Picture of William Camden

William Camden

places mentioned

Essex and Suffolk

Next Selection Previous Selection


THE other part of the Trinobantes toward the East, called in the English Saxon tongue East-seaxa and East-Sex-scire , in the Norman language Ecssesa , of the situation toward the East, and the Saxons which inhabited it, and commonly Essex, is a country large in compasse, fruitfull, full of woods, plentifull of Saffron, and very wealthy; encircled, as it were, on the one side with the maine sea, on the other with fish-full rivers which also doe afford their peculiar commodities in great abundance. On the North side, the river Stour divideth it from Suffolk, on the East the Ocean windeth it selfe into it. On the South part, the Tamis, being now growne great, secludeth it from Kent, like as in the West part the little river Ley from Middlesex, and Stort or Stoure the Lesse, which runneth into it, from Hertfordshire. In describing of this country according to my method begun, first I will speake of the memorable places by Ley and the Tamis, afterwards of those that be further within, and upon the Sea-coast.

2. By Ley, in the English Saxon tongue Lygean , there stretcheth out a great way in length and bredth a forest serving for game, stored verie ful with deere that for their bignesse, and fatnesse withall, have the name above all other. In times past called it was by of excellency Foresta de Essex , now Waltham Forrest of the towne Waltham, in the Saxon speech Weald-ham , that is, A wild or woody habitation. This standeth upon Ley, where by dividing his chanell he maketh divers Eights or Islands, and is not of any great antiquity to make boast of. For when the kingdome of the Saxons beganne to decay, one Tovie, a man of great wealth and authority, as wee reade in the private historie of the place, The Kings Staller (that is, Standerd bearer) for the abundance of wild beasts there, first founded it and planted threescore and sixe indwellers therein. After his death Athelstane his sonne quickly made a hand of all his goods and great estate, and King Edward the Confessor gave this towne to Harold Earle Goodwins sonne, and streight waies an Abbay was erected there, the worke and tombe both of the said Harold. For he, being crept up by the errour of men and his owne ambition to Regall dignity, built this Abbay in honour of an Holie Crosse found farre Westward and brought hither, as they write, by miracle. Herein made his praiers and vowes for victorie when he marched against Normans, and being soone after slaine by them, was by his mother, who had with most suppliant suite craved and obteined at the Conquerours hands his corpes, heere entombed. But now it hath a Baron, namely Sir Edward Deny, called lately unto that honour by King James his writ. Over this owne upon the rising of an hill standeth Copthall, and yeeldeth a great waie off a faire sight to feed mens eyes. This was the habitation in times past of Fitz-Aucher, and lately of Sir Thomas Heneage, Knight, who made it a verie goodly and beautifull house. Nere unto this river also was seated, no doubt, Durolitum, a towne of antique memorie, which the Emperour Antonine maketh mention of, but in what place precisely I am not able to shew. For the ancient places of this Country (I tell you once for all beforehand) like hidden so enwraped in obscurity that I, who elsewhere could see some-what, heerein am here more than dim-sighted. But if I may give my guesse, I would thinke that to have been Durolitum, which, reteining still some marke of the old name, is called at this day Leyton, that is, The towne upon Ley , like as Durolitum in the British tongue signifieth The Water Ley. A small village it is in these daies, inhabited in scattering wise, five miles from London, for which five, through the careless negligence of transcribers, is crept into Antonine XV. That there was a common passage heere in times past over the river, a place nigh unto it called Ouldford seemeth to proove. In which when Queene Mawd, wife to King Henrie the First, hardly escaped daunger of drowning, shee gave order that a little beneath, at Stretford, there should bee a bridge made over the water. There the river brancheth into three severall streames and most pleasantly watereth on every side the greene medowes, wherein I sawe the remaines of a little monasterie which William Montfichet, a Lord of great name of the Normans race, built in the yeare of our Lord 1140, and forth-with Ley, gathering it selfe againe into one chanell, mildely dischargeth it selfe into the Tamis, whereupon the place is called Leybourth.

3. The Tamis, which is mightily by this time increased, doth violentlie carry away with him the streames of many waters, hath a sight (to speake onely of what is worth remembrance) of Berking, which Bede named Berecing, a Nunnery founded by Erkenwald Bishop of London, where Roding, a little river, entreth into the Tamis. This, running hard by many villages, imparteth his name unto them, as Heigh Roding, Eithorp Roding, Leaden Roding &., of the which Leofwin, a noble man, gave one or two in times past to the Church of Ely for to expiate and make satisfaction for the wicked act hee had committed in murdering his owne mother. Then by Angre, where upon a verie high hill are the tokens of a Castle built by Richard Lucy, Lord chiefe Justice of England in the reigne of Henrie the Second, of which familie, a daughter and one of the heires King John gave in marriage to Richard Rivers, who dwelt hard by at Stranford Rivers. ?So it passeth by Lambourn Manour, which is held by service of the Wardstaffe, viz. to carrie a load of strawe in a Carte with sixe horses, two ropes, two men in harnesse to watch the said Ward-staffe when it is brought to the towne of Athbridg, &. , and then by Wansted Parke, where the late Earle of Leicester built much for his pleasure.?

4. From the mouth of this Roding, this Tamis hasteneth through a ground lying verie flat and low, and in most places otherwhiles overflowen (whereby are occasioned strong and unholsome vapours exceeding hurtfull to the health of the neighbour inhabitants) to Tilbur, neere unto which there be certaine holes in the rising of a chalky hill, sunke into the ground tenne fathom deepe, the mouth whereof is but narrow, made of stone cunningly wrought, but within they are large and spatious, in this forme, which he that went downe into them described unto me after this manner:

Diagram of two holes in the ground

Of which I have nothing else to say but what I have delivered already. As for Tilbury (Bede nameth it Tilaburg), it consisteth of some few cotages by the Tamis side, yet was it in ancient time a seat of Bishop Chad, when about the yeare of our salvation 630 hee ingrafted the East-Saxons by baptisme into the Church of Christ. Afterwards this river, passing by places lying flat and unholsome, with a winding returne of his water, severeth the Island Convennon, which also is called Counos (whereof Ptolemee maketh mention) from the firme land. This hath not yet wholie forgone the old name, but is called Canvey. It lieth against the coast of Essex, from Leegh to Hole Haven, five miles in length, some part whereof appertaineth to the Collegiat church of Westminster. But so low that often times it is quite overflowen, all save hillocks cast uppe, upon which the sheepe have a place of safe refuge. For it keepeth about foure hundered sheepe, whose flesh is of a most sweet and delicate taste, which I have seene young lads, taking womens function, with stooles fastened into their buttokes to milke, yea and to make cheeses of Ewes milke in those dairy sheddes of theirs that they call there wiches.

5. There adjoyne to this Island along in order, first Beamfleot, fortified with deepe and wide trenches (as saith Florilegus) and with a Castle, by Hasting the Dane s, which King Aelfred wonne from them; then Hadleigh, sometime the Castle of Hubert de Burgo, afterwards of Thomas of Woodstock Duke of Glocester, and now defaced with ruines; and in the last place Leegh, a proper fine little towne and verie full of stout and adventurous sailers; with Pritlewel fast by, where Swen de Essex built long since a Cell for Monkes. And heere the land shooteth forward to make a Promontory, which they call Black-tayle Point and Shobery Nesse, of Shoberie, a village situate upon it, which sometime was a citie named Sceoberig . For in the old Annales of the English Saxons we read thus, The Danes, being driven from Beamfleot, goe to a City seated in East-sex called in the English tongue Sceobirig, and there built themselves a sure and strong Fort. Heere by reason that the bankes on both sides shrinke backe, the Tamis at a huge and wide mouth rowleth into the sea. This doth Ptolomee tearme Aestuarium Tamesae , and corruptly in some other copies Temesae , and we commonly call the Tamis Mouth.

More inward is Rochford placed, that hath given name to this Hundered. Now it belongeth to the Barons Rich, but in old time it had lords of ancient nobilitie surnamed thereof, whose inheritance came at length to Butler Earle of Ormond and Wiltshire, and from them to Sir Thomas Bullen, whom King Henrie the Eighth created Vicount Rochford and afterward Earle of Wilshire, out of whose progenie sprang that most gracious Queene Elizabeth and the Barons of Hunsdon. ?Heere I heard much speech of a Lawlesse Court (as they called it) holden in a strange manner about Michelmasse, in the first peepe of the daie upon the first cocke crowing, in a silent sorte, yet with shrowde [heavy] fines eftsoones redoubled if not answered, which servile attendance, they say, was imposed upon certaine tenants there-about for conspiring there at such an unseasonable time to raise a commotion. but I leave this, knowing neither the originall nor the certaine forme thereof. Onelie I heard certaine obscure barbarous rimes of it.

Curia de domino rege
Tenetur sine lege.
Ante ortum solis,
Luceat, nisi polus &.,

and not worth remembering.?

6. Leaving the Tamis banke and going farther within the country, yea from West to East, these places of name above the rest standing thus in order shew themselves. Havering, an ancient retiring place of the kings, so called of a ring which in that place a Pilgrime delivered as sent from S. John Baptist (for so they write) unto King Edward the Confessor. Horne Church, named in times past Cornutum Monasterium , that is, The Horned Minster , for there shoot out at the East end of the Church certaine points of lead fashioned like hornes. Rumford, the glorie whereof dependeth of a swine mercat, and Cuddy-hall, an house adjoyning to it, which belonged to that Sir Thomas Cook Major of London whose great riches hoorded up togither wrought him his greatest danger. For being judicially arraigned (innocent man as he was) of high treason, and through the incorrupt aequity of Judge Markham acquit in a most dangerous time, yet he was put to a very grievous fine, and stript in manner of all that he was worth. Brentwood, ?called by the Normans Bois arse in the same sense, and by that name King Stephen granted a Mercat and a faire there to the Abbot of S. Osith, and many yeares after Isabell Countesse of Bedford, daughter to King Edward the Third, built a Chappell to the memory of S. Thomas of Canterbury for the ease of the inhabitants.? Engerstone, a towne of note for nothing else but the Mercat and Innes for travailers.

7. Heere am I at a stand, and am halfe in a doubt whether I should now slip as an abortive fruite that conjecture which my minde hath travailed with. Considering there hath beene in this tract the City Caesaromagus, and the same doubtlesse in the Romans time of especiall note and importance. For the very name, if there were nothing else, may evict so much, signifying as it doth Caesars city , as Drusomagus The City of Drusus , which also should seeme to have beene built in the honour of Caesar Augustus. For Suetonius writeth thus: Kings that were in amity and league founded every one in his owne Kingdome Cities named Caesareae in honour of Augustus. What if I should say that Caesaromagus did stand neare unto Brentwood, would not a lerned reader laugh at me, as one Soothsayer doth when he spieth another? Certes, no ground I have nor reason to strengthen this my conjecture from the distance thereof, seeing the numbers of the miles in Antonine be most corruptly put downe, which neverthelesse agree well enough with the distance from Colonia and Canonium. Neither can I helpe my selfe with any proofe by the situation of it upon the Romane high-way, which in this enclosed country is no where to be seene. Neither verily there remaineth heere so much as a shadow or any twinkling shew of the name Caesaromagus, unlesse it be (and that is but very sclender) in the name of an Hundred which of old times was called Ceasford, and now Cheasford Hundred. Surely as in some ancient Cities the names are a little altered, and in others cleane changed, so there be againe wherein one syllable or twaine at most be remaining: thus Caesaraugusta in Spaine is now altered to be Saragosa, Caesaromagus in France hath lost the name cleane and is called Beauvois, and Caesarea in Normandie, now Cherburg, hath but one syllable left of it. But what meane I thus to trifle and to dwell in this point? If in this quarter heereby there be not Caesaromagus, let others seeke after it for me. It passeth my wit, I assure you, to finde it out, although I have diligently laid for to meet with it with net and toile both of eares and eies.

