#### Age Distribution and Conjugal Condition

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### C. —AGE DISTRIBUTION AND CONJUGAL CONDITION OF THE POPULATION.

#### Age Distribution.

THE age distribution of the population has been fully and elaborately tabulated. In the county and city parts of the first volume there are given the distributions by single years of age, of the populations of the counties and cities and of all burghs with populations exceeding 20,000; and by quinquennial age groups, of the populations of all burghs and parishes. The distribution of young persons less than twenty years of age is also given in that volume by single ages for all school board districts. The tabulations given in the present volume consist of a single ages distribution of the entire population of Scotland, and of quinquennial age group distributions of the populations of the counties and of the county public health districts. The ages of the population are also tabulated in conjunction with their occupations and birthplaces. (*Tables*
XXIII, XXIV., *and*
XXV.)

A comparison between the age distribution of the population of this census and that of the population of 1901 brings out the fact that, although there has been an increase in the total population, a proportionate increase is not found in all age groups. Taking the figures relative to the two sexes together, it is found that large intercensal increases are found in some age periods, small increases in others, and decreases in a few. The largest of these increases are in age groups over 35 but under 40, 46,733, or 16.8 per cent.; over 30 but under 35, 40,329, or 12.8 per cent.; over 45 but under 50, 32,198, or 15.4 per cent.; and over 40 but under 45, 30,348, or 12.4 per cent. Decreases are found in age group over 20 but under 25, 13,807, or 3.2 per cent.; and in age group under 5, 288, or 0.1 per cent. Very similar changes are found in the figures of the sexes taken separately. (*Table*
Cl.)

In the male population, the largest intercensal quinquennial age group increases are found in age groups between 30 and 55, the maximum being in age group over 35 but under 40, and amounting to 24,944, or 18.8 per cent.; while decreases are found in age group under 5, and in age group over 20 but under 25, the former being small, amounting to only 104, but the latter being comparatively large, 8,621, or 4.1 per cent. Small decreases are also found in age groups of over 95. (*Table*
C2.)

In the female population, the ascertained intercensal changes are very similar, for here also the largest increases are found in age groups between 30 and 55, and decreases are found in age group under 5, and in age group over 20 but under 25. The maximum increases are found in age group over 35 but under 40, 21,789, or 15.6 per cent., and in age group over 30 but under 35, 21,056, or 12.8 per cent. The decrease in age group under 5 is small, being only 84, but that in age group over 20 but under 25 is relatively large, being 5,186, or 2.3 per cent. In the female population, small decreases are also found in age group over 60 but under 65, amounting to 372, or 0.5 per cent., and in age group over 100, amounting to 15, or 44.1 per cent. (*Table*
C2.)

That there should be a decrease in the female age group over 60 but under 65, without there being a similar decrease in the corresponding male age group, might at first sight suggest that the age distribution of the two sexes had at this period been modified in different manners, but a closer scrutiny shows that this is not the case, for in the male age group over 60 but under 65 the recorded increase is small compared with those of the immediately younger and older age groups. This suggests that, whatever may be the reason for the apparent decrease in the corresponding female age group, the same factor has been at work in the male population. In male age group over 55 but under 60 there is an observed increase of 20.6 per cent., and in age group over 65 but under 70, one of 24.7 per cent., while that in age group over 60 but under 65 is only 7.9 per cent. The relatively small increase in the male sex in age group over 60 but under 65, and the decrease in the corresponding female age group, both being followed by relatively large increases in age groups over 65 but under 70, and over 70 but under 75, suggest that the returned ages of these periods require explanation, or at least that there has been some influence tending either to correct mis-statement in the returns of 1901 or to introduce it in the returns of this census. It may be that the passing of the Old Age Pensions Act, which took place between the two censuses, is not unconnected with it.

The unequal distribution into age groups of the intercensal increase is better demonstrated by figures showing the relative numbers per million of the population in the age groups of this census compared with those of the previous census, This comparison is made in Table 05, and on the figures there given Charts 1 and 2 are constructed. In the male sex the ratios per million of the total population are found to be less now than ten years ago in all age groups of under 30, by quantities varying between 9.9 per cent., in age group over 20 but under 25, and 6.1 per cent. in age group under 5, to 27 per cent. in age group over 10 but under 15, and 2.8 per cent. in age group over 5 but under 10. On the other hand, the numbers in all male age groups of over 30 but under 80 are found to have increased, the maximum increases being in age groups over 65 but under 70, 17.2 per cent., and in age group over 70 but under 75, 14.9 per cent. Each million of the total population is found now to contain 16,145 fewer males under, 30, but 15,033 more males over 30, than was the case in 1901. (*Table*
C5.)

