whole place knows but one defect; this noble river is governed by the tide, and consequently both loses and gains its beauty every day. When the vale presents its silver bosom to the eye, all is chearfulness and brilliancy; but when the marsh that was of late so pleasingly concealed, is exposed to view, then the whole scenery wants its warmest tints. An ornamented ground of a mile and a quarter skirts the southern boundary of the park, laid out with considerable taste, in which are to be found, some trees and shrubs, of the scarcest sorts, of a very fine growth. One of the walks of this ground leads to a noble kitchen-garden of nine acres, five within the walls in three divisions, and four without; where all the circumstances of horticultural luxury abound in profusion. The house is charmingly situated, and the principal apartment very elegantly furnished.

These, however, are bagatelles compared with something which I wish every traveller not only to view, but also to admire. It is indeed worthy of admiration ! A new town, of above 40 good brick houses, several large and handsome:-an elegant church, built by Mr. Adams-an excellent inn- an extensive quay, faced with brick and stone, upon the harbour, terminated at one end by a large warehouse, with a wet dock by it capable of holding two or three ships; and, at the other end, by a ship-carpenter's yard, with a 32 gun frigate and some smaller vessels building, with all the hurry and bustle of active industry, and successful commerce-these are objects that rank in a class abundantly superior to brilliant palaces, and gew gaw gardens. And when the overflowings of a princely fortune are thus expended, never shall I regret that the service of the public was the source of the wealth thus admirably applied. Mistley will amply recompence the traveller for no incon.. siderable journey in the pleasure of viewing it.

To Harwich, through a country beautifully variegated, accompanied by the Stour on the left, which renders every scene delicious. The husbandry good, but not equal to some we had viewed; the crops generally great. At that town they are in the fishery to supply the London market with live cod, which are taken in the North sea on the Dogger Bank. I saw one smack of 70 tons building for this fishery, in a manner remarkably strong, several having been lost. They are all well-boats; this will cost 1000 l. ready for the sea. There are above 30 belong to this town; the only branch of trade they possess; depending on this and the pacquet-boats that sail to and from Holland.

Greatly disappointed at the wind being so high that it was impossible to go by water to Ipswich, which was our intention, and to view Woolverston in the way; but we could neither do this, nor even cross to see Landguard-fort. Returned to Mistley in the way to Ipswich by land.

July 23, crossed Sampford hundred to Woolverston; I had a great inclination to be informed of the management in this part of the county, not having seen it before. Was so fortunate as to meet with Mr. Palmer, of Branton, who was so obliging as to answer my enquiries, which he was particularly able to do, being one of the best cultivators in the country. The management is exceedingly masterly; the soil dry and sandy, all arable. except here and there a meadow in a bottom, and so few of them that some farmers have not a single acre, but their cultivation makes amends for the deficiency. Their course is, 1 turneps, 2 barley, 3 clover, 4 wheat. I was pleased with finding that all the dung they can raise is spread on their turnep land, in which respect some of the best farmers in Norfolk and Suffolk are in a great error in giving it to the wheat. They know so well the importance of this application of manure, that they buy large quantities at Maningtree from London, which cost 12s. a five-horse load at the quay, and 20s. by the time it is on the land. Each load three tons. Kentish chalk also is purchased at the fame place, at 7 s. a load, with which they form composts. They feed the turneps on the land with bullocks and sheep. Plough three or four times for barley; generally three clean earths and a rove (half ploughing) and get of that grain four quarters on an average; the clover supports all the stock of the farm, and when it fails they are distressed; but make up as well as they can, by keeping the last year's unploughed.

Sometimes on their poorer soils they sow trefoil and ray-grass, in which case the course is, 1 turneps, 2 barley, 3 trefoil, 4 pease dibbled, 5 barley; which is most admirable management, and calculated to keep the land always clean.

Wheat yields, on a medium, 2 qrs.an acre. They are much troubled with smutty wheat; have also a great deal burnt; and in some years much mildew; they attribute the latter entirely to honey. dews, but burnt wheat to blights, in which they are certainly mistaken.

Farms are not very large, nor small, from 200 to 300 acres; and they reckon the sum necessary to stock 5 l. an acre.

Viewed Woolverston, the very elegant seat of Mr. Berners. The spot on which the house is situated, is very happily chosen for commanding, from the upper stories, the views of the magnificent scenery of the Orwell. The wood is old and very fine, and unites from its thickness into masses of deep shade, that fringe the lawn, and make the finest shore imaginable, especially as the venerable oaks grow chiefly on the declivity, so that their umbrageous heads form the immediate separation of the water,which opens to the eye, every where broken by groups of trees, and intermingling with the woody shores in the happiest stile. A circumstance that distinguishes this water scene from Mr. Rigby's, and gives it a superiority, is the union (to the eye) between these home-woods, and those on the opposite bold shore of Lord Shipbrook and Mt. Brook, so that a river, half a mile wide, appears in a great variety of different positions, now embosomed and lost as it were in woods; and then opening in extensive reaches that fill the eye, and even answer to the fancy's expectation. For the views that appear from the house, Woolverston is superior; but in the variety and inequality of the grounds, Mistley much exceeds, as well as in the pleasing accompanyment of ornamented walks.

To Ipswich, where I catched a hasty walk with Mr. Turner over a part of his farm. I had the pleasure of finding from him, that he fed his farm. horses last winter with carrots, giving them no corn whatever; and they were in as good health, and did their work as well, as when supported on corn alone. He has a crop this year for the same use. And tried an experiment which seems to answer much better than I should have conceived it would, that of sowing carrots among drilled beans. Both crops were good. Mr. Turner's potatoes were fine, and of a garden degree of cleanness. Part the red-nosed kidney, and part the Aylesbury white, the former all curled, the latter healthy and flourishing. Nothing in the culture of potatoes is of more consequence, than to discover sorts not subject to that destructive distemper. I saw a large field of this gentleman's barley, half after cabbages, the other half turneps, and equally manured; the comparison, I hoped, would decide which was the most exhausting plant; but unluckily the cabbages were drawn, and the turneps fed on the land. No wonder, therefore, the barley was much finer after the latter. It is full a quarter an acre better.

I was sorry to hear, from Mr. Turner, that there was a sharp morning frost about a fortnight ago, that made the meadows quite white, and which had damaged his lucerne. Quere the mildew this year? Some has already been observed about Ipswich. This was bad news.

Mr. Turner's lucerne is in two feet rows, on a poor sandy gravel, very apt to burn, yet it yields in the third year to the value of five guineas an acre in feeding cows, which give milk that yields remarkably thick cream, and excellent butter. The cows are soiled, and the pigs I saw, which laid nothing else, were in very fine order.

.

I could not help again admiring the charming prospects commanded by some of Mr. Turner s fields, and from the lane that leads through them, on one side, the river Orwell appears like a noble bason two or three miles across, and surrounded on every side with such spreading woods, that the scene is magnificient: in front, a narrow strait or gut opens to let in the view of wood yet more distant: the effect different from any we have yet had. On the other side of the farm, the river winds through a spreading vale, in a much humbler stream, but enough to throw a chearfulness over a great extent of cultivated country, spotted with villages, farms, ' on one side, a region of inclosures thinly scattered with wood; and on the other, a large mass of shade. The view of Ipswich, and its environs, is every where very fine.

To Woodbridge by Playford, (not the high road, which is much inferior in pleasantness.) Passed a finely cultivated country, abounding uncommonly with turneps, the preparation for which seemed to be very compleat. A vale and landskip to the left as beautiful as I remember any where to have seen. There is no water; but all the parts that compose the view are happily proportioned: the lighter tints of corn and scattered trees, with the verdure of new-mown meadows: the darker shades of wood, where the groves unite for the contrast, but not enough to affect the character of the scene, which is chearfulness the churches rising where the happiest taste would place them: the villages, farms, and cottages, in exact unison with the scene: the slope of the country bold enough to be interesting, without any abruptness to give sublimity where beauty alone should prevail; altogether unite into a perfect harmony of disposition, calculated to promote the impression which this charming landskip must raise in the mind of every spectator that can admire a scene where art has done nothing.