8. Beneath Brentwood I saw South-Okindon, where dwelt the Bruins, a family as famous as as any one in this tract: out of the two heires female whereof, being many times married to sundry husbands, Charles Brandon Duke of Suffolke, the Tirels, Berners, Harlestones, Heveninghams and others descended. And of that house there be males yet remaining in South-hamptonshire. Also Thorndon, where Sir John Petre, Knight, raised a goodly faire house, who now was by our Soveraigne King Jams [sic] created Baron Petre of Writtle. That Thorndon was in tims past the dwelling place of a worshipfull family of Fitzlewis, the last of which name, if we may beleeve the common report, by occasion of that house happened to be set on fire in the time of his wedding feast, was pittiously himselfe therein burnt to death. Burghsted, and more short Burlsted, that is, the place of a burgh, which name our forefathers used to give unto many places that were of greater antiquity. This I once supposed go have beene Caesaromagus, and what ever it was in old time, it is at this day but a good country towne neere unto Byliricay, a mercat downe of very good resort. Likewise Ashdowne, sometimes Assandun , that is, as Marian interpreteth it, The Mount of Asses , where long since a bloudy battaile was fought, in which King Edmund surnamed Ironside had at the beginning a good hand of the Danes and put them to rout, but streight waies, the fortune of the field turning about, he was so defeited that he lost a great number of the English Nobility. In memoriall of which battaile we read that King Canutus the Dane built a Church afterward in that place, what time as upon remorse and repentance for the bloud which he had shed he erected Chappels in what part soever he had fought any field and shed Christian bloud.

9. Not farre from these is Ralegh, a prety proper towne, and it seemeth to be Raganeia in Domesday booke , wherein is mention made of a Castle that Suenus heere built, in which also we read thus: There is one Parke and six Arpennes of vinyard, and it yeeldeth twenty Modii of wine if it take well. Which I note the rather, both for the French word arpenn and also for the wine made in this Isle. This Suenus was a man of great name and of noble birth, the sonne of Robert, sonne of Wimarc, but father to Robert of Essex, whose son was that Sir Robert de Essex who in right of inheritance was the Kings Standard bearer, and who for that in a light skirmish against the Welsh he had not onely cast of his courage, but also cast away his standard, being chalenged for treason, vanquished in duell or combat, and thereof thrust into a Clostre, forfeited a goodly patrimony and livelihood, which was confiscate to King Henry the Second and helped to fill his coffers. As for the Barony, it lay dead from that time a great while in the Kings hands, until Sir Hubert de Burgh obtained it of King John.

10. Above this the shores, retiring backe by little and little, admit two creekes of the Ocean entring within them: the one the neighbour inhabitants call Crouch, the other Blackwater (which in old time was named Pant). In the said Crouch, by reason of the waters division, there lie scattered foure Ilands carrying a pleasant greene hew, but by occasion of inundations growne to be morish and fenny, among which these two be of greatest name, Wallot and Foulnesse, that is, The Promontorie of foules , which hath a Church also in it, and when the sea is at the lowest ebbe a man may ride over to it. Betweene these Creekes lieth Dengy Hundred, in ancient times Dauncing, plentifull in grasse and rich in cattaile, but sheepe especially, where all their doing is in making of cheese, and their shall yee have men take the womens office in hand and milke ewes, whence those huge thicke cheeses are made that are vented [distributed] and sould not only into all parts of England, but into forraine nations also, for the rusticall people, labourers, and handicraftes men to fill their bellies and feed upon. The chiefe towne heereof at this day is Dengy, so called, as the inhabitants are perswaded, of the Danes, who gave their name unto the whole Hundred. Neere unto which is Tillingham, given by Ethelbert the first Christian King of the English-Saxons, unto the Church of Saint Paul in London, and higher up to the North shore flourished sometimes a Citie of ancient record, which our Forefathers called Ithancestre. For Raulph Niger writeth thus out of S. Bede: Bishop Chad baptised the East Saxons neere to Maldon in the City of Ithancestre, that stood upon the banke of the river Pant, which runneth hard by Maldon in Dengry province, but now is that Citie drowned in the river Pant. To point out the place precisely I am not able, but I nothing doubt that the river called Froshwell at this day was heeretofore named Pant, seeing that one of the springs thereof is called Pantwell and the Monkes of Coggeshal so termed it. Doubtlesse this Ithancester was situate upon the utmost Promontorie of this Dengry Hundred, where in these daies standeth Saint Peters upon the Wall. For along this shore much adoe have the inhabitants to defend their grounds with forced bankes or walles against the violence of the Ocean , ready to inrush upon them. And I my selfe am partly of this minde, that this Ithancester was that Othona where a Band of the Fortenses with their Captaine, in the declination of the Romane Empire, kept their station or Guard under the comes or Lieutenant of the Saxon shore, against the depredations of the Saxon Rovers For the altering of Othona to Ithana is not hard straining, and the situation thereof upon a Creeke into which many rivers are discharged was for this purpose very fit and commodious, and yet heere remaineth a huge ruin of a thicke wall, whereby many Romane coines have beene found. It seemeth not amisse to set downe how King Edward the Confessour graunted by a briefe Charter the keeping of this Hundred to Ranulph Peperking, which I will willingly heere annex to the end that we, who sift evry pricke and accent of the law, may see the upright simplicity and plaine dealing of that age. And thus goeth the tenour of it, as it was taken forth in the Kings Records in the Exchequer, but by often exemplifying and copying it out, some words are mollified and made more familiar.

Ich Edward Koning
Have yeven of my forest the keeping
Of the hundred of Chelmer and Dancing
To Randolf Peperking and to his kindling
With heorte and hinde, doe and bocke,
Hare and foxe, catt and brocke,
Wild fowell with his flocke,
Partrich, fesant hen and fesant cock,
With greene and wilde stob and stock,
To kepen and to yemen by all her might,
Both by day, and eke by night,
And hounds for to hold,
Good and swift and bolde.
Fower grehouns, and six racches,
For hare and fox and wild cattes.
And therefore ich made him my booke,
Witnes the Bishop Wolston,
And booke ylerned many on,
And Sweyne of Essex our brother,
And teken him many other,
And our stiward Howelin
That bysought me for him.

11. This was the plaine dealing, truth and simplicity of that age, which used to make all their assurances whatsoever in a few lines and with a few gilt Crosses. For before the comming in of the Normans, as we read in Ingulphus, writings Obligatorie were made firme with golden Crosses and other small signes or markes. But the Normans beganne the making of such Bills and Obligations with a print or seale in wax, set to with every ones speciall signet under the expresse entituling of three or foure witnesses. Before time many houses and land thereto passed by graunt and bargaine without script, Charter, or deede, onely with the Landlords sword or helmet, with his horne or cup. Yea and many tenements were demised with a spurre or horse-cury-combe, with a bowe, and some with an arrow.

12. Into the Creeke of Blackwater which, as I said, closeth the North side of this Hundred, and is stored with those dainty oysters which we call Walfleot oysters, their runne two rivers that water a great part of the Shire, Chelmer and Froshwell. The river Chelmer, flowing out of the inner part of the country, which is woody, runneth downe first by Thaxted, a little mercate towne seated very pleasantly upon an high rising hill; also by Tiltey, where Maurice Fitz-Gilbert founded in times past a small Abbay, unto Estannes ad Turrim, now Eston, which noble Gentlemen surnamed De Lovaine inhabited, as descended from Godfrey of Lovaine, brother to Henrie the sixth of that name Duke of Brabant, who being sent hither to keepe the Honor of Eye, his posterity flourished among the Peeres of this Realme to the time of King Edward the Third, when the heire generall was married into the house of Bourchier. Thence it glideth downe to Dunmow, of old time called Dunmawg and in the Tax booke of England Dunmaw , a towne pleasantly situate upon an hill with a prety gentle fall, where one Iuga founded a Priorie in the yeere 1111. But William Bainard, of whom Iuga held (thus we find it written in the private history of this Church) the village of little Dunmow, by felony lost his Baronie, and King Henrie the First gave it to Robert the sonne of Richard, sonne to Gislebert Earle of Clare and to his heires, with the Honor of Bainards Castle in London, which Robert at time was King Henries Sewar [steward]. These be the very words of the author, neither doe I thinke it lawfull for me to alter or reforme them otherwise than they are, although there be in them some ?????????????, that is, a putting or mistaking of one time for another, a thing that we meet with otherwhiles in the best Historiographers. For their had not beene as then any Earles of Clare in the familie of Clare.

13. Now let us for a while digresse and goe aside a little on either hand from the river. Not farre from hence is Plaisy seated, so called in French of Pleasing , in times past named Estre , the habitation both in the last yeeres of the English-Saxons, and also afterwards of the great Constables of England, as witnesseth Ely booke. At this towne the first William Mandevil Earle of Essex beganne a Castle, and two Princes of great authority, Thomas of Woodstocke Duke of Glocester and Earle of Essex, who founded heere a College, and John Holland Earle of Huntingdon, brother to King Richard the Second by the mothers side, deprived of lost honorable title of Duke of Exceter, when they could not keepe a meane betweene froward stubbernesse and servile obsequiousness, found thence their subversion. For Thomas, upon his rash and headstrong contumacie, was on a sudden violently carried from hence to Calice [Calais] and there smothered, and John, for a seditious conspiracie, was beheaded in this place by King Henrie the Fourth, that he might seeme to have beene justly punished by way of satisfaction for the same Thomas of Woodstocke, of whose death he was thought to be the principall practiser and procurer. From thence passeth Chelmer downe not farre from Leez, a little Abbay on old time founded by the Gernons, which at this day is the chiefe seat of the Barons Rich, who acknowledge themselves for this dignitie beholden to Richard Rich, a most wise and judicious person, Lord Chancellor of England under King Edward the Sixth, who in the first yeare of his reigne created him Baron Rich. A little beneath standeth Hatfield Peverell, so denominated of Randulph Peverell the owner thereof, who had to wife a lady of incomparable beauty in those daies, the daughter of Ingelricke, a man of great nobility among the Engish-Saxons. This Ladie founded heere a College, which now is in maner quite plucked downe, and in a window of the Church whereof their remaineth still a small part, lieth entombed. She bare unto her husband William Peverel, Castellane of Dover, Sir Payne Peverel Lord of Brun in the county of Cambridge, and unto King William the Conquerour, whose paramore she was, William Peverel Lord of Nothingham. But now returne we to Chelmer, which by this time speedeth it selfe to Chelmerford, commonly Chemsford (where, by the distance of the place from Camalodunum, it may seeme that old Canonium sometimes stood). This is a good bigge towne situate in the hart of the shire betweene two rivers, who, as it were, agreed heere to joyne both their streames together: to wit Chelmer from the East, and another from the south, the name whereof if it be Can, as some would have it, we have no reason to doubt that this was Canonium. Famous it was within the remembrance of our fathers in regard of a small religious house built by Malcome King of Scots, now of note onely for the Assises (for so they call those Courts of Justice wherein twise a yeere the causes and controversies of the whole County are debated before the Judges). It beganne to flourish when Maurice Bishop of London, unto whom it belonged, built the bridges heere in the reigne of Henrie the First, and turned London way thither, which lay before through Writtle, a towne right well knowen for the largenesse of the Parish: which King Henrie the Third graunted unto Robert Brus Lord of Anandale in Scotland (whose wife was one of the heires of John surnamed Scot, the last Earle of Chester), for that he would not have the Earledome of Chester to be devided among the distaves, and King Edward the Third, when as the posterity of the Bruses forsooke their allegeance, bestowed it upon Humfrey Bohun Earle of Hereford and of Essex. But now of late, when King James at his entrance to the Kingdome bestowed Baronies bountifully upon select persons, he created Sir John Petre, a right respective Knight, Baron Petre of Writtle. whose father Sir William Petre, a man of approved wisdome and exquisite learning, memorable not so much for those most honorable places and offices of State which he bare (as who was of the privie Counsell to King Henrie the Eighth, King Edward the Sixt, Queene Marie, and Queene Elizabeth, and sent oftentimes in Embassage to forraigne princes), as for that, being bred and brought up in good learning, hee well deserved of learning in the Universitie of Oxford, and was both pittifull and bounteous to his poore neighbours about him and at Engerstone, ?where he lieth buried.?