The results are similar with the numbers per million of the total population found in the female age groups. In all the female age groups of under 30 decreases are found, and in all age groups of over 30, those over 60 but under 65, and over 80 hut under 85 excepted, increases are found. The largest relative decreases under 30 are found in age group over 20 but under 25, 8.2 per cent., and age group under 5, 6.1 per cent. The largest increases over 30 are found in age group over 70 but under 75, 19.2 per cent., and in age group over 65 but under 70, 10.2, per cent. The decrease of females in age group over 60 but under 65 amounts to 1,028 per million of the total population, and, as already hinted, is probably not very reliable, because it is apparently compensated by the relatively large increases in the next two older age groups. Taken collectively, female age groups of under 30 are found to have 12,638 fewer per million of the general population than was the case in 1901, while those of over 30 have 13,750 more. (*Table*
C5.)

A discussion of the significance of these figures is, perhaps, out of place in a census report, but they seem to claim special attention from those who may care to use the figures for economic or scientific purposes, as the changed age distribution, of the population must necessarily have an important bearing on the question of the demographic rates for which these figures furnish the basis. The shortage of people of both sexes of ages between 20 and 30 may be expected to reduce the marriage rate; and a reduced marriage rate, more especially when combined, as it is, with an advancing average age at marriage, will tend to reduce the birth-rate. Again, the reduced number of children in the population will tend to lessen the death-rate, children of tender years being subject to a death-rate of more than average amount.

The following are a few remarks on some specially selected age groups of the population, these age groups being selected on account of their administrative importance or of some other special interest attached to them:—

- Children of compulsory school age—over 5 but under 14—number 908,681, and constitute 19.1 per cent. of the total population; and are 41,773, or 4.8 percent., more than in 1901, when they constituted 19.4 per cent. of the total Thus, although children of these ages have increased in number in the intercensal period, their ratio to the total population is less in 1911 than in 1901.
- Of the total population, 2,087,272, or 43.8 per cent., are under 21 years of age, and 2;673,632, or 56.2 per cent., over that age. Of the male population, 1,049,737, and of the female, 1,037,535, are under 21 years of age, while 1,259,102 of the male and 1,414,530 of the female are over that age. In the male population, persons under 21 constitute 45.5 per cent., and persons over 21, 54.5 per cent., of the total; in the female population, persons under 21 constitute 42.3 per cent., and persons over 21, 57.7 per cent., of the total. Males of less than 21 years of age exceed in number females of under 21 by 12,202, or 1.2 per cent., but females of over 21 exceed in number males of over 21 by 155,428, or 12.3 per cent.
- Persons of 70 years of age and upwards number 152,898, of whom 59,044 are male and 93,854 female. Persons of these ages constitute 3.2 per cent. of the total population, the percentage in the male sex being 2.6 and in the female 3.8. Females of 70 years and over outnumber males of these ages by 34,810, or 59.0 per cent. In 1901, persons of 70 years of age and upwards numbered 129,674, males numbering 51,133 and females 78,541; compared with these figures, males of these ages are now 7,911, or 15.5 per cent., more, females 15,313, or 19.5 per cent., more, and the two sexes together, 23,224, or 17.9 per cent., more.
- In all quinquennial age groups of under 20 the males exceed in number the females, but in all quinquennial age groups of over, 20 the females exceed the males. This is perhaps best shown by considering the sex ratios of the age groups. In those under 20 this ratio varies between 98.2 females to each 100 males, to 99.5 to 100; but in those over 20 the ratio is found generally to increase as the age increases, though subject to some fluctuations. In age group over 20 but under 25 the ratio is 107.9 to 100, and in age group-over 25 but under 30 it is 111.9 to 100; in age group over 30 but under 35 it falls to 108.9, and in age group over 35 but under 40 to 106.0. After age 40 the ratio "increases steadily, rising to 109.1 to 100 in age group over 45 but under 50; to 110.2 in age group over 55 but under 60; exceeding 120 to 100 in age group over 65 but under 70; exceeding 150 to 100 in age group over 70 but under 75; exceeding 200 to 100 in age group over 85 but under 90; and exceeding 300 to 100 in age group over 95 but under 100.
- The total number of reputed centenarians returned is 24, of whom 5 were males and 19 females; in 1901 they numbered 41, of whom 7 were males and 34 females. These figures, however, are not very reliable, for experience shows that a considerable proportion of old people, probably from ignorance of the facts, overstate their ages.