Passed Kesgrave, the farm of - Kirby, Esq of Ipswich, one of the most considerable gentlemen farmers in all this farming neighbourhood; for, besides a farm of his own within two miles of the town, he hires another of 750 acres, of General Phillipson, at that place. It is a contiguous well situated tract of poor sand, except about 90 acres of very good loam. I found Mr. Kirby's clay carts hard at work, claying an old sheep-walk in order to break it up. He lays 80 loads an acre, of about 36 to 40 bushels each, and the pit at such a distance that he can carry but eight loads a day, the expence, therefore, is heavy. It is a clay marle; left a year on the walk before breaking up, and then ploughed for pease, which is excellent husbandry. On the poor parts of the farm his course of crops is, 1 turneps; 2 white oats, but if the turneps are left late in the spring, then buck-wheat sown the first week in June; 3 ray-grass, one bushel per acre, and if the land is not of the worst sort one-fourth peck of clover; feeds it the first year, and leaves it two, three, or four. Upon this lay clay for 4 pease, 5 rye, on one earth. But upon the good loam, his course is the common and excellent one of 1 turneps, 2 barley, 3 clover, 4 wheat. He finds, upon the poorest sands, that he can get white oats where barley would fail.

His common crop of ray-grass feed is 1 qr. an acre, worth 30 s. a qr. This yields a considerable sum; but I have no doubt but Mr. Kirby will, in the long run, find it disadvantageous. It is in all respects of exhaustion, a crop of corn, and must not only draw the land for the year it is taken, but lessen the value of the two or three following crops of sheep food, at the same time that the flock must be smaller than it would be if no feed was saved. I speak, however, from theory, submitting it always to actual practice.

In the sowing of all these crops, Mr. Kirby finds, that the poorer the soil is, the more feed he must sow of every kind a fact he has ample opportunity of ascertaining, having some very good land, and much exceedingly bad.

As many farmers in Norfolk object to plough. ing deep, on account of the subsidence of the clay forming a pan beneath the tilled surface, I enquired of Mr. Kirby what observations he had made on this curious point. He made a distinction between a brick earth loam being carried on to the soil, and a true marle; with the latter, which he conceives to improve the soil by thoroughly incorporating with it, he does not regard how deep the plough goes; but with a dead brick earth, carried on for the mere mechanical operation of its tenacity, the case is different; it forms a pan which he would not break by deep ploughing. I have taken other occasions to observe, that this whole system of shallow ploughing, on account of the pan, is very questionable, because it will be formed at the bottom of the path of the plough let it be as deep as it will, and the dryer the soil is, the deeper I would wish it to be, as there will be moisture within the reach of the roots in the dryest seasons; but when the pan is within four or five inches of the surface, the power of the fun will have too great an effect, and exhale all the moisture, because it is retained too near the surface.

There ate many crag (shell-marle) pits about the farm; Mr. Kirby has made good use of them, and has even found, that the benefit of it for turneps on a poor sand, has been equal to that of dung: yet the greatest effect is on a moory bottom a vale that leads through the farm (every acre of which, by the way, might be converted into watered meadow) which he has begun improving; on this the crag does wonders.

The weeds which he finds most difficult to destroy, are the spear grass (triticum repens ) and fern (peters aquilina ). He has tried trench-ploughing by two ploughs going in the same furrow; and has found it effectual for fern, and in some cases for spear-grass. Clay laid on the lay one year before breaking up also destroys fern.

There is a sheep-walk bottom of black sand very poor, the spontaneous growth of which is ling (erica vulgaris ) and whins (ulex europeus ) of about 90 acres, most of which Mr. Kirby designs to leave, because he is very credibly informed by men who have experienced it, that when all the ling of a farm is ploughed up and improved, and the flock has nothing but ray-grass lays for feeding on, the lambs become ricketty, especially in the joints of the back: and it is asserted, that this does not arise from the husbandry introduced, but merely from the loss of the ling. Observations of this sort are commonly made with so little attention to all the concomitant circumstances, that not much faith is to be put in them. If the fact was general, what would have become of the sheep on many improved tracts, with which I am very well acquainted, where no ling is now to be seen? What does become of them on other tracts where there never was any ling? It must be ascertained far better than it it is at present, to bring any respect to a vile plant (if I may be permitted the expression) that occupies in this kingdom millions of acres that ought to be under good corn and grass.

Particulars of this farm. Acres 750, corn 250, turneps 100, sheep 400, horses 18, cows 12, oxen, &c. 30, rent 240 l.1 bailiff, 1 maid, 1 boy, 5 men, 8 labourers.

Carrots Mr. Kirby has cultivated for some years; never less than four acres, and generally more. His culture is to sow them broadcast after clean barley or turneps, in order to lessen the difficulty and expence of hoeing. He has tried them in drills 14 inches asunder, but they would not do, and is clear they cannot be cultivated to advantage that way. He approves much of the crop by way of improving land, provided it is clean; but if foul, cannot be cleaned from speargrass while under carrots. He is decidedly of opinion, that they are not an exhausting crop; for, supposing them to be sown on one part of a field, and turneps on the other, neither part dunged, the turneps fed on the land, and the carrots carried off, as good barley will succeed the carrots as the turneps. But when he sows them after turneps, and then barley, he gets 2 comb an acre more barley, than would be yielded if that crop was to follow turneps without the carrots intervening. All which is, upon the whole, very much in favour of the culture. The expence and produce as follow, on poor sand of 5 s. an acre.

One ploughing deep, . 0 7 0
Seed and sowing, 0 4 6
Hoeing, 1 1 0
Taking up, 1s. a load of 40 bushels topped, that is on 200 0 5 0
Carting home, 0 5 0
Rent, tithe and rates, 0 7 0
--------
2 9 6
--------

Produce.

200 Bushels per acre; but the value used at home not ascertained. The prime cost at the above expence is just 3d. a bushel.

Of all other applications, the most advantageous is that of fattening bullocks, in which he thinks them very profitable; has given them to his flock, and the ewes gave much milk; but the hardness of the root made them crones too soon, by breaking their mouths, on which account he left off that use of them. He kept 18 horses a whole winter on carrots, with the common allowance of chaff and corn, substituting the carrots for hay. That winter they eat only 12 tons of hay, whereas in other winters they eat 40 tons, the saving was therefore 28 tons, or above 1 per horse. The allowance of oats was two bushels per horse per week. They were constantly worked, and never were in so good order .

Cabbages be has also cultivated; to shew the value of the plant, he sold a field last year to a neighbour, who bought them to feed his cows, at the price of 8 l. per acre, which I think is saying much in praise of cabbages.1

Examined Mr. Wood's nursery at Woodbridge, which I mention for a remarkable experiment I saw on crag. The soil is a light spungy bog; he is in the habit of covering it four or five inches with crag. A bed of french beans was sown the fame day, but a part of it not cragged. The prodigious superiority of the former is sufficient to convince any one of the immense benefit of this admirable manure.

July 24th. The principal object of this little tour was now at hand, the husbandry of the Sandlings , as they are termed, that is the triangle of country formed by the three points of Woodbridge, Bawdsey Cliff, and Orford. I had, of late years, been exceedingly solicitous to gain a thorough knowledge of the culture of carrots, the great importance of which, I had first learned many years ago in this country; in my various tours through different parts of the kingdom, I had collected much information concerning them; but unfortunately opinions were so various as to the value of the crop, that the question remained quite undecided. About Woodbridge, they have always been in the habit of selling the greatest part of their 12 crops for the London markets, from which it has been conjectured, that the profit of the culture resulted not from the use of them in feeding their horses, but from the sale alone. Another point in dispute also arose concerning even that application: it has been contended, and particularly by several gentlemen in my own neighbourhood, that the utility is only when used in small quantities for the health, but not for the entire support of a team. These points are all of considerable importance; for it is in vain to recommend a great extension of the culture, if we cannot ascertain beyond a shaddow of doubt the value of the crop when it is produced. In conversation on the subject, I had often quoted the practice of the Sandling farmers, but had of late been more than once assured that I had mistaken the matter; for those farmers, so far from trusting to carrots as an entire substitute for corn, were in the constant practice of giving oats at the same time. In all such disquisitions I never, in one moment of my life, had any other object than that of ascertaining the truth; and, therefore, my only regret was, that of having viewed the country without sufficient attention: the moment was now come when I could repair that error, and, by a more minute examination, satisfy myself on a point so interesting to the national agriculture.