14. Frosh-well the river, more truly called Pant, and neere to his mouth Black-water, issuing out of a small spring about Radwinter, that belonged to the Barons of Cobham, after it hath gone a long course and seene nothing but Bocking, a fat Parsonage, it commeth to Cogeshall, a mercate towne well knowne in times past for a Priorie of Cluniacke Monkes built by King Stephen, and the habitation of ancient Knights thence surnamed De Cogeshall, from whose heire generall married into the old family of Tirell, their branched farre a faire propagation of the Tirells in this shire and elsewhere. Then goeth on this water by Easterford, some call it East-Sturford, and leaving some mile of Whitham, a faire through-faire and built by King Edward the Elder in the yeere 914, which also afterward was of the Honor of Eustace Earle of Bollen, meeteth at length with Chelmer, Which now passing on whole in one channell not farre from Danbury mounted upon a high hill, the habitation for a time of the family of the Darcies, runneth hard by Woodham-walters, the ancient seat of the Lords Fitz-walters, who, being nobly descended, were of a most ancient race, derived from Robert the younger sonne of Richard sonne to Earle Gislebert, but in the age more lately foregoing, translated by a daughter into the stocke of the Ratcliffes, who, now being advanced to the Earldome of Sussex, dwell now a little from hence in New Hall, a stately and sumptuous house. This New Hall appertained sometime to the Butlers Earles of Ormond, and then hereditarily to Sir Thomas Bollen Earle of Wiltshire, of whom King Henrie the Eighth getting it by way of Exchange, inlarged it to his exceeding great charges, and called it by a new name Beaulieu, which for all that was never currant among the people.

15. After this, Chelmer with other waters running with him, being divided by a river-Iland, casting of that name and now being called of some Black-water, and of others Pant, saluteth that ancient Colonie of the Romanes Camalodunum, which many hundred yeeres since adorned this shore. Ptolomee termeth it Camulodolanum, Antonine Camulodunum and Camolodunum, but Plinie, Dio, and and old Marble stone indue us to beleeve that Camalodunum is the right name. In the seeking out of this Citie, god Good, how dim sighted some have beene! Whereas it bewraied it selfe by the very name and situation, and shewed it selfe cleerely to them that are halfe blind. A number have searched for it in the West part of this Isle, as that good man who thought himselfe to carrie, as one would say, the Sunne of antiquity in his owne hand; others in the furthest part of Scotland; others wholly addicted in opinion to Leland affirmed it to be Colchester, when as (the name scarce any whit maimed) it is called at this day, in steed of Camalodunum, Maldon, in the Saxon tongue Maldune and Mealdune , the greate part of the word remaining yet entire and in use. Neither hath the expresse remaine of the name onely perswaded me to this, but also the distance set downe in Plinie from Mona and the very situation in the ancient Itinerarie Table doe afford a most evident proofe thereof. That this name was imposed upon Camalodunum of the God Camulus, I hardly dare imagine. Howbeit, that Mars was worshipped under this name Camulus, both an old stone at Rome in the house of Collotians, and altars discovered with this inscription, CAMVLO DEO SANCTO ET FORTISSIMO, that is, TO CAMULUS THE HOLY AND MOST MIGHTY GOD doe jointly prove. And in an antique coine of Cunobellinus, whose roiall palace this was (as I have already said), I have seene the portraict stamped of an head having an helmet on it, also with a speare, which may seeme to be that of Mars, with these letters, CAMV. But seeing this peece of money is not now ready at hand to shew, I exhibite here unto you other expresse portraicts of Cunobellinus his peeces, which may be thought to have reference to this Camalodunum.

Picture of two coins

16. This Cunobelin governed this East part of the Isle in the time of Tiberius the Emperour, and seemeth to have had three sonnes, Admimus, Togodumnus, and Catacratus. Admimus, by his father banished, was interteined by Caius Caligula the Emperour what time as he made his ridiculous expedition into Batavia, that from thence he might blow and breath out the terrour of his owne person into Britaine. As for Togodumnus, Aulus Plautius in a set battaile defaited and slew him, and over Catacratus, whom, as I said, he discomfited and put to flight, he rode ovant in pety triumph. This is that Plautius who at the perswasion of C. Bericus the Britane, a banished man (for there never want quarels one or other of war), was the first after Julius Caesar that attempted Britaine under Claudius: whom Claudius himselfe, having shipped over the legions, followed in person with the whole power of the Empire, and with Elephants (the bones of which beasts, being found, have deceived very many). he passed over the Tamis and put to flight the Britans, who upon the bancke received and encountred him as he came toward them, and won with ease this Camalodunum the Kings seat. For which exploit, after he had named his sonne Britannicus and beene himselfe oftentimes saluted imperator , within six monthes after he set first forth in his voyage, returned to Rome. But heereof I have written before more at large, neither list I to iterate the same in this place.

17. When Camalodunum was thus brought under the Romans subjection, Claudius planted a Colony there with a strong band of old tried souldiers, and in memoriall heereof ordeined peeces of mony to be stamped with this inscription: COL. CAMALODVN. Out of which it is gathered that this happened in the XII yeere of his Empire and in the yeere 52 after the Birth of Christ. And in regard of those old experienced souldiours of the fourteenth legion called Gemina Martia Victrix , whom Tacitus tearmeth the Subduers of Britaine , brought thither and placed in it, it was named Colonia Victricensis, and the inhabitants cives Romani , that is, Citizens of Rome , in an old Inscription which I heere present to you.


18. A Colony (if it may be materiall to know so much) is a Company of men that be all brought into one certaine place, built with houses to their hands, which they are to have and hold by a certaine right. For the most part, old soldiours that had served long were brought to such a place, both that themselves might be provided for and maintained, and also be ready in all extremity to helpe against rebels and enforme withall the provincials in their duties by law required. These Colonies also were of great estimation, as being pety resemblances and images, as it were, of the city of Rome. Moreover they had their peculiar Magistrates both superior and inferior, of which because others have written sufficiently, I neede not to stand either upon them or such like points. In this first Colony that the Romans planted in Britain there was a temple built unto divus Claudius , Tacitus tearmeth it the Altar of aeternall dominion , whereof Seneca maketh mention in his Play after this maner, A small matter it is , saith hee, and not sufficient that Claudius hath a Temple in Britain which the Barbarous nation adoreth and praieth unto, as to a God. there were Priests also elected in honor of him, by name sodales Augustales , which under a shew of religion lavishly consumed the Britans goods. But after tenne yeeres fortune turned her wheele and downe went this Colony. For when those old soldiours, brought into these territories which they had won, exercised extreame cruelty upon these silly people, the burning broiles of warre, which before were quenched, brake out into flames with greater flashes. The Britans, under the leading of Bunduica, who also is called Boodicia, by maine force sacked and set on fire this Colonie, lying unfortified and without all fence [defence], and within two daies wonne the said Temple whereinto the souldiers had thronged themselves. The Ninth Legion, comming to aide, they put to flight, and in one word slew of Roman citizens and associates together threescore and tenne thousand. This slaughter was foretold by many prodigies. The Image of Victory in this city was turned backeward and fallen downe; in their Senate house strange noises were heard; the Theater resounded with howlings and yellings; houses were seene under the water of Tamis, and the Arme of the sea beneath it over flowed the bankes as read as bloud to see to, which now (for what cause I knowne not) we call Blackewater, like as Ptolomee termed it Idumanum aestuarium , under which is couched a signification of Blacknesse. For ydu in the British tongue soundeth as much as Black. Yet out of the very embers the Romans raised it againe. For Antonine the Emperour made mention of it many yeeres after. Howbeit in the English-Saxons government it is scarse mentioned. Only Marianus hath written that Edward the sonne of Aelfred repaired Maldun when it was sore shaken by the furious rage of the Danes, and then fortified it with a Castle. William the Norman, Conquerour of England, as we read in his Commentarie, had in this towne 180 houses in the tenure and occupation of burgesses, and 18 mansions wasted. But at this day, for the number of the inhabitants and the bignesse, it is worthily counted one of the principall townes in all Essex, and in Records named The Burgh of Maldon. It is an haven commodious enough, and for the bignesse very well inhabited, being but one especiall street descending much about a mile in length, ?upon the ridge of an hill answerable to the termination of dunum , which signified an hilly and high situation , wherein I saw nothing memorable, unlesse I should mention to silly Churches a desolate place of White Friers, and a small pile of Bricke built not long since by Richard Darcy, which name hath beene respective heere-about.?

19. Hence passing down over the brackish water divided into two streamlets, by High-bridg, I sought for an ancient place which Antonine the Emperor placed six miles from Camalodunum in the way toward Suffolke and called it Ad Ansam. This I have thought to have beene some bound [boundary] belonging to the Colonie of Camalodunum, which resembled the fashion of ansa , that is, the handle or eare of a pot. For I had read in Siculus Flaccus, The territories lying to Colonies were limited with divers and sundry markes. In the limits their were set up for bound markes heere one thing, and there another: in one place little images, in another long earthen vessels; heere you should have little sword blades, three square stones or Lozenges pointed, and else where according to Vitalis and Arcadius, they were mere stones like flagons and small wine pipes. Why might not therefore a stone fashioned like the handle of a pot be set for a bound, seeing that Antonine according to his wonted manner called it Ad Ansam and not Ansae ? But how religiously and with what ceremoniall complements these bound markes were in old time set, I will by way of digression set downe heere out of the same Siculus Flaccus. When they were to place their bound-markes, the verie stones themselves they did set upon the firme ground, hard by those places wherein they ment to pitch them fast, in pittes or holes digged for the purpose; they annointed them and with vailes and garlands bedecked them. This done, in those pits wherein they were to put them, after sacrifice made and an unspotted beast killed, upon burning firebrands covered over in the grave they dropped in bloud, and thereupon they threw frankincense and corne. Honie combes also and wine with other things, as the manner is to sacrifice unto Gods of bounds and limets, they threw after the rest into the said pitte. Thus when all these viands were consumed with fire, they pitched the foresaid bound-markes upon the hot ashes thereof, and so with carefull diligence fastened them strongly, and rammed them round about with fragments of stones, that they might stand the surer. But in what place soever this Ad Ansam was, I betake my selfe againe to my former opinion for the signification of the word; namely, that Ad Ansam was either a bound marke, or onely a resting place or some Inne by the high way side under such a signe, and that I collect by the distance to have beene neere unto Cogeshall. Neither were they any things else but bound markes or Innes that in the Romane age were named after the same forme of speech, Ad Columnam, Ad Fines, Ad Tres Tabernas, Ad Rotam, Ad Septem Fratres, Ad Aquilam Minorem, Ad Herculem &., that is, At the Piller, At the Bounds, At the Three Taverns, At the Wheele, At the Seaven Bretheren, At the Lesse Aegle, At Hercules &.

And therefore to search more curiouslie into these matters were nothing else but to hunt after the windes. ?Yet I will heere impart what I incidentlie happened upon in a privat note, while I was inquisitive heere-about for Ad Ansam. In a place called Westfield three quarters of a mile distant from Cogeshall and belonging to the Abbay there, was found by touching of a plough a great brasen potte. The ploughmen, supposing it to have beene hidden treasure, sent for the Abbot of Cogeshall to see the taking uppe of it; and hee going thither mette with Sir Clement Harleston, and desired him also to accompanie him thether. The mouth of the potte was closed with a white substance like past or claie, as hard as burned bricke. When that by force was remooved, there was found within it an other potte, but that was of earth. That beeing opened, there was found in it a lesser potte of earth of the quantitie of a Gallon covered with a matter like velvet, and fastned at the mouth with a silk-lace. In it they found some whole bones and many peeces of small bones wrapped up in a fine silke of fresh colour, which the Abbot tooke for the reliques of some Saints and laied uppe in his Vestuary. But this by way of digression, leaving it to your consideration.?

20. From Malden the shores, drawne backe, intertaine the sea in a most large and pleasant bay, which yeeldeth exceeding great store of those oysters of the best kinde, which wee call Walfleot. And (that our coasts should not bee defrauded of their due fame and glorie) I take thee to bee those verie shores which, as Plinie saith, served the Romans Kitchens, seeing that Mutianus giveth unto British oysters the third place after those of Cizicum, in these verie words of his: The oysters of Cizicum bee greater than those that come from Lucrinum, and sweeter than they of Britain. But neither at that time, nor afterwards when Sergius Orata brought those Lucrine oysters into such name and great request, did the British shores, as hee saith, serve Rome with oysters. So that hee may seeme to have given the chiefe price unto British oysters. Neither thinke I were those oysters other than those which Ausonius called mira , that is, wonderfull , in this verse to Paulinus:

The British tides sometimes lay bare
Those oysters huge, that wonderous are.

But of these oysters and of their pits or stewes in this coast I will give those leave to write, who, beeing deinty toothed, are judicious clerkes in Kitchenrie.