*Distribution by Single Ages. —The*
tabulation of the ages of the population in this census differs from those of the more recent censuses of Scotland in that it has been done by single ages in addition to quinquennial age periods. In the census report of 1871 a similar tabulation by single ages was given, but this was not repeated in, the censuses of 1881, 1891, and 1901. Although a tabulation by single ages must of necessity carry a very considerable amount of error, it is not without interest and value, the latter more especially by providing statisticians, and others interested, with the crude material, and thus supplying them with data for any further research or deductions—scientific or other—that may appeal to them. (*Table*
XXIII.)

The single age tabulation provides a means of examining and testing the reliability of the statements of age, and of allocating errors of statement This is done by comparing a graduated or smoothed table of ages with the crude or ungraduated one. Thanks are due to Mr R. M. Hunter, Secretary to the Faculty of Actuaries in Scotland, who very kindly consented to graduate the crude figures for the purposes of this report, and has supplied the figures appearing in Tables C8 and C9 on pp. lx. and lxi. Tracings showing the recorded ages of the population, male and female, and comparing them with Mr Hunter's graduated figures, are to be seen in Charts 3 and 4, which follow page liv.

A general scrutiny of these figures and charts shows that in ages under 30 the crude returns do not differ widely from the graduated returns, but that after this age the differences become greater. Under 30, the errors in statement of age—the differences between the crude and the graduated numbers at each age—range, among males, between an excess in the crude figures at age 18 amounting to 1,821, or 4.0 per cent., and a deficit at age 1 amounting to 2,015, or 3.7 per cent. After age 30, the errors become greater, and range between an excess of 4,852, or 16.6 per cent., at age 40, and a deficit of 4,621, or 16.4 per cent., at age 41. Large errors of excess in the male population are also found at age 30, 3,975, or 11.3 per cent.; at age 38, 2,292, or 7.5 per cent.; at age 45, 2,240, or 9.4 per cent.; at age 48, 1,591, or 7.1 per cent.; at age 50, 4,386, or 20.6 per cent.; at age 56, 1,505, or 9.2 per cent.; and at age 60, 2,713, or 20.0 per cent. Relatively to the number enumerated, the error at age 50 is the greatest, amounting to 20.6 per cent., while the next greatest is at age 60, amounting to 20.0 per cent Over and above the large error of deficit found at age 41, large deficits are also found among the males at age 31, 2,835, or 8.2 per cent.; at age 33, 1,972, or 5.9 per cent.; at age 37, 2,127, or 6.8 per cent.; at age 43, 2,103, or 8.1 per cent.; at age 51, 3,214, or 15.6 per cent.; and at age 61, 1,983, or 15.5 per, cent Relatively to the number enumerated, the deficits are highest at ages 41 and 51, at which they are 16.4 and 15.6 per cent., respectively.

The figures relative to the female population show very similar result, for the errors in ages under 30 are comparatively small, while those at older ages are in some cases, of very considerable amount. Under 30, these errors vary between an excess of 1,858, or 3.5 per cent., at age 2, and: a deficit; of 1,624 at age 27 At ages 30 and over the errors vary between an excess of 4,423, or 14.4 per cent., at age 40; and a deficit of 5,073, or 17.0 per cent., at age, 41. Other large errors of excess are found, at age 30, 3,925, or 10.1 per cent.; age 38, 2,142, or 6.6 per cent.; age 48; 1,872, or 7.7 per cent.; age 50, 4,262, or 18.3 per cent.; and age 60, 3,261, or 21.2 per cent: while large errors of deficit ate found, at age 31,3,491 or 9.2 per cent at age 37, 2,051, or 2 per cent.; at age 5.1, 4,279, or, 19.0 per cent.; at age 61, 2,710, or 18.4; per cent.; and at age 71, 1,676, or 16.4 per cent. Relatively to the numbers enumerated, the largest female error of excess is at age 60, which is 21.2 per cent., and the largest error of deficit is at age 51, which amounts to 19.0 per cent.

A scrutiny of Charts 3 and 4 shows that the errors in statement of age have in general a similar and systematic incidence in the two sexes, for in both the largest; errors of excess are found in the ages that have a cipher for the unit's digit, and smaller though considerable errors in excess are found in the ages that have an 8, a 2, or a 6 as the unit's digit, while the principal terrors in deficit are found in ages with 1 as the unit's digit; and smaller though very constant errors in those with 7: or 9 as that digit. The curves also suggest that the most frequent misstatement of age is a deduction of one year when the true age is 31, 41, 51, or 61. A further examination of these charts, and of the corresponding figures, gives support to the established statistical method of grouping ages in decennial periods of over and under ages with 5 as the: unit's digit, in preference to periods of over and under ages, with 0 as the unit's digit, as the greater errors of misstatement occur in the middle of the former periods, but are gathered round the points where the latter periods meet.