The first place we came to was Sutton, on the farm of Mr. Gerrard, where we received the following information: that they ploughed for them but once, which was a double furrow as deep as possible; but Mr. Gerrard put them in on one very deep furrow, the plough drawn by three stout horses. They sow 5 lb. of feed per acre about Lady-day. Begin to hoe at Whitsuntide; three hoeings, in all at from 15 to 18 s. an acre. Ten loads (each 40 bushels topped clean) an acre upon good land, a middling crop; but upon walk land (poor sheep-walks ploughed up) less. I was assured by the workmen that hoed them, that Mr. Gerrard had once 20 loads an acre; a produce so great, that I wished to enquire after it of Mr. Gerrard himself; but the men told me he was not at home. I viewed his field this year of ten acres, which the hoers guessed at six or seven load, they appeared to the eye to be about half a full crop. Last year, Mr. Gerrard had 17 acres which produced nine loads an acre; he sold 100 loads clean roots to London, consequently he had 53 of refuse; that is two thirds saleable; the standing price 1l. 1s. a load. Respecting the use for horses ?they are sold not uncommonly for that use at 15 s. a load. In feeding, they give two loads a week to six horses, with plenty of chaff, without any corn; and that thus fed they will eat very little hay. That the horses are never in such condition as on carrots, and will, upon such food, go thro' all the work of the season, being the best that can be given to a cart-horse; but will not do for horses that are rode fast. They begin to feed with them before christmas, and they continue it sometimes till whitsuntide, those used in the latter part of the season being taken up and housed, to have the land clear for barley sowing. After carrots they sow either pease or barley, both do well. The ten acred piece I saw, was a blowing sand, which they said would produce probably about two quarters an acre of barley the course being 1 carrots, 2 barley, 3 trefoil and ray-grass, two or three years, 4 pease dibbled in with a frame, 5 rye. Another course, 1 turneps, 2 barley, 3 rye or pease. Mr. William Waller, of Sutton, one of the greatest farmers in the neighbourhood, has 2700 acres, ploughs 1000, and has above 1000 sheep.

Advanced next to Shottisham, where I viewed Mrs. Curtis's field of carrots of eight acres, very fine. Sown five pounds an acre on a double furrow; hoed thrice at 18 s. The product guessed at six or seven load; the average ten (each 40 bushels). More than half the crop is saleable. Last year many rotted in the ground; for their practice is to take them up as wanted, except having a store for their own use beforehand in case of frost. In feeding they give six horses a load a week, and a comb of corn, this in the forepart of the winter, when they do not reckon them so good as they are in the spring, then two loads a week and no corn; fed only on corn, even with a great allowance, they would not be in near such order: if oats and carrots given at the same time they leave the oats and eat the carrots. Till lady-day they have straw, after that hay, but eat very little of it, if they have a proper quantity of chaff with the carrots. They could be supported on chaff and carrots only, without either corn or hay, and would be as fat as moles. The expression used was, " That the country could not be supported without them," for they had not hay for such a number of horses, if corn was the food as in other countries.'' This is not the only application, Mr. Linn fatted his bullocks last winter on them late in the spring to great profit. Others have tried it, and found that they do exceedingly well on them. Respecting the effect of the culture as a preparation for corn: they get very clean and good barley after them; but carrots must not be sown in land that is very foul. They chuse a clean barley stubble; if the land is very full of weeds they are too difficult to hoe. Other parts of their management here described were, the course, 1 turneps, fed on the land by sheep and bullocks; 2 barley, two and a half or three quarters on walk land, five quarters on the best; 3 clover, trefoil, and ray-grass, two or three years; 4 pease, dibbled in by a frame, ten holes at a time, at 5 s. an acre; produce two and a half or three quarters; 5 wheat on good land; or rye or barley. They sometimes sow clover, trefoil, and ray-grass, at michaelmas with rye; but it succeeds better in the spring, because only one ploughing is given for the rye. This grain is sown also on barley stubbles, which is very bad management on poor lands; they sow one bushel and gain ten on their walklands. Beans are cultivated on the lower and rich soils, though sand; hoe them twice carefully and sow wheat after, which succeeds well. Flocks not large, but fold the whole year.

Price of labour.

In winter 1 s. 2 d. a.day, and beer.
In spring 1 s. 6 d. and ditto.
Harvest all taken by the acre, but earn one guinea a week for five weeks.
Reaping wheat 5 s.
Ditto rye 2 s. 6 d.
Ditto beans 5 s.
Mowing barley and oats 1 s.
Ditto pease 2 s. 6 d.
Ditto grass 1 s. 8 d.

Proceeded to Ramsholt, where, on repeating our enquiries concerning carrots, we found that they sow five pounds of feed at 1 s. a pound upon a double furrow 14 inches deep, worth 7 s. an acre, hoe thrice at 15 s. to 21 s. an acre. Take up at 14 d. to 16 d. a load, topping included. Mr. Weeden, on 18 acres last year, had eight loads an acre nett for London, and two loads an acre for himself; which crop is an average one. I viewed his field this year, it is 19 acres, a regular and fine crop, without a weed to be seen. Barley is always sown after them, and is as good as that after turneps though fed off, which they attribute to the depth of tillage bringing up old manure to the surface. In regard to the use in feed. ing horses, Mr. Weeden had his on carrots all last winter, and gave them no oats, yet they never did better: five horses are allowed one and a half load (always s 40 bushels to the load) a-week, they begin to feed after christmas, and continue till the end of april; plenty of chaff is given, and the horses do not eat above half the hay they would do if they had no carrots. Mr. Weeden assured me, that if he was obliged to buy his horse-provender, he would purchase refuse carrots at 15 s. a load, rather than oats, unless the latter were so low as 7 s. a comb, then part carrots and part oats. Mr. Bennington, at the dock, would rather buy carrots at 15 s. a load, than oats at 10 s. a comb; and carrots at 12 s. rather than oats at 7 s. Has found them also of admirable use for hogs.

In regard to other branches of husbandry, their course is, 1 turneps, 2 barley, 3 clover and ray-grass one or two years, but the latter fills the land with spear-grass (triticum repens ) 4 pease or wheat.

When lands are much run to spear-grass, they are exceedingly attentive to cleaning, even to harrowing 30 or 40 times. Mr. Weeden shewed me a field he harrowed 36 times; and Mr. Mapson, who is in the farm that was Mr. Waller's, gave 40 harrowings to another, to get out that pernicious weed. In manuring, they bring fea ouze from the marshes, and mix it with crag for their uplands. I should observe, that all this country seems to be upon a foundation of red shell marle, here called crag , pits are seen on every farm, some very large and deep, from which immense quantities have been taken for the original improvement of the district when it was first broken up from its waste state. Nor do I suppose a nobler improvement is any where to be seen, than the conversion of this great extent of country from heaths of 4 d. 6 d. 1 s. and 1 s. 6 d. an acre, to admirably cultivated fields, covered with fine crops of turneps, corn, and carrots, and let at 5 s. 10 s. and 15 s. an acre. The use of crag is, however, dropped, except for taking in new walk -land; on old improved fields they never lay it on alone, but mix it either with dung, earth, or ouze, thinking that it makes the light sands blow more. Over the river at Felixtow is more crag-land, and the finest soil in the county; lets much at 25 s. an acre.

The breed of horses in all this country is one of the distinguishing peculiarities of it, they are all of a sorrel colour, short legs, great carcases, large ill-made heads, sloutching ugly ears, and low fore-hands; worse points for a coach or saddle-horse could hardly be named; but for the true cart breed these are essential. I am sorry to remark, that they have, for some years, been changing their breed: I was here in 1764, and in 1776, to buy horses for my own farm; again in 1779 to buy for my friend Mr. Samborski, and I think, upon the whole, that they had incomparably more true-bred horses 20 years ago, than they have at present; prided themselves more upon their teams; had a greater spirit and emulation in this point, of which the custom of drawing team against team, the best of twenty pull , was a proof. They trained their horses to the draught attentively, to make them draw in concert at the word of command; and that team that obeyed the best and oftenest in twenty exertions, drawing in a waggon loaded with sand, the wheels sunk and obstructed, gained the prize, usually a silver cup. I leave it to people of reflection, to consider whether there would not be more good sense in giving royal rewards to the victors in such matches as these, which encourage a race of horses useful in a superior degree, rather than for running races with a breed that is good for nothing else; and which has no other tendency than to vitiate, weaken, and destroy the strong race that would serve well for the cavalry, for the coach, and for the road. The worst circumstance to be found in the Suffolk breed at present, is the change they are bringing on in the shape of the horse; they aim a great deal too much at breeding for a handsome forehand, head, and ears; and a lighter carcase, for using in coaches and chaises as well as in carts. It is true they succeed well, for no coach-horse is to be found that will go through more labour than a Suffolk Punch , if he is not driven more than six miles an hour; or seven if of a very light form: but improvements in objects of luxury are contemptible, on comparison with those which take place in the farmer's walk, of a strong, powerful, and hardy race. This is the only country in England in which I wish the use of oxen may not be introduced, because it is a national object to have to fine a breed of cart-horses perpetuated. But it is greatly to be hoped, that some sensible intelligent farmer, whose business is on a large scale, may give his attention to preserving the true original breed uncontaminated by any modern improvements.