21. Into this creeke, beside other rivers, Coln sheddeth himselfe, which, growing to an head out of divers springs in the North part of this County, passeth by the towne of Hedningham or Hengham, commonly called Heningham, where was a goodly faire proper Castle in times past, and the ancient habitation of the Earles of Oxford who procured a mercat thereunto. Over against which, upon the other side of the river standeth Sibble Heningham, the place, as I have heard say, wherein was borne Sir John Hawkwood (the Italians corruptly call him Aucuthus), whom they so highly admired for his warlicke prowesse that the State of Florence in regard of his notable demerites [merits] adorned him with the statue of a man of armes and an honorable tombe, in testimony of his surpassing valour and singular faithfull service to their state. The Italians resound his worthy Acts with full mouth, and Paulus jovius in his Elogia commendeth him. But for my part it may suffice to adde unto the rest this tetrastichon of Julius Feroldus:

The glorie prime of Englishmen, then of Italians bold,
O Hawkwood, and to Italie a sure defensive hold:
Thy vertue Florence honored sometime with costly grave,
And Jovius adorns the same now with a statue brave.

?This renowned Knight, thus celebrated abroad, was forgotten at home, save that some of his kinde souldiery followers founded a Chantrie at Castle Heningham for him and two of his militarie companions, John Oliver and Thomas Newenton Esquiers.?

22. From hence the river Coln, holding on his course by Hawsted, which was the seat of the familie of the Bourchiers, whence came Robert Bourchier Lord Chancellour of England in the time of King Edward the Third, and from him sprang a most honorable progenie of Earles and Barons of that name. Thence by Earles Coln (so called of the Sepulture there of the Earles of Oxford), where Aubry de Vere in the time of King Henry the First founded a little Monastery and became himselfe a religious Monke, it comes to Colonia, whereof Antonine the Emperor maketh mention, and which he noteth to be a different place from the Colonie Camalodunum. Now whether this tooke name of a Colonie hither brought or of the river Coln, Apollo himselfe had neede to tell us: I would rather derive it from the river, seeing, as I doe, that many little townes situate upon it are named Coln: a Earles Colne, Wakes Colne, Colone Engaine, White Colne, bearing the names all of their Lords. The Britaines called this Caer Colin , the Saxons, Cole ceaster , and we Colchester. A proper and fine burrough it is, well traded and pleasantly seated, as being situat upon the brow of an hill stretching out from West to East, walled about, beautified with 15 Churches, besides that large and stately one without the walles which Eudo Sewar [steward] to King Henrie the First consecrated unto Saint John, now ruinated and converted into a private dwelling house. In the midest of the towne there is a Castle, now yeelding to time, ready to fall, which, as our Historians write, Edward the sonne of Aelfred first raised from the ground what time as he repaired Colchester, defaced with warres and long after Maud the Empresse gave it to Alberic Vere to assure him to her partie. The infinite deale of auncient coine daily gotten out of the ground there doth most plainly shew that flourished in the Roman time in happy estate. Yet have I light of no peeces more ancient than of Gallienus. For the most were such as had upon the Inscriptions of the Tetrici and the Victorini, of Posthumus, C. Carausius, Constantine, and the Emperours that followed him. The inhabitants affirme that Flavia Julia Helena, the mother of Constantine the Great, was borne and bred there, being the daughter of King Coel, and in memory of the Crosse which shee found, they give for their armes a Crosse enragled betweene foure Crownes. Whence it is that our Necham, as touching her and this place, came out with these verses, although Apollo was not greatly his friend therein:

From out of thee, o Colchester, there shone a Star of life,
The raies whereof to Climats seven gave great and glorious light.
This Star was Constantine the Great, that noble Emperor,
Whom Rome in all obedience lay prostrate to adore.

Verily she was a woman of life most holy, and of invincible resolution and constancy in propagation of Christian Religion. Whereupon in ancient inscriptions she is every where named PIISSIMA and VENERABILIS AVGVSTA, that is, MOST DEVOUT and VENERABLE EMPRESSE. Beneath this, where the river Coln entreth into the sea, standeth to be seene S. Osiths, a little town whose ancient name, which was Chic , is growne out of use by reason of Osith the virgin of royall parentage, who being wholy devoted to the service of God, and stabbed there to death by the Danish Pirates, was of our ancestors honoured for a Saint: and in her memoriall Richard Bishop of London about the yeere 1120 built a religious house, of Regular Chanons. But now it is the chiefe seate of the right honourable Lords Darcy, called De Chich, whom King Edward the Sixth advanced to the honour of Barons when he created Sir Thomas Darcy his Counsellour, Vicechamberlain, and Captane of the Gard, Lord Darcy of Chich.

23. From hence the shore, shooting out, buncheth foorth as farre as to the Promontorie Nesse, which in the English-Saxon tongue is caled Eadulphes-ness. What hath beene found in his place, have heere out of the words and credit of Ralphe the Monke of Coggeshall, who wrot 350 yeeres agoe. In King Richards time, on the Seashore, at a village called Eadulphnesse, were found two teeth of a certaine Giant, of such a huge bignesse that two hundred such teeth as men have now a daies might be cut out of them. These saw I at Cogeshall (quoth he), and not without wondering. And such another Giantlike thing (I wot not what) as this was in the beginning of Queene Elizabethes raigne digged up by Richard Candish, a Gentleman, neere unto this place. Neither doe I denie but there have beene men that for their huge bodies and firme strength were wonderous to behold: whom God, as S. Austin said, would have to live upon the earth, thereby to teach us that neither beauty of body nor talnesse of stature are to be counted simply good things, seeing they be common as well to Infidels as to the godly. Yet may we very well thinke that which Suetonius hath written, namely that the huge limmes of monstrous Sea-creatures else where, and in this kingdome also, were commonly said and taken to have been Giants bones.

24. From this Promontory the shore bendeth backe by little and little to the mouth of Stoure, a place memorable for the battaile at sea there fought betweene the English and Danes in the yeere 884, where now lieth Harewich, a most safe road, whence it hath the name. For hare-wic in the English-Saxon tongue betokeneth a Station or a creeke where an army encamped. ?The towne is not great, but well peopled, fortified by Art and nature, and made more fensible [protected] by Queene Elizabeth. The salt water so creeketh about it that it almost insulateth it, but thereby maketh the springs so brackish that there is a defect of fresh water, which they fetch some good way off.? This is the Stour that, running betweene Essex and Suffolke, serveth as a bound to them both, and on this side watereth nothing else but rich and fruitfull fields. But not farre from the head therof standeth Bumstead, which the family of Helion held by Baronie, ?from whom the Wentworthes of Gosfield are descended.? And what way this country looketh toward Cambridgeshire Barklow sheweth it selfe, well knowen now by reason of foure little hils or Burries cast up by mans hand, such as in old time were wont to be raised (so some would have it) as tombes for solders slaine, whose reliques were not easie to be found. But when a fifth and sixt of them were not long since digged downe, three troughes of stone were found, and in them broken bones of men, as i was informed. The country people say that the were reared after a field there fought against the Danes. For Dane-wort, which with bloud-red berries cometh up heere plenteously, they still call by no other name than Danes-bloud, of the number of Danes that were there slaine, verily beleeving that it blometh from their bloud.

25. A little below standeth upon an hill Walden of Saffron, called Saffron Walden, among the fields looking merily with most lovely Saffron. A very good Mercat town incorporated by King Edward the Sixth with a Treasurer, two Chamberlaines and the Commonalty. Famous it was in times past for a Castell of the Magnavilles (which now is almost vanished out of sight) and an Abbay adjoyning, founded in a place very commodious in the yeere 1136, wherein the Magnavilles, founders thereof, were buried. Geffrey de Magnavilla was the first that gave light and life (as it were) to this place. For Mawde the Empresse in these words (out of her very Patent I copy them) gave unto him Newport (a good bigge towne that is hard by). For so much as he was wont to pay that day whereon (as her words are) my father King Henry was alive and dead, and to remove the mercat from Newport into his Castell of Walden, with all the customes that beforetime in better maner appertained to that Mercat, to wit in Toll, passage and other customes, and that the waies of Newport neere unto the water banke be directed streight according to the old custome into Waldon, upon the ground forfited to me, and that the Mercat of Walden be kept upon Sunday and Thursday, and that a Faire be holden at Walden to begin on Whitsondy even and to last all the Whitson week. (And from that time, by occasion of this Mercat, for a great while it was called Cheping Walden). ?Also, as it is in the Booke of Walden Abbay, He the said Geffrey appointed Walden to be the principal place and seat of his Honour and Earledom for him and his successours. The place were he built the Abbay had plenty of waters, which rising their continually doe run and never faile. Late it is eere the sunne riseth and shineth there, and with the soonest he doth set and carry away his light, for that the hilles on both sides stand against it. ? That place they now call Audley End, of Sir Thomas Audley Lord Chancellour of England, who changed the Abbay into his owne dwelling house. This Thomas, created by King Henry the Eight Baron Audley of Walden, left one sole daughter and heire, Margaret, second wife to Thomas Howard Duke of Norfolke, of whom he begat Lord Thomas, Lord William, Lady Elizabeth, and Lady Margaret. The said Thomas, emploied in sundry sea-services with commendation, Queene Elizabeth summoned by writ unto the High Court of Parliament among other Barons of the Realme by the name of Lord Howard of Walden. And King James of late girded him with the sword of the Earledome of Suffolke, and made him his Chamberlain; who in this place hath begunne a magnificent building. Neere to another house of his at Chesterford, there was a towne of far greater antiquity hard by Icaldun, in the very border of the shire, which now of the old Burgh the rusticall people use to call Burrow Banke, where remaine the footings onely of a towne lying in maner dead, and the manifest tract of the very walles. Yet will I not say that it was the Villa Faustini which Antonine the Emperour placeth in this tract, and albeit,

It takes not up large ground that yeelds no gaine,
But, country-like, is homely rude and plaine,

Yet dare not I once dreame that this is the Villa Faustini which in these and other verses is by that pleasant and conceited Poet Martiall depaincted in his Epigrams. The fieldes heere on every side (as I said) smell sweetly and smile pleasantly with Saffron, a commodity brought into England in the time of King Edward the Third. This in the moneth of July every third yeare, when the heads thereof have beene plucked up and after twenty daies spitted or set againe under mould, about the end of September they put foorth a whitish blew flower, out of the middle whereof there hange three red fillets of Safron (which we call Chives), which are gathered very early in the morning before the sunne rising, and, being plucked out of the flower, are dried in a soft fire. And so great increase commeth heereof that out of every acre of ground there are made fourescore or an hundred pounds weight of saffran while it is moist, which being dried yeeld some twenty pound in weight. And that which a man would marvell more at, the ground which three yeeres together hath borne Saffran will beare aboundance of Barly eighteene yeeres together without any dunging or manuring, and then againe beare Saffran as before, ?if the inhabitants there hath not misinformed me, or I misconceived them.?

26. More into the South is Clavering seated, which King Henry the Second gave unto Sir Robert Fitz-Roger (from whom the family of Evers are issued). The posterity of this Sir Roger, after they had a long time taken their fathers fore-name or Christen-name according to that ancient custome, as John Fitz-Robert, Robert Fitz-John &., afterwards by the commandement of King Edward the First they assumed from hence the name of Clavering. But of these I am to speake in Northumberland. Stansted Montfichet heere also putteth up the head, which I will not passe over in silence, considering it hath beene the Baronie or habitation in times past of the family De Monte Fixo, commonly Mont-fichet, who bare for their Armes three Cheverus Or in a shield Gueles , and were reputed men of very great nobility. But five of them flourished in right line, and at the last three sisters were seized of the inheritance, Margaret wife of Hugh De Bloeber, Aveline wedded to William De Fortibus Earle of Aumarle, and Philip wife to Hugh Playz. The posterity male of this Hugh flourished within the remembrance of our great Grandfathers, and determined in a daughter married to Sir John Howard, Knight, from whose daughter by Sir George Vere descended the Barons Latimer and the Wingfeldes. And a little below is Hastingbury to be seene, the residence of the Barons Morley, of whom I shall speake more in Norfolke. And close to this standeth an ancient Fort or Military fense thereof named Walbury, and more East-ward Barrington Hall, where dwell that right ancient family of the Barringtons, which in the reigne of King Stephen the Barons of Montfichet inriched with faire possessions, and more enobled their house in our fathers remembrance by matching with one of the daughters and coheires of Sir Henry Pole Lord Montacute, sonne of Margarete Countesse of Salisbury, descended of the bloud royall. ?Neither is Hatfield Regis, commonly called of a broad spread Oke Hatfield Brad-Oke, to be omitted, where Robert Vere Earle of Oxford built a Priory, and there lieth entombed crosse-legged with a French inscription, wherein he is noted to be the first of that name Robert, and third Earle of Oxford.?