A scrutiny of the single ages tabulation of 1871 shows a close agreement between the errors it carried and those found in the census of 1911, but with this difference, that the errors in the figures of 1871 were relatively much greater. The figures then published show the same/large errors in excess at ages with a cipher as the unit's digit, and the same smaller errors in excess at ages with 8, 2, or 6 as the unit's digit, while large errors in deficit are in the same way found at ages with 1, and considerable errors in deficit at ages with 7 or 9 as the unit's digit. Thus, whatever may be the causes which now lead to misstatement of age, it is reasonable to assume that the same causes were largely effective forty years ago.

#### Conjugal Conditions.

The condition as to marriage of the, population has been tabulated in conjunction with their ages, and the results may be seen in Tables XXIII and XXIV.

Of the male population of fifteen years of age and upwards, 708,533, or 46.1 per cent., are bachelors, 743,747, or 48.4 per cent., husbands, and 82,612, or 5.4 per cent., widowers, while the conjugal condition of 1,126, or 0.1 per cent., was not stated. Of the female population of these ages, 742,955, or 44.0 per cent., are spinsters, 762,835, or 45.2 per cent., wives, and 181,497, or 10.7 per cent., widows; while the conjugal condition of. 962, or 0.1 per cent., was not stated. Compared with the corresponding figures of 1901, bachelors are 40,859, or 6.1 per cent., more; husbands, 66,369, or 9.8 per cent., more; widowers, 9,871, or 13.6 per cent., more; spinsters, 49,531, or 7.1 per cent., more; wives, 72,456, or 10.5 per cent., more; and widows, 6,092, or 3.5 per cent., more. (*Tables*
C10 *and*
C11.).

Spinsters of fifteen years of age and upwards exceed bachelors in number by 34,422, or 4.9 per cent.; wives exceed husbands by 19,088, or. 2.6 per cent.; and widows exceed widowers by 98,885, or 119.7 per cent. In 1901, spinsters exceeded bachelors by 25,750, wives exceeded husbands by 13,001, and widows exceeded widowers by 102,664. Thus, during the intercensal period, the excess of spinsters over bachelors and of wives over husbands has increased, while the excess of widows over widowers has decreased.

Bachelors of 30 years of age and upwards number 191,513, and spinsters of these ages, 244,640, the latter being 53,127, or 277 per cent., more than the former. At age 45 and over, the excess of spinsters over bachelors amounts to 44,139, or 69.3 per cent., and at age 60 and over to 23,596, or 122.8 per cent.

In quinquennial age groups, the highest proportion of married men is found in age group over 45 but under 50, where it amounts to 77.1 per cent. of the total, the bachelors constituting 16.9 per cent., and the widowers 5.9 per cent., of the total. In younger age groups, bachelors, and in older age groups, widowers, are relatively more numerous. In age group over 20 but under 25, husbands constitute 11.4 per cent. of the total; in age group over 25 but under 30, they exceed 40 per cent. of the total; and in age groups between 35 and 65, they exceed 70 per cent.; but after 65 this proportion is a declining one, falling below 60 per cent. in age group 70 to 74, below 50 per cent. in age group over 75 but under 80, below 30 per cent. in age group over 85 but under 90. In age groups of over 70 more than 30 per cent., and in age groups of over 80 more than 50 per cent., of the males are widowers.

The highest percentage of married women is found in age group over 40 but under 45, where they number 100,814 and constitute 70.7 per cent. of the total women of that age. In age group over 20 but under 25 this percentage is 21.6, in age group over 25 but under 30 it rises to 49.0, and in age group over 30 but under 35 to 64.7. In age group over 35 but under 40 this percentage is little short of the maximum, being 70.1, but subsequent to age 45 it is a declining quantity, falling below 60 in age group over 55 but under 60, below 40 in age group over 65 but under 70, and below 20 in age group over 75 but under 80. In age group of over 70 more than 60 per cent., and in age group of over 80 more than 70 per cent., of the women are widows.

A comparison between the proportions in the age groups married at this census with the corresponding figures of 1901, shows these proportions to be reduced in all male age groups under 90, and in all female age groups under 35, but somewhat increased in female age groups from age 35 onwards. The more marked reductions in the male age groups are found in age group over 25 but under 30, where the percentage has fallen from 44.3 to 41.2, and in age group over 30 but under 35, where it has fallen from 64.9 to 62.5. In the female age groups, the largest reductions are found in age group over 20 but under 25, where the reduction is from 23.4 to 21.6, and in age group over 25 but under 30, where it is from 51.5 to 49.0.