One horse of this breed belonging to Mr. Weeden, and which we saw, drew 25 comb of wheat in a waggon up hill for more than 12 rod; but he offered to make a bett with Mr. Lowzoski, that he would draw 30 comb on the same ground: what would not a team of these horses draw in one-horse carts with iron axles and five-feet wheels ! five or six quarters of wheat would be a common load.

Proceeded next to Alderton, where we found that Mr. Abblet had eight acres of carrots, but last year 20.2 He thought that six horses should not have more than one load a-week, one bushel per horse a-day a proper allowance: but they keep the horses so fed in such health, that he thinks the saving of hay is not considerable. The food he should prefer would be both oats and carrots, one peck of oats to a bushel of roots. If he was forced to buy horse food, he would prefer carrots at 15 s. to oats at 10 s. Culture and produce as before described.

Called next on Mr. Wimper, a gentleman farmer of the same place, very sensible and intelligent, who obligingly informed us, that he generally gives oats to his horses as well as carrots; not because they would not do upon the roots and chaff, but because he has usually a greater stock of horses, &c. than breadth of carrots, and therefore he limits the use of them. If forced to buy his horse-food, he would prefer refuse carrots at 12 s. to oats at 9 s. Fortunately I put to this gentleman a question which I had before omitted, Would you cultivate carrots if there was no sale for them? To which he replied, That he would undoubtedly have a few; as many as his consumption demanded; not only for his horses, but for his weanling calves, to whom he gave as many as they would eat; and also for pigs, and sows with pigs, in which application they are particularly useful. That calves must thrive greatly on them, I have not a doubt, for I saw many young cattle, oxen, and fat beasts, of Mr. Wimper's breed, which were in every respect very noble beasts, and proved, from their age, how well they must have been fed when young. Respecting the produce, the average on land of 10 s. an acre, &c. is about nine or ten loads; and four or five on walk-land. The total expence of an acre about 3 l. 3 s.: if nine loads the crop, the prime cost is 7 s. a load. Sometimes has seen as good barley after them, as after turneps fed but it is not common.

From hence to Hollesley, where repeated our enquiries: they chuse the best land they have, which is the red soil, double furrow it 14 inches deep, sow five or six pounds of feed at lady-day, the price from 9 d. to 18 d.; hoe thrice at from 18 s. to 21 s. but if the land is very clean 16 s. The common price of taking up 1 s. a load; sometimes up to 1s. 4d. topping included, it is done with spades. On good land average produce 10 or 12 loads: but on heath not more than five or six. Three-fourths of the crop nett roots for sale. As good barley after them as after fed turneps, but not always: generally good. In the application of the crop not sold, they give them to horses with plenty of chaff, but in general no corn while on carrots; nor will they eat so much hay as if they were fed on oats: calculate the saving at more than a fourth. Some farmers give as many carrots as they will eat; but in general about two bushels each horse a-day. The selling price 12 s. to 14 s. a load for the refuse roots.

Before I quit this country, I may remark, that I was much struck all through it, to find the Lombordy poplar so generally introduced; there is scarcely a house without some, and many of them very finely grown. But the cause to which this and other circumstances may be referred, is an article that escaped me when I was here before. It is, there being a great number of landlords the occupiers of their own lands. Alderton especially, is full of them; gentlemen farmers from 200 to 500l. a-year, who cultivating their own property, do it with a spirit that very few leases will permit. Within a very few years there ate a great number of well-built brick houses, with inclosed and well-managed gardens; many new cottages; much planting; which, added to the excellent husbandry in the fields, give a beautiful appearance to the country, and prove, beyond a million of arguments, the admirable effects which flow from a wealthy yeomanry; a race of men so greatly decreased in this kingdom; and is a strong confirmation of what I have more than once remarked, that it is not the union of little farms we should complain of, but the accumulation of little estates, which, when they happen to be cultivated by their owners, promote, beyond any thing else, the prosperity of the national agriculture.

All this country abounds greatly in game, especially pheasants, which are so plentiful, that every little copse is full of them. At Boyton Mr. Woolnough, when I was here before, had them in his garden, and in severe weather they come to the corn stacks: besides a general plenty of game country abounds greatly with the best sorts of fresh water fish: there is not a pond, or scarcely a large dyke at Alderton, Hollesley, Shottisham, or Bawdsey, that has not good carp and tench; carp rise to eight pound each, tench four pound, perch two pounds; and there are several fresh water creeks that communicate with the sea, in which they abound of the largest size; when to this we add wild fowl in plenty, a dry sandy but fertile soil, and the sea contiguous almost to every parish, it will not be doubted that few parts of the kingdom possess so many circumstances to make a residence in every respect plentiful, and in most agreeable I know but one drawback; in the spots near the marshes they are plagued with agues, but the high sandy situations are free from them. Those marshes are narrow tracts on the river.

Next we went to Capel St. Andrews. Mr. Gross's great farm of 2700 acres, of whom, repeating our enquiries, we found, that he had been accustomed to cultivate carrots, even to last year, but his crops were so eaten up by the innumerable number of hares which his landlord, Lord Archibald Hamilton, preserved, that he has determined to sow no more. In these cases the tenant doubtless has his recompense in the rent, but the public has none. The profusion of game in this and another of his lordship's farms, Butley Abbey, Mr. Chandler's, which are together above 5000 acres, puts a barrier to good husbandry, and prevents one of the best articles of culture in the kingdom from spreading. It is not only the hares that do the mischief, but their preservation nurses up a breed of rabbits which add to the evil. The reflection I have added is my own, and not the farmer's, who seemed very well inclined to second his landlord's wishes.

When Mr. Gross did use carrots, he gave his horses each one bushel a-day with chaff, but no oats; and assured me, that he had much rather feed on carrots than on oats; also that they save more than half the hay; he has known his horses, after feeding on this root, refuse their hay entirely. On other points of husbandry-the course on poor walk-lands, 1 turneps, 2 barley, 3 trefoil and ray-grass for four years, 4 rye or pease, 5, if the preceding year pease, rye. On good land, 1 turneps, 2 barley, 3 clover, 4 beans, 5 wheat, than which there can hardly be devised a better rotation.

I shall here add a minute I took in 1779, when I viewed the country on the coast.- At Orford I was so fortunate as to be introduced to Mr. Wade, a very sensible, intelligent, gentleman farmer, who had an opportunity, last year, of making a curious observation on the effect of the sea breaking over his marsh land. He had a crop of wheat which was under the salt water 24 hours, and entirely killed; in the spring he sowed it with oats, but they did not come up; the first week. in june with buck-wheat, which did not sprout; he then sowed rape, which vegetated and is like to be a crop: this experience may be of use to others in the same situation. I walked into his crop of Windsor beans, and had the pleasure to find them in a degree of garden cleanness.

He remarked to me, that there is no greater improvement here, than ploughing marsh-land grass in order to lay down again, which I can believe, provided very few crops are taken; the course good, and the grass feeds of the right sort.

The culture of carrots was, some years ago, more common about Orford than at present, supposed to be owing to the great improvements in the sands near the Woodbridge river which have rivalled them in the supply of the London market.

Viewed the remains of the castle, which appears to be built of sea ouze petrified; there is a piece of timber sticking out of the wall, very high in it, and exposed to all weathers for some centuries; I would have given something to have examined it, but the situation is quite inaccessible. In the church is a handsome organ, the gift of the Earl of Hartford in 1772. Antiquarians reckon the remains of the chancel very curious, indicating a great antiquity; the pillars are most of them wrought in different forms, some spirally twisted, and others in fanciful compartments.

Mr. Jackson, the rector, was so obliging as to favour me with a sight of the parish register, which I was desirous to examine, in order to see if population had declined here, with the undoubted declention of the commerce and navigation of the place since 1538, no such circumstance is apparent.

Left Orford. Towards Snape, the country for two or three miles is a sand, after which, three miles over that narrow tract of poor sand covered with heath, which extends almost to Loestoff. It is, however, highly improveable; there is much fern, (petris aquilina ) nettles (urtica ) &c. as well as heath (erica vulgaris ) which prove the soil not to class with the pure barren sands; and on the edge of it, I observed a pit of clay marle, so that there are stores of manure under the surface wherewith to improve it. Leaving Snape, entered a fine rich tract of sandy loam, at 20 s. an acre. About Leiston are many carrots: few farmers of any consideration but have 10 or 12 acres every year; they have, however, a bad custom of continuing them on the same field for four or five years. The carrot culture improves the soil so much, that two years are the most they should be continued, by which means the larger tract receive the benefit, I have no doubt, from the situation of there consuming all themselves.