27. After the commng in of the Normans, Maude the Empresse, Lady of the English (for so shee stiled herselfe), created Geffrey de Magnavilla, usually called Mandevil, son to William by Margaret daughter and heire of Endo the Steward or Shewar , the first Earle of Essex, that she might so by her benefits oblige unto her a man both mighty and martiall. Who in those troublesome times under King Stephen, despoiled of his estate, made an end of his owne turbulent life with the sword. And hee verily for his wicked deedes (as I finde in an old writer), justly incurred the worlds censure and sentence of excommunication: in which while he stood, he was deadly wounded in the head at a little towne called Burwel. When he laie at the point of death ready to give his last gaspe, there came by chance certaine Knights Templars, who laid upon him the habit of their religious profession signed with a red crosse, and afterwards when he was full dead, taking him up with them, enclosed him within a Coffin of lead and hunge him upon a tree in the Orchard of the Old Temple at London. For in a reverent awe of the Church they durst not burie him, because he died excommunicated. After him succeeded Geffrey his sonne, who was restored by Henrie the Second to his fathers honours and estate for him and his heires. But he, having no children, left them to his brother William, who by his wife was also Earle of Albemarle, and died likewise in his greatest glory issuelesse. Some yeares after King John promoted Geffrey Fitz-Petre, Justicer of England, a wise and grave personage, unto this honour in consideration of a great masse of money and title by his wife Beatrice, the eldest daughter of William de Say, who was the sisters sonne of that great Geffrey de Magnavill, the first Earle of Essex. This Fitz-Petre, a man (as an old author writeth), passing well monied, had formerly dealt with the Bishop of Elie the kings chiefe Justicer, for a great peece of money presently paid and by intreaty beside; and then claimed and demaunded the Earledome in his wives right, as being the daughter of William Say eldest brother to Geffrey Say. Who gave him full Seisin thereof (against Geffrey Say) and required the money that hee promised: which within a short time he received of him every penny wel and truly paid, for to bee brought into the kings coffers. Thus being admitted and confirmed by the Kings letters patent, he held and possessed it, taking Homage of all that held of him in Knights service. ?And so was girt with the sword of the Earledome of Essex by King John at the solemnity of his Coronation. This Geffrey Fitz-Petre was advaunced to the high estate of Justicer of England by King Richard the First, when hee remooved Hubert Archbishop of Canterbury from that office by the Popes peremptorie command, for that Bishops ought not to intermedle in secular affaires. This place the said Geffrey Fitz-Petre executed with great commendation, preserving by his wisdome the Realme from that confusion which it after fell into by King Johns unadvised carriage.? His two Sonnes Geffrey and William assumed unto them the surname of Magnavill or Mandevill, and enjoied this honour successively. As for Geffrey, hee by his wife was Earle of Glocester also, and, being a young man, lost his life at a Turneament. William tooke part with Lewis of France against King John, and departed out of this world without issue. These being thus dead childlesse, their sisters sonne Humfrey de Bohun Earle of Hereford and high Constable of England, succeeded in their roome. Of this man' s posterity male, there succeeded many yeares together one after another Earles of Hereford and of Essex, of whom I will speake among the Earles of Hereford, seeing that they wrote themselves Earles of Hereford and of Essex. Aeleonor the eldest daughter of the last of these Bohuns, beeing given in marriage together with the title of Essex unto Thomas of Woodstock Duke of Glocester, bare unto him a daughter named Anne, who had for her first husband Edmund Earle of Stafford, from whom came the Dukes of Buckingham, and for her second Sir William Bourchier, unto whom KIng Henrie the Fifth gave the Earledome of Ew in Normandie. This William of her bodie begat Henrie Bourchier, whom King Edward the Fourth invested in the dignity of the Earledome of Essex, in regard hee had married his aunt, and was descended from Thomas of Woodstock. Hee had to succeede him another Henrie, his grand-child, who, beeing cast out of the sadle by a flinging horse, lost his life, leaving behind him one onely daughter, Anne, who beeing then little respected, King Henrie the Eighth presently and all at once made Thomas Cromwell (whom hee had used as his instrument to suppresse and abolish the Popes authority) Earle of Essex, Lord Great Chamberlaine of England, and knight of the Order of Saint George: whom before, for his reaching politicke head, hee had made Baron Cromwell of Ockham, The Kings Vicar General in Spiritual matters, and Lord of the privy Seale, and all these honours were heaped upon him within the compasse of five yeares. But in the Fifth month after hee was Earle, hee lost his head, and so had the enterlude of his life a bloudy Catastrophe, as most of others have who are busie managers of the greatest affaires. And then the same King thought Sir William Parr, upon whom hee had bestowed in marriage Anne, the onely daughter and heire of the foresaid Henry Bourchier, worthy also to bee entituled Earle of Essex. But at the last, after Parr was dead without issue, Walter D' Eureux Vicount Hereford, whose great grandmother was Cecilie Bourgchier sister to Henrie Bourgchier whom I have named right now, through the gracious favour of Queene Elizabeth received this dignity of the Earledome of Essex, and left it to his sonne Robert. Who beeing adorned with singular gifts of nature, and supported besides with the speciall favour of his most gracious Prince, grew so fast unto such honour that al England conceived good hope hee would have fully equalled, yea and farre surpassed the greatest vertues and praises of all his progenitours. But (alas) whiles hee was carried away with popularity, and made hast to out goe his hopes, hee cast himselfe headlong into destruction, as many more have done who, despising that which might come by patience with securitie, have made choise to hasten thereto before time, with their finall overthrow. But our most gratious Soveraigne King James of his roial benignity hath restored his sonne Robert to his bloud and honours by Parliament authority.

There be counted in this County Parish Churches 415.


THE Region next unto the Trinobantes, which afterwards was called East-England, and containeth Suffolke, Norfolk, and Cambridgeshire with Huntingdonshire, was inhabited in times past by the Iceni, called elswhere amisse Tigeni, and Ptolomee more corruptly Simeni, whom also I have thought heeretofore to have beene in Caesar by a confused named termed Cenimagni, and so to thinke induced I was, partly by that most neere affinity betweene these names Iceni and Ceni-Magi, and in part by the consent of Caesar and Tacitus together. For Caesar writeth that the Cenimagni yeelded themselves unto the Romans, which Tacitus recordeth that the Iceni likewise did, in these words: They willingly joined in amity with us. But (that which maketh most to the cleering of this point) in a Manuscript old booke for Cenimagni we finde written with the word devided in twaine, Ceni, Agni. For which, if I might not be thought somewhat too bould a Critick, I would read instead thereof Iceni, Regni. Neither verily can you find the Cenimagni elsewhere in all Britain, if they be a diverse people from the Iceni and Regni. But of this name Iceni there remaine in this tract very many footings [vestiges], if I may so tearme them, as Ikenworth, Ikenthorpe, Ikborrow, Iken, Iksning, Ichlingham, Eike, &. Yea and that high street-way which went from hence the Historians of the former age everywhere doe name Ichenild-Street, as one would say the Icenes street. What should be the reason of this name (so love me Truth) I dare not guesse, unlesse one would fetch it from the Wedge-like forme of the country, and say it lieth Wedg-wise upon the sea. For the Britans in their language call a Wedge iken , and for the same cause a place in Wales, by the Lake or Meere Lhintegid, is of that forme named Lhan-yken, as Welsh-Britans enformed me: and in the very same sense a little country in Spaine (as Strabo writeth) is cleped Sphen , that is, The wedge , and yet the same seemeth not to resemble a wedge so neere as this of ours doth.

2. A mighty nation this was, as saith Tacitus, and after they had betaken themselves to the protection of the Romans, never shaken nor troubled unto Claudius his time. For then, when as Ostorius the Romane Lieutenant raised fortifications upon the rivers and disarmed the Britans, they assembled their forces and made head against him. But after that the Romanes had broken through the rampier wherewith they had fensed themselves, they were vanquished not without great slaughter. In which fight verily they performed many worthy acts, and M. Ostorius the Lieutenants sonne wonne the honour of saving a Citizens life. When this warre was thus husht, scarce 13 yeeres had gone over their heads when a new tempest of warre arose upon these occasions. Prasutagus King of these Iceni, to secure (though it were with the hurt of his owne private estate) his kinred from calamity, ordained by his last will and testament Nero the Emperour to be his heire, supposing that by this obsequious service of his (let Tacitus speake for me a while) this kingdome and house both should be safe from all injury: which fell out cleane contrary, so that his kingdome was wasted by the Centurions, and his house by slaves, as if they had beene subdued by force. And now first of all his wife Boodicia, who also is called Bunduica, was whipped, and her daughters defloured. All the principall men of the Iceni, as though they had received the whole Country in free gift, were stript of their goods and turned out of their ancient inheritance; those also of the the Kings stocke and bloud accounted no better than bondslaves. By occasions of which grievous injuries and for feare of greater indignities (for so much they had beene reduced into the forme of a province) in all hast they tooke armes, having withall sollicited the Trinobantes to rebellion, and others also who had not as yet beene inured to bondage. These by privie conspiracies agreed to resume their liberty, being incensed with most bitter and deadly hatred against the old soldiours planted at Maldon above said. Thus beganne a most dangerous war to kindle, which was set more on a light fire by the greedy covetousnesse of Seneca, who about that time exacted with extremitie 400000 sesterces an hundred times told (which amount to three hundred thousand pounds of our money), so encreased by his biting usurious contracts. In this warre, that I may be briefe, that Boodicia, whom Gildas seemeth to call the crafty Lionesse , wife to Prasutagus, slew outright of Romanes and their associates fourescore thousand, raised Caimalodunum [sic] their Colonie, and the free towne Verulamium. The ninth Legion she discomfited, and put to flight Catus Decianus the Procuratour: but at length she, being put to the worst by Suetonius Paulinus in a pitched field, with an invincible courage and resolution died (as Tacitus writeth) by drinking a up of poison, or, as Dio saith, by sicknesse. In the heat of this warre, Xiphilinus recordeth out of Dio that the Britans especially worshipped the Goddesse Victorie under the name of Andates, which the Greeke booke in another place calleth Andrates : so that in her sacred grove they sacrificed prisoners alive in most barbarous and savage maner. And yet the Britans in these daies acknowledge no such name of Victorie, neither know I what the meaning of it should be, unlesse, as the Latins have called Victorie Victoriam a vicendo , that is, of winning , the Sabins Vacunam ab evacuando , that is, of emptying and making riddance , and the Grecians ????? ??? ??? ?? ??????, that is, of not yeelding or giving backe , to the Britans named it Anaraith of overthrowing. For so they terme a mischievous and deadly overthrow. But thus much slightly by the way. From those times ever since no mention is there in authors of the Iceni, neither can any thing by reading be found but that the Romanes, when their Empire went apace to decay, did set a new officer over the sea coasts along these and other countries to restraine the piracies and robberies of the Saxons, whom, as I have said heeretofore, they called comes of the Saxon shore along Britaine.