Husbands in Scotland constitute 48.4 per cent. of the total males of 15 years of age and upwards, and wives 45.2 per cent. of the total females of these ages, but these proportions vary in the different counties and burghs.

In the counties the highest proportions of males over 15 who are husbands are 51.9 per cent. in Forfar, 51.5 per cent. in Fife, 51.5 per cent. in Shetland, 50.2 per cent. in Aberdeen, and 50.0 per cent. in Clackmannan, and the lowest in Argyll, 38.9 per cent., in Inverness, 39.6 per cent., in Ross and Cromarty, 40.8 per cent., and in Sutherland, 40.9 per cent The percentage of the total females of these ages who are wives is found to vary from 57.2 in Linlithgow, 51.1 in Stirling, 50.0 in Fife, 48.9 in Lanark, and 48.0 in Kincardine, to 35.3 in Bute, 36.4 in Shetland, 36.7 in Nairn, 36.9 in Inverness, 37.4 in Sutherland, and 37.5 in Argyll. (*Tables*
C12 *and*
C13.)

In the burghs of 20,000 population and upwards the percentage of husbands among males of 15 years of age and upwards varies from 55.1 in Arbroath, 55.0 in Kirkcaldy, 52.7 in Aberdeen, 52.7 in Rutherglen, and 52.6 in Dundee, to 44.4 in Inverness, 44.8 in Coatbridge, 46.4 in Dunfermline, 47.0 in Greenock, and 47.5 in Hamilton. The corresponding percentages in the female population of these burghs vary from 61.0 in Motherwell, 59.2 in Clydebank, 57.2 in Hamilton, and 56.8 in Coatbridge and Wishaw, to 37.2 in Inverness, 38.4 in Edinburgh, 39.9 in Perth, and 40.7 in Arbroath; (*Tables *
C14 *and*
C15.)

Figures relative to the percentages of bachelors, widowers, spinsters, and widows in the population of 15 years of age and upwards, will be found in Tables C10 to C15, at the end of this section of the report.

**CHART N ^{o.}
1: AGE DISTRIBUTION PER MILLION OF POPULATION, MALES, 1901 AND 1911**

**CHART N ^{o.}
2: AGE DISTRIBUTION PER MILLION OF POPULATION, FEMALES, 1901 AND 1911**

**CHART N ^{o.}
3: AGE DISTRIBUTION — MALES:**

**CHART N ^{o.}
4: AGE DISTRIBUTION — FEMALES:**

** TABLE C1.—SCOTLAND.—AGES OF THE POPULATION—1911 AND 1901.
**

** TABLE C2.—SCOTLAND.—AGES OF MALES AND FEMALES—1911 AND 1901.
**

** TABLE C3.—AGES OF MALES AT EACH CENSUS SINCE 1861.
**

** TABLE C4.—AGES OF FEMALES AT EACH CENSUS SINCE 1861.
**

** TABLE C5.—SCOTLAND.—AGE AND SEX DISTRIBUTION OF THE POPULATION—1911 AND 1901.
**

** TABLE C6.—SCOTLAND.—AGE DISTRIBUTION OF MALES AT EACH CENSUS SINCE 1861.
**

** TABLE C7.—SCOTLAND.—AGE DISTRIBUTION OF FEMALES AT EACH CENSUS SINCE 1861.
**

** TABLE C8.—RECORDED AND GRADUATED AGE DISTRIBUTION OF MALES, 1911.
**

** TABLE C9.—RECORDED AND GRADUATED AGE DISTRIBUTION OF FEMALES, 1911.
**

** TABLE C10.—SCOTLAND.-CONJUGAL CONDITIONS—MALES, 1911.
**

** TABLE C11.—SCOTLAND.-CONJUGAL CONDITIONS—FEMALES, 1911.
**

** TABLE C12.—CONJUGAL CONDITIONS IN THE COUNTIES—MALES, 1911.
**

** TABLE C13.—CONJUGAL CONDITIONS IN THE COUNTIES—FEMALES, 1911.
**

** TABLE C14.—CONJUGAL CONDITIONS IN BURGHS HAVING 20,000 INHABITANTS AND OVER—MALES, 1911.
**

** TABLE C15.—CONJUGAL CONDITIONS IN BURGHS HAVING 20,000 INHABITANTS AND OVER—FEMALES, 1911.
**