Farms here are very large, up to 300, 400, and 500 l. a-year. The common course of crops is, 1 turneps, 2 barley, 3 clover, 4 wheat; and they cannot have a better for husbandry that is carried on upon a large scale.

Cabbages in the field for cattle have been cultivated by several farmers for more than 20 years, it declined eight or ten years ago, but of late has increased again; they have up to 10 and 15 acres a man. Plant them in rows from two to three feet asunder, and hand-hoe enough to keep them clean; they give them to all sorts of cattle; but when cows eat them, the butter is as bad as from turneps. They reckon an acre much more valuable than the best turneps.

Patches of hemp through all this country.

Leave Leiston. View the abbey, which shew in its ruins the grandeur it once possessed; the farmer who lives at it, assured me, no manure he has tried is better than the mortar rubbish of the walls. Crossing a bridge in a marsh, enter the farm of Mr. Robinson, tenant to Sir Gerard Vanneck. It is extremely large, and the rent 700 l. a year, the road passes through it for three miles, and it extends very much to both right and left. Here are three of the greatest farms in the county contiguous, Mr. Robinson's, Mr. Howlett's, and Mr. Sparke's, their rent together is above 2000 l. a year. Crossed Mr. Howlett's tenant to Sir John Blois, for a considerable distance, who appears to carry on his business with admirable spirit. His fields are very large, from 100 to 130 acres each, and were now covered with as fine corn as ever I beheld, without a weed to be seen. I passed through one of oats, which I should not guess at less than eight or nine quarters an acre; and viewed barley that must yield five or six at least; and wheat to four and four and a half: a glorious spectacle! such crops when covering so large an extent of land. His course of crops has been 1 clay on the old waste, or new clover and rye-grass lays, and dibbles in pease on one plougbing; 2 wheat; 3 turneps; 4 barley or oats; 5 clover and ray-grass for three years; which is admirable husbandry. In claying, his exertions have been considerable: and he uses for it (as do all his neighbours) three-wheeled one-horse carts only, which, from experience, he finds the most profitable method of moving manure, whatever the distance. He has had 30 of these carts at work at a time.

He has tried a second claying, nine or ten years after the first, and found it to answer perfectly well.

Came next to Mr. Sparke's farm, Sir John Rouss, the landlord, who is famous for the great quantity of stock he keeps on a corn farm. Last winter he fattened 130 oxen, and 70 score of Wiltshire wethers. He uses great quantities of oil-cake, and in a manner not common, for he gives the cake one day and turneps the other, alternately. All through this country they carry off half the crop of turneps, and feed the other half on the land.

Pass Wrentham, Bennacre, where Sir Thomas Gooch has a very large house, with a plain, handsome, and extensive front; to Pakefield and Loestoff, in which line the agriculture is by no means equal to what I had lately gone through.

Follow the shore to Loestoff; the principal support of the place is the herring-fishery, in which they have 40 boats, each of 40 tons, which they build themselves, at the expence of about 6 to 7 l. a ton: to each boat there are two fleets of nets, the price of which are 300 l. Each boat requires eleven men. They catch from 10 to 40 last of herrings per boat; average 20; and the mean price 12 l. a last, rising from 6 to 20 l. A last requires 5 Ct. of salt. The men are paid wages, except the master, mate, and one other; these by the last. To four herring smacks, there are two boats employed in landing the herrings; they are carried immediately to the salting house, washed in fresh water, spitted, and hung up in drying-lofts; fires are made under them, the fuel oak, elm, or ash billet, cut out of the arms of timber trees; other wood not so good; when dried, they are packed up in barrels and shipped for the mediterranean. The nets and casks are all made in the town. The boats are laid up all the year, except from september 22, to november 22, which is the season. If built larger than 40 tons, they are not so well for the fishery.

Both this town and Yarmouth have as many smacks as ever; yet the trade is much declined in the three or four last years; owing not to a want of fish or demand, but to the expences of all sorts rising. Dr. Campbell, in his account of Loestoff, takes no notice of this almost only branch of trade; but speaks of a lobster-fishery here, which has no existence. There is a manufactory of china belonging to Mr. Walker, which employs about 70 hands.

What is here called the Island, which is a Hundred, is a pleasing, and, in many respects, a most eligible country; besides the sea which skirts it on one side, it contains four or five broads , lakes of from 100 to 500 acres, and is nearly surrounded on two sides by a considerable river. There is every where a pleasing inequality of surface; much wood; great plenty of game; and fishing in a perfection scarcely any where else to be met with. A lake of 300 acres, and a little farm, with a house, were let here, not many years ago, for 12 l. a year.

Husbandry, in the island, is by no means perfect. Their course, 1 turneps, 2 barley, 3 clover, 4 wheat, 5 barley, 6 pease; they assured me, that clover sown once in four years fails, but does very well in six; it comes up finely, but dies away in march. The soil is generally sandy, lets much of it from 15 to 20 s. an acre.-

Now to return from this retrograde digression. - Passed over some poor land, commons, and uninteresting husbandry, till we came to Wantesden; where, on making further enquiries, we found, that Mr. Curteen, of the Hall, has four acres of CARROTS FOR HIS OWN CONSUMPTION ONLY, giving them to his horses. Mr. Simpson was, for many years, on the same farm, and constantly in the same practice, always had a crop for his horses, and neither he nor Mr. Curteen ever sold a load to London. Here, at last, after a research that has employed me from time to time for years, I have found what I wished. I had my intelligence from a labourer that worked with Mr. Curteen; it was soon after confirmed by a neighbouring farmer, who said there were some others in the same practice as well as Mr. Curteen, I would have gone to his house and searched the adjoining country for more instances, but the day was closing, and we were obliged, not only to reach Saxmundham at night, but to hasten home on engagements.

Here ends our carrot intelligence; it will not be, therefore, improper to review the day, and bring into one point of view, the several particulars we have gained. Without recurring to every article of the culture, it will be sufficient to touch only upon the principal objects which have been the subject of doubt and disquisition.

At Sutton , six horses two loads a week; no corn; and eat little hay.

At Shottisham , six horses one load a week with corn; in the spring two loads without corn: eat little hay.

At Ramsholt , six horses 72 bushels a week; no oats; and half the hay saved.

At Alderton , six horses 42 bushels a week; oats given; and saving of hay not considerable.

At Ditto , oats given because not carrots enough.

At Hollesley , six horses two loads a week; no corn; more than a fourth of the hay saved.

At Capel , six horses one load a week; no corn; save more than half the hay.

Upon reviewing these circumstances it appears, that two loads a week are a very large allowance, probably more than are necessary; seeing that with 72 bushels at one place which is 13/4, and one load at another, all the corn is saved; let us therefore decide, that when six horses eat 80 bushels of carrots a week, which is 13 bushels a week for one horse, they want no corn whatever, and will eat only half the hay of corn fed ones. This will enable us to ascertain the value tolerably, though not exactly, because we do not know what would be the fair allowance of oats to balance such feeding with carrots. The whole turn of the intelligence ran upon the vast superiority of condition in which horses are kept by carrots, to that which is the result of corn-feeding, for this evident reason, carrots are given nearly, if not quite, in as large quantities as the horses will eat; but oats are never given in such a manner, they are always portioned out in an allowance very far short of such plenty. A quarter and half of oats would, I am persuaded, from the general turn of every man's conversation, be inferior to two loads of carrots: this at 20 s. is 1 l. 10 s. there is to be added the saving of half the hay, which may be called ten pounds per horse a day, or six pounds per week, which at 50 s. a ton is 1 s. 4 d. per horse, and 8 s. for six, which added to 1 l. 10 s. for corn, makes in all 1 l. 18 s. against 80 bushels; or 19 s. a load: and that this is a moderate calculation, appears from the decided preference given by several of the farmers in favour of carrots at 15 s. a load, against oats at 20 s. a quarter, not reckoning the carrots by any arbitrary estimation, but supposing themselves forced to buy the one or the other.