3. But when the English Saxons now had established their Heptarchie in this Iland, this province became part of the Kingdome of East Angles, which of the site thereof Eastward they named in their language Est-angle-ric , that is, The Kingdome of East English , and it had for the first King thereof Uffa, whence his successours were a long time called Uff Kines , who seeme to have beene vassalles sometimes to the Kings of Mercia, and sometimes to the Kings of Kent. Whose of-spring being come to an end in Saint Edmund, the Danes overran this country most piteously for the space of fifty yeeres or there about, afflicting it with all the calamities that accompany the warres, untill that King Edward the Elder, having subdued them, united it at length to his owne Kingdome of the West Saxons. But afterwards it had peculiar Presidents and Governours, which honorable place at the first comming in of the Normans, and a while after, one Raulph borne in the lesser Britaine held; a man of a perfidious disposition and disloyall, who at the celebration of a marriage in most sumptuous maner wickedly with many moe [more] conspired the death of William the Conquerour. But in vaine it was to hope for secrecie and trust among so many privie to the conspiracy. For it was discovered, and he, deprived of his dignity, was attainted and the rest beheaded. But these things are to be handled more at large by the Historians. And now let us goe in hand with that which belongeth properly to our purpose, that is, the places themselves. What kind of country this was, behold how Abbo Floriacensis, who lived in the yere of Christ 970, hath pictured out in these words: This part which is called East Angle or East England is renowned, as for other causes, so in this regard, that it is watered almost on every side, being on the South-east and East environed with the Ocean, and on the North-east with huge Fennes soked in moisture, which, rising by reason of the levell ground from the mids in maner of all Britaine, for the space of an hundred miles and more doth descend with the greatest rivers into the Sea. But that side which lieth Westward the Province it selfe is continuate to the rest of the Iland, and therefore passable throughout: but least it should be overrunne with the often irruptions and breakings in of enemies, it is fensed along with a banke like unto a wall, and a trench. Inwardly the soile is fruitfull enough, and the country of a passing fresh hue, with pleasant Orchards, Gardens, and groves, most delectable for hunting, notable for pastures, and not meanly stored with sheepe and other cattel. I say nothing of the fishfull rivers, considering that of the one side the Sea licketh it with his tongue, and of the other side there are by reason of the broad fennes and wide marishes an infinite number of pooles two or three miles over. Which Fennes doe afford a multitude of Monkes their wished private retyrings of a recluse and solitarie life, wherein as long as they are enclosed, they neede not the solitarinesse of any desert wildernesse. Thus farre Abbo.


SUFFOLKE, which we must speake of first, in the Saxon tongue Sud-folc , that is, South-folke , or people in respect of Norfolke, hath on the West side Cambridgeshire, on the South the river Stour, which divideth it from Essex, on the East side the German sea, and on the North two little rivers, Ouse the Least and Waveney, which, flowing out as it were of the same fountaine, runne divers waies and sever it apart from Norfolke. A large country it is, and full of havens, of a fat and fertile soile (unlesse it be Eastward), being compounded (as it is) of clay and marle: by meanes whereof there are in every place most rich and goodly corne fields, with pastures as battable [useful] for grazing and feeding of cattell. And great store of cheeses are there made, which to the great commodity of the inhabitants are vented into all parts of England, nay in to Germanie, France, and Spain also, as Pantaleon the Phisitian writeth, who stucke not to compare these of ours for colour and tast both with those of Placentia, but he was no dainty toothed scholar out of Apicius schoole. Neither be their wanting woods heere, which have beene more plentifull, and parkes, for many their are lying to Noble mens and Gentlemens houses, replenished with game.

This Countie was divided politically into three parts, whereof one is called the Geldable, because out of it there is gathered a Tribute; a second, Saint Edmunds liberty, for that it belonged to his Abbay; the third Saint Audries liberty, because it apperteined to Ely Abby, unto which our Kings in times past granted certaine territories with Sach and Soch , as saith Ely Booke, without any exception either of Ecclesiasticall or secular jurisdiction. But let us survey it Chorographically, and beginning at the East side take a view of the better and more remarkable places.

2. Where it lieth West and toward Cambridgeshire, in the very limite standeth Ixning, more famous in times past than now. For Audre the Virgine King Annas daughter, and canonized for a Saint, was heere borne, Raulph also Earle of this East England heere entered into conspiracie against William the Conquerour, and Hervey the first Bishop of Ely made a causey or highway from hence to Ely. But now, for that Newmercate is so nere, whither men resort with their wares and commodities more frequently, it hath begun to decay. That this Newmarket is a towne of late daies built, the very name it selfe doth import, and it is situate in such sort that the South part thereof belongeth to Cambridgeshire, the North side to Suffolke, and both of them have their severall small Churches, whereof this acknowledgeth Ixning, the former Ditton or Dichton for their mother. Heereof I have found by reading nothing but that under King Henrie the Third Sir Robert L' Isle gave one part of it in franke marriage with his daughter Cassandra unto Sir Richard de Argenton, from whom the Alingtons are descended.

Heere lieth out a great way round about a large plaine, named of this towne Newmarket Heath, consisting of a sandy and barren ground yet greene withal, wherein is to be seene that wonderfull dich which, as if it had beene cast by the devill, the common sort call Devils Dike, whereas in very truth most certainly it is knowne to be one of them wherwith the inhabitants (as Abbo writeth) fensed themselves against the inrodes of their enemies, as shall be shewed more at large when we come to Cambridgeshire. Yet in the meane time I am heere to advertise the reader that the least of all these diches sheweth it selfe two miles from hence betweene Snaile-well and Moulton.

3. More within the Countrie is that renowned towne of Saint Edmund which in the Saxons age men called Bedenwic-gueord , and in the time of the Britains, as it should seeme, was that Villa Faustini whereof Antonine maketh mention. For of that opinion was Talbot, a man right skifull in antiquities, and very much conversant in this part of England. The distance also, as well from the Iciani as from Colonia in Antonine agreeth well enough. And as villa in the Latin tongue signifieth some Gentlemans house standing upon his land, so gueord in old English betokened the same. For that Abbo aforesaid interpreth Bederics-gueord by these words, Bederici cortis , that is villa , that is to say, Bederics Court, Farme, or mansion house. Besides that, the Englishmen may seeme to have brought the significancie of that Latine word into their own language. For as Faustinus in Latin implieth a certaine meaning of prosperity, so doth Bederic in the German tongue, as writeth that most learned Hadrianius Junius, where he interpreteth the name of Betorix (who in Strabo was the sonne of Melo the Cicambrian) Full of happinesse and favour. But if these were divers persons, I willingly confesse that I am ignorant who that Faustinus, and who this Bedericus was. Sure I am that it was not that Villa Faustini which Martiall in his Epigrames depainteth, and if I said it was the habitation of that Beric who, being driven out of Britaine, as Dio writeth, perswaded the Emperour Claudius to warre upon the Britans, I should not beleeve my selfe. But whatsoever it was, it it be not that Faustini Villa, yet seemeth it to have beene of famous memorie, considering that when Christian religion beganne to spring up in this tract, King Sigebert heere founded a Church, and Abbo called it villam regiam , that is, A royall towne. But after that the people had translated hither the body of Edmund that most Christian King, whom the Danes with exquisite torments had put to death, and built in honor of him a very great Church wrought with a wonderfull frame of timber, it beganne to be called Edmundi Burgus, commonly Saint Edmundsbury, and more shortly Bury, and flourished marvailous much. But especially since that King Canutus, for to expiate the sacrilegious impiety of his father Sueunus against this Church, being affrighted with a vision of Saint Edmunds, built it againe out of a new worke, enriched it, offered his owne crowne unto the holy martyr, brought into it Monkes with their Abbot, and gave unto it many faire and large Manours, and among other things the towne it selfe full and whole, over which the Monkes themselves by their Seneschall had rule and jurisdiction. Whereupon Joscelin de Branklond, a Monke of this house, writeth thus: The men as well without the Burgh as within are ours, and all within Banna Leves enjoy the same libertie. Afterwards, Herveie the Sacrist, comming of the Norman bloud, compassed round about with a wall, whereof there remaine still some few reliques, and Abbot Neoport walled the Abbay. The Bishop of Rome endowed it with very great immunities, and among other things granted, That the said place should be subject to no Bishop in any matter, and in matters lawfull depend upon the pleasure and direction of the Archbishop. Which is yet observed at this day. And now by this time the Monkes, abounding in wealth, erected a new Church of a sumptuous and stately building, enlarging it every day more than another with new workes, and whiles they laid the foundation of a new Chappell in the reigne of Edward the First, There were found (as Eversen, a Monke of this place, writeth) the walles of a certaine old Church built round, so as that the altar stood (as it were) in the mids, and we verily thinke, saith he, it was that which was first built to Saint Edmunds service. But what maner of towne this was, and how great the Abbay also was while it stood, here Leland speak, who saw it standing. The Sunne (saith hee) hath not seene either a Citie more finely seated (so delicately standeth it upon the easie ascent or hanging of an hill, and a little river runneth downe on the East side thereof), or a goodlier Abbay, whether a man indifferently consider either the endowment with revenewes, or the largeness, or the incomparable magnificence thereof. A man that saw the Abbay would say verily it were a Citie, so many gates there are in it, and some of brasse, so many Towres, and a most stately Church. Upon which attend three others also standing gloriously in on , and the same Churchward, all of passing fine and curious workmanship. If you demaund how great the wealth of this Abbay was, a man could hardly tell, and namely how many gifts and oblations were hung upon the tombe alone of Saint Edmund, and besides there came in our of lands and revenewes a thousand five hundred and three score pounds of old rent by the yeare. If I should relate the broiles severally that from time to time arose betweene the townesmen and the Monkes (who by their Steward governed the townesmen), and with how great rage they fell together by the eares purposedly to kill one another, my relation would seeme incredible. But as great a peece of worke as this was, so long in building and still encreasing, and as much riches as they gathered togither for so many yeares with S. Edmunds shrine, ?and the monument of Alan Rufus Earle of Britaine and Richmond, Sir Thomas Brotherton sonne to King Edward the First, Earle of Norfolke and Marshall of England, Thomas of Beaufort Duke of Excester, William Earle of Stafford, Marie Queene Dowager of France, daughter to King Henrie the Seaventh, and many other worthie personages there entombed,? were by King Henrie the Eighth utterly overthrowne, what time as at one clap hee suppressed all Monasteries, perswaded thereto by such as under a goodlie pretense of reforming religion preferred their private respects and their owne enriching before the honour of Prince and countrie, yea and before the Glorie of God himselfe. And yet there remaineth still lying along the carcasse, as one would say, of that auncient monument, altogether deformed, but (for ruines, I assure you) they make a faire and goodlie shew, which who soever beholdeth, hee may both wonder thereat, and withall take pity thereof. England also, that I may note this also by the way, if ever else it had losse by the death of any man, susteined here one of the greatest. For that father indeed of his Country, Humfrey Duke of Glocester, a due observer of justice, and who had furnished his noble witte with the better and deeper kinde of studies, after hee had under King Henrie the Sixth governed the kingdome five and twentie yeares with great commendation, so that neither good men had cause to complaine of, nor evill to finde fault with, was here in Saint Saviours hospitall brought to his end by the spitefull envie of Margaret of Lorain. Who, seeing her husband King Henrie the Sixth to be a man of a silly simple minde and faint harted, to the end she might draw into her owne hands the managing of the State, divised and plotted this wicked deed, but to her owne losse and this Realme, in the highest degree. For Normandie and Aquitane were thereby shortely after lost, and warres more than civil enkindled in England.

4. Nere unto this Saint Edmunds Bury is Rushbroke to bee seene, the habitation of the worshipfull familie of the Jermins, Knights, and not farre from thence Ikesworth, whence there stood an auncient Priorie founded by Gilbert Blund, a man of great nobility and Lord of Ikesworth, whose issue male by the right line ended in William, that in King Henrie the Third his daies was slaine in the battaile at Lewis, and left to sisters his heires, Agnes wife to William de Creketot, and Roise wedded to Robert de Valoniis. ?Afterward both here at Haulstead neere by Rongham and else-where the familie of Drury (which signifieth in old English a pretious jewell ) hath beene of great respect and good note, especially since they married with the heires of Fresil and Saxham.?

More Northward is Saint Genovefs Fernham, in this regard memorable, for that Richard Lucy Lord chiefe Justice of England tooke prisoner there in a pight [pitched] field Robert Earle of Leicester, making foule worke and havock here, and withall put to the sword above ten thousand Flemings whom he had levied and sent forth to the depopulation of his Country. Here hard by I had the sight of two verie faire houses, the one built by the Kitsons Knights at Hengave, the possession in times past of Edmund de Hengrave, a most renowned Lawier under King Edward the First, the other at Culfurther, erected by Sir Nicholas Bacon Knight, sonne unto that Sir Nicholas Bacon Lord keeper of the great seale of England, who for his singular wisdome and most sound judgement was right worthily esteemed one of the two supporters of this kingdome in his time. And not farre of standeth Ludgate a small village, yet in this respect not to bee passed over in silence, because it brought into the world John Lidgate the monke, whose witte may seeme to have beene framed and shapened by the very Muses themselves, so brightly re-shine in his English verses all the pleasant graces and elegancies of speech, according to that age. Thus much for the more memorable places on the west side of Suffolke.