The prime cost is calculated at 7 s. a load; and that this is fair, will appear by the following articles,

Rent, tythe, and poor rates, . 0 15 0
Ploughing, 0 7 0
Harrowing, 0 1 0
Seed and sowing, 0 6 0
Hoeing, 0 18 0
Taking up 10 loads, at 1 s. 2d. 0 11 8
--------
2 18 8
--------

The tenth of which is 5 s. 10 d. or per bushel 1 d. call it, however, 2d. per bushel, or 6 s. 8d. per load; and, if to square with one artiole of intelligence it is made 7 s. it will not amount to 2d. the bushel. Here, therefore, another view opens upon us, which is the farmer's profit ; the carrots are worth in feeding his team 15 s. but they cost him only 7 s. he has, therefore, the advantage of 8 s. a load as the grower, on all his horses consume, and on an average 4 l. an acre.

Another way by which my friend Mr. Lowzoski made his calculaion, was this,

At one load and a half of carrots, nine loads a moderate acre, lasts six horses six weeks (N. B. He was inclined to think from the intelligence, that one load and a half ought to be esteemed the proper quantity) and save six qrs. of oats, which at 20 s. is, . 6 0 0
3Ct. of hay a week saved 21 Ct. at 2s.6d 2 12 6
--------
8 12 6
The carrots may cost 3 3 0
--------
Farmer's profit pet acre by feeding horses 5 9 6
--------

It admits of various calculations; but view it in any light you please, the result is nearly, though not exactly the same.

Two facts result most clearly from this intelligence; that horses will do upon them as well as upon oats; and that this application will not only pay the charges of culture, but leave a profit , nearly, if not quite as great as the gross produce of a common crop of wheat. No wonder, therefore, the farmers cultivate them for their own use alone, without any view to a tale.

It should further be remarked, that this result takes place, not in a district where the horses are poor mean animals that betray a want of good food; but, on the contrary, amongst the finest teams, without any comparison that are to be found in England, and that these teams are fattest, and in the highest condition, when they are supported by carrots. No greater proof of the excellency of the food can be wished for, than the horses going through the barley-sowing upon it, and the root doing better at that season of hard labour than earlier in the winter: this seems to speak the heartiness as well as wholesomness of the food. One conclusion very naturally arises from this part of the intelligence; that the crop, or a considerable part of it, ought to be taken up in autumn and packed in a barn; in which they would much sooner lose their juicyness, and acquire that more withered state, in which they are found to yield the best nourishment.

The next circumstance to be attended to, is the advantage of the plant as a preparation for corn; all the preceding minutes agree, that the barley after them is good and clean; several persons were inclined to think it equal to that after turneps fed on the ground; but the fair result is evidently, that if carrots were so fed, the barley would be much superior; of this the intelligence will not permit us to doubt. It is, however, fair to observe, that they one and all declare for putting them in upon clean land, and in this course, 1 turneps, 2 barley, 3 carrots, 4 barley, &c. from which it appears, that on these sandy soils they are not to be depended upon for cleaning them when foul with spear-grass.

I cannot conclude the subject, without earnestly calling on all persons who have sands, or light sandy loams, to determine to emancipate themselves from the chains in which prejudice, or indolence, have bound them. To cultivate this admirable root largely and vigorously; to give it the best soil they have; to plough very deep; to hoe with great spirit; and to banish corn from their stables, as a mere luxury and barren expence that ought to be extirpated; an effect that flows very fairly from the preference which the sagacious four-footed inhabitant universally gives to carrots.

July 25th, left Saxmundham, and took the road to Heveningham, the magnificent seat of Sir Gerrard Vanneck; I had not viewed it before; and, it was with great pleasure I found there had at last arisen a structure in Suffolk deserving the attention of travellers: our sister county Norfolk had long been thus decorated. Those who make the Norfolk Tour, will now find it essential to take Heveningham in their way to that county. Mistley and Woolverston unite to call for such a conduct. These papers are already so much more voluminous than l expected to make them, that I can touch on but few circumstances of this magnisicent residence: the house is an old one repaired with additions, and is certainly a master-piece of contrivance and ability in the architect.3 The apartments are large, the disposition convenient, the ornaments elegant The dinning room and library will more than satisfy; they must please every eye. The situation of the house is on the side of a hill, backed by plantations, and flanked by two very noble woods of full grown oak, it slopes down to a vale through which the water, large enough to be interesting, is made to wind; the opposite lawn which spreads upon another hill, is prettily scattered with wood in the modern and just taste. Sixteen miles of a riding levelled, laid to grass, and kept mown for convenience, conducts to the principal points of view. It is well traced through a great variety of ground; close woods, open groves, lawns, meadow, cornground, &c. in a pleasing succession: every view commands a rich and fertile woodland country; but the most pleasing points are those, where the house and water unite to form a confined landskip through a foreground of some large oaks: and from the hill where the water is first seen rising from Queen Elizabeth's oak. Those scenes are magnificent. That tree is a most venerable one tradition reports, that the Queen hid herself in it (for it was then hollow) to shoot the deer as they passed. We measured it, 33 feet4 in circumference 5 feet from the ground.

To Framlingham by Yoxford. About that place the country very beautiful, slight hill and dale, well wooded, and highly dressed from many seats; Mr. Staunton's, Sir John Blois, (Mr. Archdeacon lives in it) Sir John Rouss, Mr. Crawford, Mr. Davy, &c.

Entering now the region of the true Suffolk polled cows, which are unexceptionably the finest in England for milking, we made enquires; dairies rise to 40 and 50; the points they attend to are these-a long body, large carcass, clean throat, snake-headed, thin tail, and short leg; they give six gallons a day in the height of the season. Scarcely any farmer without a field of cabbages. To 40 cows they will have 8 or 10 acres, the sort the great scotch and american; get good barley after them, and very clean. The course, 1 fallow, 2 barley, 3 clover, 4 wheat, 5 beans twice hoed, 6 wheat, which is an excellent rotation for those who think fallowing essential. Wheat is rarely sown upon it, beans and clover giving finer and cleaner crops. Rents 13 to 16 s. an acre.

July 26th, leave Framlingham, after viewing the castle and church; the road to Debenham leads through the midst of the great dairies. The soil very rich and admirably adapted to grass. I went into some new lays, and found the luxuriance of growth wonderful; in some of the richest, the great staple of the herbage consisted of, 1 trifolium repens ; 2 plantago lanceolata ; 3 ranunculus repens . The two first excellent plants, that are ever abounding in fine pastures; and the last usually in low meadows. In other very richones, I was surprised to find great quantities of the ononis spinosa , which Hudson says, habitat in pascuis sterilioribus ; but abounds here in very rich soils. Viewed many dairies, and was exceedingly pleased with the breed; they are very fine beasts to the eye of a man accustomed to good milkers. We saw one very ill made cow, in respect to roundness of carcass, milked, and she gave a three-gallon pail quite full, which is not uncommon in this country; some few give four gallons twice a day. They prefer oat-straw in winter for their cows to any other; next wheat-straw; and, last of all, that of barley, which is much the worst. For the cows that give milk at that season, cabbages or hay are the food, especially the former; and many give both, only baiting with cabbages. About Earl Soham, they are of opinion, that one good acre of cabbages will do for seven or eight cows, giving as much food as three of turneps; they make the cows give more and better butter than turneps; and are, besides, excellent for all sorts of cattle, as sheep, hogs, &c. They plant 7000 on an acre as early as they can from a spring sowing; they get good barley after them, yet are of opinion that they exhaust the land; but in carting them off, it is not so much damaged as with turneps, nor such holes left to retain water. I viewed many pieces, but none that were so fine as Mr. Salter's, who informed me, that he dunged one part of his field at the rate of 60 loads of compost per acre, and the other part 30 loads; the former were much the finer, but the whole promised to be an exceedingly fine crop. He has no doubt of being able to sell them for 6 l. an acre, if he was willing; he wished he had planted the whole field, one part being in turneps. The course here is, 1 fallow, 2 barley five or six qrs. 3 beans or clover, 4 wheat. The soil is a rich, moist, friable loam, on a strong blue clay. Rent 20 s. Some pieces 40 s. an acre rent, tythe, and rates.

From Framlingham, for six miles of the way to Debenham, we tried Mr. Laurents's experiment5 of the proportion of the several crops, and found, that in 129 fields, the parts were,

Grass, 54
Wheat, 24
Barley, 6
Oats, 5
Beans, 11
Cabbages, 11
Turneps, 3
Pease, 3
Fallow, 6
Clover, 1
Winter tares, 3
Hemp, 2
------
129
------

But, from observation, we determined that the result is by no means exact. The grass fields were on an average smaller than the arable; and the farm-houses being near the road, brought the grass to be more contiguous to us. The cabbage pieces were most of them small. The hemp the same, and the real proportion of clover much more. This sketch, however, is enough to prove the country very well arranged.

About Debenham, the great dairies continue. Mr. Hawes, of Wetheringsett, had 101 cows, but now grazes many beasts, having lessened his dairy. The price of their best cows 8 l. 8 s. to pick a dairy. Much better butter from cabbages than from turneps, and more of it: the crop worth 5 or 6l. an acre; but never rises to 10 l. They are reckoned to draw the land more than turneps. I asked, if the barley after them, was as much inferior to that after turneps, as their value exceeded that of turneps? They thought not. The value of cabbages through all this country must be very great, from the vast consumption there is of hay. Mr. Steptow has 35 cows, and about 20 head of young cattle, which, with his team, eat last winter 100 loads of hay. The course, 1 fallow, 2 batley five qrs. 3 clover, 4 wheat, 3 qrs. 5 beans, 6 wheat.

At Stonham Aspal, I had the pleasure of calling on Mr. Toosey, and took a hasty walk over his excellently cultivated farm. His lucerne, in the second year, transplanted, is very fine; and, as this plant does not come nearly to perfection till the third year, Mr. Toosey has planted rows of cabbages between those of lucerne, a very good thought, which will make the land answer well for waiting for the improvement of the principal crop. The whole was perfectly clean and free from every weed. I viewed also his cabbages, five acres of very fine plants, and in a truly garden degree of cleanness. He is a great advocate for this crop on strong soils: finds their use for all sorts of cattle very great: one acre maintains four cows the winter, with the assistance of straw; and, as he has found that a cow will eat two ton of hay, every good acre of cabbages consequently saves eight tons of hay; if half a ton is allowed at calving it is a deduction of two, the remaining six at only 40 s. are 12 l. for the acre of cabbages. When land is in proper order he does not find that cabbages exhaust; has had 10 quarters of oats per acre after them.

Mr. Toosey has been some years a very attentive practiser of Mr. Bakewell's cattle-husbandry. His farm consists of 70 acres, in very compleat management, as may be easily collected from the quantity of cattle it supports; viz. 25 sheep, 8 horses and colts, 3 working oxen, 4 cows, 1 bull, 16 beasts, heifers, and steers, in the succession system, bred and sold fat steers, or with a calf if heifers; all which cattle are kept by 50 acres of grass, of which 12 are mown for hay: from 5 to 12 of cabbages, 8 of straw. But he buys, as every good husbandman should, as much straw and stubble as he can.

His cattle are of Bakewell's breed, which is, in one word, giving them sufficient praise: the bull which he calls Twopenny from that of Bakewell's, of which I gave an account in my Eastern Tour , is, in every respect, a very fine one, particularly in the breadth and straitness of his back, the barrel carcass, and the short leg. He leaps cows at half a guinea, at which rate many have been brought to him, which shews that there is some taste in this country for breeding. The cows and other cattle whole bred, for Mr. Toosey bought cows and heifers of Mr. Bakewell as well as Twopenny, are of a very perfect mould. In tying up all his cattle, Mr. Toosey copies Bakewell's system; they are all tied up to straw, or hay and cabbages; littered well, and cleaned twice a day; the dung piled up against the sheds, and the urine, every drop of which is saved, thrown regularly on it. The water from the eves of the building is all conveyed away, that it may not dilute the urine, an attention that cannot be too much commended. The sheep are equally well made with the cattle; some few he sells for the breed, but gets from 30 s. to 3 l. for two year old wethers from the butchers.

A practice in which this gentleman is perfectly original, is that of stall-feeding his sheep in winter; he does it exactly in the same manner as with oxen, having racks and mangers provided for the purpose. It is only experience that can decide on the project; perhaps an animal so well defended against the cold by his fleece, should never be kept hot: it must be essential, in executing this plan, to have the sheds as open as possible, and to allow a good distance from sheep to sheep.

Upon occasion of straw and stobble being scarce, Mr. Toosey bedded all his cattle with sand, and found that, with a small addition of litter, it did very well; he left it off merely because of the expence of carriage, as he had three miles to go for it. The heaps of dung, just mentioned, are moved to the compost heap several times in a year, as by frequent stitring he can rot it in three months, it is then mixed with earth and chalk. This system I conceive to be erroneous-that the oftener dung is moved, the more of its virtue is lost; that a slow fermentation reduces dung to that mucilaginous state in which it should be used, with much less loss than an accelerated fermentation, which, from frequent stirrings, carries off so much of the volatile alkali, that the remaining mass is robbed of its richest qualities. In general, however, Mr. Toosey, by buying straw, &c. bringing chalk seven miles, raising a large quantity of dung, and saving all the urine, keeps his farm in most rich order, and secures very large crops. It requires two men in winter to take care of the above cattle, move the dung, and bring cabbages, but they have leisure time, which is employed in chalk cart.

In his cabbage culture, he frequently aims at having a crop of corn between the rows. The ridges are from three feet and a half to four feet, on which he plants a double row of beans in march, very near each other; and, at midsummer, taking off a furrow on each side with the plough, throws up a little ridge in the thorough, on which he plants the row of cabbages; when the beans are removed, the ridge where they grow is cultivated and becomes the thorough to the new ridges on which the cabbages remain. In this manner he gets from five to seven combs an acre. Prefers the mazagan sort, because they are off soonest. Sets in march, and gets them off by the 25th of july, removing the sheaves into a grass field to dry. Charlton pease, wheat, and oats, he has managed in the same manner, getting three combs of pease, as much wheat, and up to ten combs of oats, which is very considerable.

Has had 23 combs of Tartarian oats pet acre, over the whole of a small field.

I have said nothing of Mr. Toosey's black horses. They would figure greatly in any part of England, Suffolk only excepted; but the breed which I have already described, are so superior to all others, that I have not a more earnest wish than their universal reception, to the utter exclusion of every black breed.

This very accurate and ingenious cultivator is about to emigrate to Canada. He has accepted the office of minister of the church of England there; and means to transmit his cattle, his implements, and his knowledge, to the desarts of the New World. It is of course to his personal advantage; but, as an englishman, I regret that any circumstance should deprive my country of the services of a man, whose taste has taken a decided turn in favour of agriculture. Every man who actually steps beyond the skill of his neighbours, should receive encouragement AT HOME, and proper means be taken to enable him to call his talents into full exertion, for the benefit, not of himself, but his country. But that nobler part of the government of a great empire, which consists in promoting, by due encouragement, the activity of well employed individuals in the pursuits to which their genius leads, is the last consideration of english ministers, whose conduct is sure to convince the subject, that it is of little consequence in what manner talents are employed-A Newton on a shoeblack's stool instead of a professor's chair-A Priestley mending old cloaths, not making experiments-A Brindley driving a carrier's waggon instead of directing a canal-And a Harrison employed on spatterdashes not time - pieces - All would be the same to the government of this kingdom. But thanks to the vigour which liberty inspires- genius sometimes makes its way and doubly triumphs over public neglect and the difficulties of private life.

At Stonham we were within two miles of Crowfield, the seat of Mr. Middleton; I shall copy the minute I took there a year ago.

" About Crowfield, the soil very wet, but rich good loam on clay and clay-marle: hollow draining is done by the farmers, but not the twentieth part that ought to be. I observed no farm without a small field of cabbages, which they take off the land in carts for their cows, &c. Mr. Middleton's father began this husbandry about 25 years ago, but was not imitated by any of the common farmers. Land lets at 14 to 16 s. an acre.

The present Mr. Middleton pursues the cabbage husbandry with great spirit and success. He had this year 20 acres; but the extreme unfavour ableness of the season, has rendered the crop very small in comparison of what he has had in former years. Yet he values them (for cattle) at 40 s. an acre. His method of culture is to sow the feed, half a pound for every intended acre, the first open weather in february; the american sort, which comes to a great size, and lasts good very late in the spring. The field being well ploughed, manured with from 20 to 30 loads an acre of dung and earth compost, and left on three-feet ridges; the plants are set one row on each ridge the first favourable weather in june, the sooner the better, two feet and a half from plant to plant. He horse-hoes the furrows, and keeps the rows clean by hand-hoeing.

I made many enquiries relative to the corn that followed cabbages, whether they were to be esteemed an exhausting crop or not; accounts were various and contradictory; but the balance seemed to be in favour of the first opinion, that they exhausted considerably.

It is proper to observe, that the contracts for four-crout have very much spread this branch of agriculture within reach of the shipping at Ipswich, as some gentlemen have sold them at high prices. Mr. Middleton 10 l. an acre; Mr. Acton, of Bramford6 13 l. an acre.