5. On the South side wee saw the river Stour, which immediatly from the verie spring head spreadeth a great Mere called Stourmmere, but soone after, drawing it selfe within the bankes, runneth first by Clare, a noble village which had a castle, but now decaied, and gave name to the right noble familie of the Clares, descended from Earle Gislebert the Norman, and the title of Dukedome unto Leonel, King Edward the Thirds sonne, who after he had married a wife out of that house was entituled by his father Duke of Clarence. For hee of this place with a fuller sound than that of Clare, was stiled Duke of Clarence (like as before him the sons of Earle Gislebert and their successours were hence surnamed De Clare and called Earles of Clare). Who died at Languvill in Italie, after hee had by a second marriage matched with a daughter of Galeacius Vicount of Millain, and in the Collegiat Church here lieth enterred, as also Joan Acres daughter to King Edward the First, married to Glslebert de Clare Earle of Glocester. Here peradventure the Readers may looke that I should set down the Earles of Clare, so denominated of this place, and the Dukes of Clarence, considering they have beene alwaies in this realme of right honourable reputation, and verilie so will I doe in few words for their satisfaction in this behalfe. Richard the sonne of Gislebert Earle of Augy in Normandie served in the warres under King William when hee entred England, and by him was endowed with the townes of Clare and Tunbridge. This Gislebert begat foure sonnes, namely Gislebert, Roger, Walter, and Robert; from the Fitz-Walters are descended. Gislebert by the daughter of the Earle of Cleremont had issue Richard, who succeeded him; Gislebert, of whom came that noble Richard Earle of Pembroch and Conquerour of Ireland; and Walter. Richard the first begotten sonne was slaine by the Welshmen and left behind him two sonnes, Gilbert and Roger. Gilbert in King Stephens daies was Earle of Hereford, howbeit both hee and his successours are most often and commonly called Earles of Clare of this their principall seat and habitation, yea and so many times they wrote themselves. After him dying without issue, succeeded his brother Roger, whose sonne Richard tooke to wife Amice the daughter and one of the heires to William Earle of Glocester, in right of whom his posterity were Earles of Glocester. And those you may see in their due place. But when at length their issue male failed, Leonel third sonne of Edward the Third (who had married Elizabeth the daughter and sole heire of William de Burgh Earle of Ulster, begotten of the bodie of Elizabeth Clare) was by his father honored with this new title, Duke of Clarence. But when as hee had but one onely daughter named Philippa, wife to Edmund Mortimer Earle of March, King Henry the Fourth created Thomas his owne younger sonne Duke of Clarence, who beeing withall Earle of Albemarle, High Steward of England and governor of Normandie, and having no lawfull issue, was slaine in Anjou by the violent assault of Scots and French. A long time after, King Edward the Fourth bestowed this honour upon his owne brother George, whom after grievous enmity and bitter hatred, he had received againe into favour, and yet at the last made an end of him in prison, causing him, as the report currently goeth, to be drowned in a Butte of Malmesey. A thing naturally engraffed in men, that whom they have feared, and with whom they have contended in matter life, those they hate for ever, though they bee their naturall brethren.

6. From Clare, by Long-Melford, a very faire Almes-house lately built by that good man Sir William Cordal, Knight and Maister of the Rolls, Stour passeth on and commeth to Sudbury, that is to say, the South-Burgh , and runneth in maner round about it, which men suppose to have beene in old time the chiefe towne of this shire, and to have taken this name in regard of Norwich, that is, The Northren Towne. Neither would it it well at this daie to be counted much inferiour to the towns adjoyning, for it is populous and wealthy by reason of clothing there, and hath for the chiefe Magistrate a Major, who everie yeare is chosen out of seaven Aldermen. Not farre from hence distant is Edwardeston, a towne of no great name at this daie, but yet in times past it had Lords therein dwelling of passing great honour, of the surname of Mont-chensnie, out of which family Sir Guarin Montchensie married the daughter and one of the heires of that mighty William Marescall Earle of Pembroch, and of her begat a daughter named Joan, who unto the stile of her husband William of Valentia of the family of Lusignie in France brought and adjoyned the title of Earle of Penbroch. But the said Guarin Mont-chensy, as he was a right honorable person, so he was a man exceeding wealthy, in so much as in those daies they accounted him the most potent Baron and the rich Crassus of England. For his last will and testament amounted unto two hundred thousand Markes, no small wealth as the standard was then. From a younger brother or cadet of this house of Montchensie issued by an heire general the family of the Waldgraves, who have long flourished in Knightly degree at Smalebridg neerer to Stoure, as another family of great account in elder ages at Buers, which was thereof surnamed. A few miles from hence Stour is enlarged with Breton, a small brooke, at one of whose heads is seene Bretenham, a very slender little towne, where scarse remaineth any shew at all of any great building, and yet both the neere resemblance and the signification of the name partly induced me to thinke it to be that Combretonium whereof Antonine the Emperour made mention in this tract. For like as Bretenham in English signifieth an habitation or Mansion place by Breton , so Combretonium in British or Welsh betokeneth a valley or a place lying somewht low by Breton. But this in Peutigerius his table is falsly named Combretonum and Ancovecin. Somewhat Eastward from hence is Nettlested seene, of whence was Sir Thomas Wentworth, whom King Henry the Eighth adorned with the title of Baron Wentworth, and neere thereto is Offton, that is to say, The towne of Offa King of the Mercians, where upon a clay hill lie the ruines of an ancient Castle, which they say Offa built after he had wickedly murdered Aethelbert King of the East-Angles and usurped his Kingdome. ?But to returne to the River Breton. Upon another brooke that joyneth therwith standeth Lancham a pretty Mercat, and neere it the Manour of Burnt-Elleie, whereunto King Henry the Third granted a Mercat at the request of Sir Henry Shelton Lord thereof, whose posterity a long time heere flourished.? Hadley, in the Saxons language Headlege , is watered with the same brook: a town of good note in these daies of making of clothes, and in old time much mentioned by our Historians because Guthrum or Gormo the Dane was heere buried. For when Aelfred brought him to this passe that he became Christian and was baptized, he assigned unto him these countries of the East-Angles, that he might (to use the words of mine authour) cherish them by right of inheritance under the allegiance of a King, which he had overrun by robbing and ransacking.

7. From hence Breton speedeth it selfe by Higham, whence the family of Higham is so named, to Stour, which joynctly in one streame run not far from Bentley, where the Talmachs of a celebrat ancient house flourished for a long time, and after a few miles neere unto Arwenton, the house long since of the family of the Bacons, who held this Manour, and Brome, by conducting all the footemen of Suffolke and Norfolke from S. Edmunds dike in the warres of Wales. Now it belongeth to the Parkers haereditarily, who by the fathers side derive their descent from the Barons Morley, and by the mothers from the Calthrops, a family sometime of great account in these parts. Beneath this Stour falleth into the Ocean, and at the very mouth thereof the river Orwell or Gipping dischargeth it selfe together with it. The river springeth up in the very navell or centre, as one would say, of this shire, out of two fountaines, the one neere to Wulpit, the other by Gipping a small village. Wulpet is a Mercat towne, and soundeth as much as the Woolves pit , if we may beleeve Nubrigensis, who hath told as prety and formall a tale of this place as is that fable called the True Narration of Lucian, namely, how two little boies (forsooth) of a greene colour, and of Satyrs kinde, after the had made along journey by passages under the ground from out of another world, from the Antipodes and Saint Martins Land, came up heere: of whom if you would know more, repaire to the authour himselfe, where you shall finde such matter as will make you laugh your fill, if you have a laughing spleene. I wot not whether I were best to relate heere into what a vaine hope of finding gold at Norton hard by, a certaine credulous desire of having enticed and allured King Henry the Eighth, but the digging and undermining there sufficiently shew it although I say nothing. But betweene Gipping and Wulpet upon a high hill remaine the tokens of Hawghlee an ancient Castle, taking up much about two acres of ground. Some affirme this to have been called Hagenoth Castle, which belonged to Ralph le Broc, and that in the yeere 1173 it was by Robert Earle of Leicester won and over throwen in the intestine war betweene King Henry the Second and his unkindly disloiall sonne.

8. Upon the same river are seene two little Mercat townes, Stow and Needham, and not far from the banke Hemingston, in which Baldwin Le Pettour (marke his name well) held certaine lands by Serjeanty (the words I have out of an old booke) for which on Christmas day ever yeere before our soveraigne Lord the King of England he should performe one saltus , one suffletus , and one bumbulus , or, as we read elsewhere, his tenour was per saltum, sufflum, et pettum , that is, if I understand these tearmes aright, that he should daunce, puffe up his cheekes marking therewith a sound, and besides let a cracke downeward. Such was the plaine and jolly mirth of those times. And observed it is that unto this Feod the Manour of Langhall belonged. Neere unto the mouth of this river we saw ipswich, in times past Gippwich , a faire towne resembling a City, situate in a ground somewhat low, which is the eye (as it were) of this shire, as having an haven commodious enough, fensed in times past with a trench and rampire, of good trade and stored with wares, well peopled and full of inhabitants, adourned with fourteene Churches, and with goodly, large and stately aedifices. I say nothing of foure religious houses now overturned, and that sumptuous and magnificent Colledge which Cardinall Wolsey, a Butchers sonne of this place, heere began to build, whose vast minde reach alwaies at things too high. The body politicke or corporation of this towne consisteth, as I was enformed, of twelve Burgesses (Portmen they terme them), out of whom are chosen yeerely for the head magistrates two Baillives and as many Justices out of foure and twenty others. As touching the Antiquity thereof, so farre as ever I could observe, the name of it was not heard of before the Danish invasion, whereof it smarted. For in the yeere of salvation 991 the Danes sacked and spoiled it and all the sea coast with so great crueltie that Siritius Archbishop of Canterbury and the Nobles of England thought it the safest and best course they could take, to redeeme and buy their peace of them for the summe of ten thousand pounds. Neverthelesse within nine yeeres they made spoile of this towne againe, and presently thereupon the Englishmen valiantly encountred them in the field, but through the cowardly running away of one man alone, named Turkill, as writeth Henry of Huntingdon (for in matter of war things of small weight otherwise are of right great moment, and sway very much), our men were put to flight and let the victory slip out of their hands. In the reigne of S. Edward, as we find in the Survey booke of England, out of this towne Queene Edeva had two parts, and Earle Guert a third part, and Burgesses there were eight hundred paying custome to the King. but after the Normans had possessed themselves of England, they erected a pile or Castle heere, which Hugh Bigod defended for a good while against Stephen the usurping King of England, but surrendred it in the end. This fort is now quit gone, so as there remaine not so much as the ruines thereof. Some say it was in the parish of Westfield hard by, where is to be seene the rubbish of a Castle, and where old Gipwic, as men say, stood in times past. I thinke verily it was then demolished when King Henry the Second laied Waleton Castle neere unto it even with the ground. For it was a place of refuge for Rebels, and heere landed those three thousand Flemings whom the Nobles of England had called in against him what time as he unadvisedly he had made Prince Henry his sonne King, and of aequall power with himselfe, and the yong man, knowing no meane, would be in the highest place or none, set upon a furious desire of the kingdome, most unnaturally waged war against his owne father. Albeit these Castles are now cleane decaied and gone, yet this shore is defended sufficiently with an huge banke, they call it Langerston, that for two miles or thereabout in length lieth foorth into the maine sea, as he saith, not without great danger and terrour of such as saile that way, howbeit the same serveth very well for fishermen to dry their fishes, and after a sort is a defense unto that spatious and wide Haven of Orwell. And thus much for the South part of this shire.

9. From hence the curving shore (for all this East part lieth full against the sea), shooting foorth Northward, straight-way openeth it selfe to the Deben, a riverlet having his spring head neere unto Mendelsham, unto which towne the Lord of the Place, Henry Fitz-Otho Master of the Mint, purchased the liberty of Mercat and Faire: by whose heires there fell no small possessions unto the Boutetorts Lords of Wily in Worcestershire, and from them againe in the reigne of Richard the Second, unto Frevil, Barkley of Stoke, Burnel, and others. This river Deben first floweth hard unto the little Mercat towne Debenham, and giveth it the name, which others would have to be called more truly Depenham for that the waies every where about it, by reason of a clay ground and the same over most, are very deepe and comberous. From thence it runneth by Ufford, the seat in times past of Robert de Ufford Earle of Suffolk, and by a towne over against it on the other side of the river named Rendelsham, that is, as Beda interpreteth it, Rendels Mansion place , where Redwald King of the East Saxons kept usually his court, who was first of all his nation that was baptised and received Christianity, but afterwards, seduced by his wife, he had in the selfe same Church, as saith Beda, one Altar for Christs religion and another for sacrifices unto Devils. In this place also Swidelm a King of these East-Angles was likewise afterwards baptised by Bishop Chedda. From hence the river Deben passeth towne to Woodbridge, a little towne beawtified with faire houses, where at certaine set times are holden assemblies for Saint Audrees Liberty, and after it hath gone some few miles, is received into the Ocean at Bawdsey haven.