In fattening an ox, Mr. Middleton remarked a circumstance highly deserving of attention; he killed one that was 14 years old, having been worked many years, and the beef, contrary to expectation, was remarkably fine; the fore quarters uncommonly so, the drawing having given the beef a finer grain than usual. This is a valuable fact, for it not only proves that working makes good beef, but also, that a man may keep his oxen at work as long as they will move well, without any apprehension of their not fatting well when aged."

Upon a former occasion7 I had examined the culture of hops at Stowmarket, and shall insert here the notes I took.

In the neighbourhood of that place there are about 200 acres of them; but 18 or 20 acres are grubbed up and turned to meadow within two years, owing to the badness of the times. The soil they plant on, is a black loose moor, on a gravelly bottom, very wet and boggy, lying on a dead level with the little river that runs by the town; the more boggy and loose it is, the better the hops thrive, especially if the gravel be within three feet; the neighbouring grounds rise in such a manner as to shelter them very well. Before planting, these morassy bottoms were coarse meadow, worth about 20 s. an acre, and some much less. In preparing them for hops, they form them into beds 16 feet wide, by digging trenches about three feet wide, and two feet, or two feet and a half deep, the earth that comes out being spread upon the beds, and the whole dug and levelled. Immediately upon this, they, in march, form the holes six feet asunder every way, 12 inches diameter, and a spit deep, consequently there are three rows on each bed. Into each hole they put about half a peck of very rotten dung, or rich compost, scatter earth upon it, and plant seven sets in each, drawing earth enough to them afterwards to form something of a hillock. Some persons in the first year sow french beans, or beans, and plant cabbages, but not reckoned a good way by Mr. Rout, to whose obliging communication I owe the particulars from which I draw this account: in about two or three weeks, but according to the season, they will be fit to pole with old short poles, to which they tie all the shoots or vines, and then keep the land clean by hoeing and raking; at midsummer they hill them. The produce the first year will be three, four, and even five hundred weight of hops pet acre. After this they reckon them as a common plantation, and manage accordingly.

Manure is not always given regularly; but amounts, upon an average, to 10 loads a year, value 5 s. a load in the plantation. They keep it till it would run through a sieve, which they prefer to a more putrid state.

The labour of forming the beds for a new plantation by digging the drains, &c. amounts to 4 l. an acre. That of the annual work, picking excepted, is put out to the men at 4 l. an acre per annum, for which they dig, strip, stack, clean drains, hoe, rake, hole, tie, &c.

Three poles are put to each hill, consequently there are 30 hundred (at 120) to the acre, at 24 s. a hundred delivered. They are generally of ash, and the length they prefer is 24 feet. But in addition to this regular poling, when a hop raises much above a pole, they set another to take the shoot to prevent its falling, preventing the circulation of air, and entangling with the poles of other hills.

A hop garden will last almost for ever, by renewing the hills that fail, to the amount of about a score annually; but it is reckoned better to grub up and new plant it every twenty or twenty-five years.

The only distempers to which they are subject, are the fly and the honey-dew; they know the blast and the red worm, but they are rare; the latter chiefly on dry land. Lightening they think favourable, as it kills flies and lice.

Mr. Rout has raised a bank against the river about three feet high, to lessen the force of floods; but does not wish to keep them entirely out; as he finds, that if the water comes in gently, and does not wash the earth away, it is rather beneficial. And, he is clear, that if he was to let the river into his drains to a certain height, in very dry weather, it would be of service to the crop.

Relative to the expence of forming a new plantation, they had, many years ago, an idea that it cost 75 l. an acre; and Mr. Rout is clear, that it cannot now be done under 100 l. Among other articles, he named the following:

Preparing the beds, . 4 0 0
Manure, 2 10 0
Planting, 1 5 0
Setts if bought, or the labour in raising and cutting, 1 15 0
Hoeing, raking, and moulding, 0 10 0
Tying, 0 10 0
Poling, 0 10 0
30 hundred poles at 24 s. 36 0 0
Shaving and knotting 6d. per hund. 0 15 0
Carrying to the ground 2 s. per hund. 3 0 0
Picking, drying, and bagging, 20 s. per
Ct. 4 Ct,
4 0 0
Duty 10 s. 2 0 0
Two bags, 0 10 0
Two years rent 20 s. 2 0 0
Tythe, 2 0 0
Rates 7 s. in the pound, 0 14 0
-------------- 4 14 0
--------------
61 19 0

The gross calculation, therefore, includes some articles not noticed here, or takes a considerable portion of the expence of building the kiln. The annual expence they reckon,

Rent when the land is in order, . 2 0 0
Tythe, 1 0 0
Rates 7 s. 0 14 0
Labour by contract, 4 0 0
Manure, 2 10 0
Picking, drying, and bagging, 20 s. per Ct. 8 Ct. 8 0 0
Duty 10 s. 4 0 0
Three bags at 5 s. 0 15 0
Annual renewal of poles, suppose 4 0 0
Interest of money, 3 2 0
Ditto kiln, 1 0 0
------
31 1 0
------

Mr. Rout's crops have varied from 1 Ct. which was the lowest he ever had, to 13 Ct. and he thinks was the greatest produce he ever received; on an average 8 Ct. and the mean price 4 l. per Ct.

8 Ct. at 4 l. . 32 0 0
Expences, 31 1 0

This account nearly resembles many others I have taken in different counties.''

From this place returned home, finishing a little journey, instructive from the variety of intelligence I received, and pleasing from the conversation and politeness of my companions, who, I have no doubt, are convinced of the real importance of at tending to the agriculture of the countries through which they may have occasion to travel.

I must indulge myself in a general observation on the county of Suffolk; that it contains a variety of soil, and excellent management, not to be found in any other county in the kingdom. The Sandlings , near Woodbridge, is a much more peculiar district than any other I have seen; and, in my opinion, much better worth the studious attention of those who would be masters of the art, than any part of England. All the excellencies of the Norfolk culture are found in the range of great farms on the coast; such as marling and claying on a great scale, and the full execution of the admirable course, 1 turneps, 2 barley, 3 clover, 4 wheat. The heavy lands in what is called High Suffolk, are excellently conducted, and the cabbage culture no where else generally to be found in the fields of common farmers. The dairy farms deserve more attention than any in the kingdom;8 and the breed of horses I have described, without any rivals. Hence we may give to Kent the undoubted superiority in cultivating beans, and drilling many crops-to Essex richness of soil-to Norfolk, perhaps, quantity of turneps-certainly to all the West of England for managing meadows-and other counties may be superior in some smaller points-but every circumstance considered, we possess, I think, the greatest variety in articles that demand a curious attention: and that traveller who neglects Suffolk, yet wishes to become deeply acquainted with agriculture, will find the omission not an inconsiable one.

A. Y.

Bradfield Hall, July 28, 1784.


1 The above minute of Mr. Kirby's husbandry taken in january 1782.

2 Mr. Moor, who occupied this farm before Mr. Abblet. had, in 1779, no less than 36 acres. I shall take this opportunity to remark, that the idea which I found at Alderton, of my having published that Mr. Moor informed me he had 20 loads of carrots an acre, is a mistake, as I do not recollect mentioning, in any work till the present, either his crops or his name.

3 Mr. Wyat.

4 The Cowthorp oak, the largest in England. is 36 feet, 6 inches, in circumference 5 feet from the ground. The oak in Holt-forest, near Bentley, at 7 feet, 34 in circumference. The fairtop-oak seemingly sound in 1754; and the Earl of Thanet's, in Whinfield park, Westmoreland, 31 feet 9 inches. The handsomest in England, is in the Earl of Powis's park, by Ludlow, which, in 1757, was 16 feet 3 inches; but strait and clear for 60 feet. The Dunbarton ash 16 feet 9 inches. A Wych Elm at Bradley, in Suffolk, 26 feet 3 inches. Lord Ducies chestnut, at Tortworth, in Gloucestershire, at 6 feet, was 46 feet 6 inches in 1759, it is above 1100 years old. It was called the great chestnut in King John's time; Mr. Marsham calculates, that it was 540 years old when he came to the throne, and 11 yards in circumference. See Bath Memoirs , vol. 1. p. 76.

5 See vol. I. p. 240.

6 See an account of his husbandry in the Eastern Tour .

7 July 4, 1782.

8 As I wish not to be misunderstsod, I shall explain my meaning: it is not that our cows are larger, or finer, but they give more milk than any; nor is this the principal point-the great question is, through the medium of what breed will a given quantity of grass produce most butter and cheese? There are cows that may give a greater return, but not if food be considered.

Arthur Young, Tours in England and Wales, selected from the Annals of Agriculture (London: London School of Economics, 1932)

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