10. By this time now the shore creepeth by little and little Eastward to the mouth of the river Ore, which runneth neere to Framlingham Castle, belonging sometime to the Bigods by the bounty of King Henry the First, and forthwith on the West side thereof spreadeth (as it were) into a lake. A very faire and beautifull Castle this is, fortified with a banke, ditch, and walles of great thicknesse, wherein are thirteene towers, and inwardly furnished with buildings right commodious and necessary. From hence it was that in the yere of our redemption 1173, what time as King Henry the Second his rebellious sonne tooke armes against his father, Robert Earle of Leicester with his mercenary Flemings infested this Country farre and neere: from the Castle also in the yeere 1153 Queene Mary entred upon her Kingdome for all the ambitious fretting and fuming of John Dudley Duke of Northumberland against King Henry the Eighth his daughters. Then commeth the River to Parham a little towne, the Lord whereof William Willoughby King Edward the Sixth honoured with the estate of a Baron, and afterwards turning by Glemham, which gave name to an ancient family descended from the Bacons and Brandons, at Oreford, that tooke the name of it, disburdeneth himselfe into the sea. A bigge towne this was and of great resort, fensed also with a castell of a reddish stone, and appertained in times past to the Valoineis, and afterwards to the Willoughbeies, but complaineth at this daie of the Seas unkindnesse which shrinketh backe from it by little and little, and beginneth to envy [begrudge] the commodity of an Haven unto the towne. Neither have I any thing else to say of Oreford, unlesse it please you to runne over these few words of Ralph Cogeshall an old writer. In King Henrie the Seconds daies , saith hee, when Bartholomew Glanvile kept the Castle of Oreford, it happened that the Fishermen caught a wilde man within their nets, who in all parts of his bodie resembled a man, had haire on his head, a huge beard with a Piloe devant, about the breast exceeding hairy and rough: who notwithstanding slipt awaie secretly to the sea and was never seene after. So that it may be verie true, which is so rife with the common people, that there is nothing bred in any part of Nature but the same also is in the sea, and that it is not altogether a faigned fable that Plinie hath reported of a Triton taken on the shore of Portugall, and of the sea-man caught in the streights of Gibraltare.

11. Not much higher lieth Aldborough, for situation right safe and very pleasant within Slaughden vale, where from the East the sea and from the West the river beateth. This name Aldburgh is by interpretation The Old Burgh , or, as others would have it, The Burgh upon the river Ald. Now it is an harbour verie commodious for sailers and fishermen, and thereby well frequented, and acknowledgeth the Ocean sea to bee favourable unto it, how spitefull soever and malicious it is to other townes in this coast. Neere unto it, what time as in the yeare 1555 by reason of unseasonable weather the corne throughout all England was choked and blasted in the eare, there grew pease miraculously among the rocks, without at any earth at all about them, about the end of September, and brought downe the price of corne. Yet the wiser sort of men doe say that pulse being cast upon the shore by shipwracke is wont otherwhiles to come uppe againe there, so that the thing is not to be thought miraculous. But that the like usually everie yeare grow of their owne accord among the stones on the shore of Kent, I have shewed alreadie.

12. From thence coasting along the shore, at ten miles end wee met with Dunwhich, in the English Saxon tongue Dunmoc , whereof Beda maketh mention, were Falix the Burgundiun, that reduced the Eastangles againe into the faith when they were backesliding from Christ in the yeare of Grace 630, placed an Episcopall See, whose successours for many yeares together were Bishops over all East England. But Bise the fourth Bishop after Falix, when hee became verie aged and sicklie withall, beeing not able to discharge so great a jurisdiction, divided it into two Sees: the one continued still in this Dunwich, the other hee placed in North Elmham, a little town. In the reigne of William the Conquerour, Dunwich had in it two hundred and sixtie and thirtie burgesses, an hundered poore people, it was valued at fiftie pounds and three score thousand herings of gift. For so wee reade in Domes-daie booke. In the foregoing age it was well peopled and frequented with inhabitants, famous also for a Mint therein; and in the reigne of Henrie the Second, as William of Newborough writeth, It was a towne of good note, and full stored with sundrie kindes of riches. At which time, when England was all on a light fire with new stirres and broiles, it was so fortified that it made Robert Earle of Leicester affraied, who with his army over-ranne all the parts there-about at his pleasure. But now by a certaine peculiar spite and envie of Nature , that suffereth the greedy sea to have what it will and encroch still without all end, the greatest part thereof is violently carried away with the waves, and by reason that the Bishops many yeares agoe translated their seat to another place, it lieth (as it were) desolate. A little above it, the river Blith voideth it selfe into the sea, on whose banke Southward wee saw Blithborow a small towne, which for no other thing is memorable but because Anna a Christian king was there buried, whom Penda the Mercian slew in a pitched field, It was beautified by King Henrie the First with a Colledge of Chanons, who granted the same as a Cell to the Chanons of Saint Osiths. And it was made a mercate by the meanes of John Lord of Clavering, unto whom King Edward the Second gave this libertie together with the Faire. And verily a goodly inheritance hee had in this tract, as who derived his descent from the daughter and heire of William Chency, who held the Baronie of Horsford in the countie of Norfolke, and erected the little Abbay at Sibton.

13. Heere the Promontorie Easton-Nesse shooteth out and reacheth farre into the East, which is deemed to bee the farthest East point in all Britaine. Ptolomee called it ????? or extensio. And that you may not doubt that this is the verie same which wee call Easton, bee it knowne unto you that eystency in the British tongue is the same that in Greeke ????? and in Latine extensio , that is, A stretching forth , although this name may seeme with as good probability to have been imposed in our English language of the situation Eastward. Upon the point of this promontorie standeth Easton, a village fishermen well neere eaten up by sea, and on South side of this Promontorie Sothwold lieth in the plaine, full against the open shore of the sea. A towne well enough frequented through the benefit of an haven that the river Blith, emptying it selfe there into the sea, maketh, and at every high water it is so environed with the waves that it seemeth to bee an Iland, a man would wonder that it is not overflowne. In so much as when I saw the manner thereof I called that saying of Cicero into my remembrance: What should I speake of the sea tides about Spaine and Britaine and of their flowing and ebbing at certaine times? Surely they cannot bee without the hand of God, Who hath restrained and gathered the waves within their bounds. More within the land, Wingfield sheweth it selfe, where the walles of a Castle halfe downe are to be seene: which hath given name to a familie in this tract that is spred into a number of branches, and is besides for knighthood and auncient gentilitie renowned, and thereof it was the principall seat. Also Dunnington, which standeth much upon the Lord thereof Sir John Philips, father to that Sir William who married the daughter and heire of Baron Bardolph, whose daughter and heire likewise John Vicount Beaumont tooke to wife. But now the habitation it is of the auncient familie of the Rousses. Not farre from hence standeth Huntingfield, which had a Baron of that name in King Edward the Third his time, and neere unto it Heveningham, the residence of the familie of Heveningham, Knights, who are knowne to bee of verie great antiquity. And not farre off standeth Halesworth, in times past Healsworda , an ancient towne of the Argentans, and now of the Alingtons, unto which Sir Richard Agenton obteined at the hand of King Henrie the Third the liberty of a mercate.

14. I gave you to understand before that two small rivers, Ouse the Least and Waveney on the North side, divided this Countie from Norfolke: which riverets, rising out of a marish ground by Lophamford from two springs but a little asunder one from another, take their courses diverse waies with creekes full of shallow fourds. Along by Ouse, which runneth Westward, there is nothing in this quarter to bee seene worth the report. By Waveney side, that tendeth Eastward, first is Hoxon, in times past Hegilsdon , ennobled by reason of King Edmunds Martyrdom. For there the most cruell and bloudie Danes (that I may use the words of Abbo), having bound the most Christian King to a tree for that he would not renounce Christianitie, shot him in with sharpe arrowes all his bodie over, augmenting the paines of his torment with continuall piercing him with arrow after arrow, and thus inflicted wound upon wound, so long as one arrow could stand by another. And as a Poet of middle time versified of him,

Though now no place was left for wound, yet arrowes did not faile
These furious wretches, still they flie thicker than winter haile.

In which place afterwards stood a verie faire house of the Bishops of Norwich, untill they exchaunged it not long since for the Abbay of Saint Benet. Hard by, at Brome, dwelt a long time the familie of Cornwalleis, of Knights degree, of whom Sir John Cornwall was Steward of Edward the Sixth his house hould while he was Prince, and his sonne Sir Thomas for his wisdome and faithfulnese became one of the privie counsell to Queene Marie and Controller of her roiall house. Beneath it lieth Eay, that is, The Island , so called because it is watered on every side with brookes, where are to be seene the rubbish, ruines, and decaied walles of an old Castle that belonged to Robert Malet a Norman Baron. But after that he under King Henry the First was deprived of his dignity, because he sided with Robert Duke of Normandy against the King, the said King bestowed this Honour upon Stephen Earle of Bullen, who, being afterwards the Usufructuary King of England, left it unto his sonne William Earle of Warren. But after he had surrendred his state to King Henry the Second and lost his life in the expedition of Tholose, the King held it in his own hands untill that King Richard the First conferrd it upon Henry the Fifth of that name Duke of Brabant and of Lorain, together with King Stephens neice by his daughter, who had been a professed Nunn. Long time after, when it was now devolved againe upon the Kings of England, King Edward the Third gave it, as I have read, to Sir Robert Ufford Earle of Suffolke. Neither must I passe over in silence Bedingfield neere adjoyning, which gave the name to a worshipfull and ancient family, that received very much reputation and credit from the heire of the family of Tudenham. From thence by Flixton, in stead of Felixton, so named of Faelix the first Bishop of these parts, like as many other places of this shire, the river Waveney runneth down to Bungey and spreadeth it selfe in maner round about, where Hugh Bigod fortified a Castle both by artificiall workmanship and also by naturall situation, when as the seditious Barons tossed all England to and fro with stormes of rebellion. Concerning which Castle, as imprenable, he was wont to vaunt in these termes:

Were I in my Castle of Bungey,
Upon the river of Waveney,
I would ne care for the king of Cockeney.

Yet notwithstanding afterward he obtained at the hands of King Henry the Second (by giving him a great summe of mony and pledges withall of his loialty) that it might not be overthrowen and rased. Not far from thence from the banke, you may see Mettingham, where upon a plaine Sir John surnamed De Norwich, Lord of the Place, built a fower square Castle and a Colledge within it, whose daughter, and in the end the heire of the same family, Robert de Ufford aforesaid, Earle of Suffolke, tooke to wife with a goodly inheritance.

15. Now Waveney, drawing neerer unto the see, whiles he striveth in vaine to make himselfe a two-fould issue into the Ocean, the one together with the river Yare, and the other by the meere Luthing, maketh a prety big Demy Isle or Biland, which some name Lovingland, others more truely Lithingland, of Luthing the lake spreading in length and breth, which beginning at the Ocean shore is discharged into the river Yare. At the entrance whereof standeth upon the sea Lestoffe, a narrow and little towne, and at the issue of it Gerlston, where I saw the towre steeple of a small suppressed Friery which standeth the sailers in good steed for a mark. Within the land, hard by Yare is situate Somerley towne, the habitation in ancient time of Fitz-Osbert, from whom it is come lineally to the worshipfull ancient family of the Jernegans, Knights of high esteeme in these parts. Farther up into the land where Yare and Waveney meet in one streame, there flourished Knobersburg, that is, as Bede interpreteth it, Cnobers City , we call it at this day Burgh-Castle. Which, as Beda saith, was a most pleasant Castle by reason of woods and sea together, wherein a Monastery was built by Fursaey a holy Scot , by whose perswasion Sigebert King of the East-Angles became a Monke and resigned up his Kingdome: who afterwards, being drawne against his will out of this Monastery to encourage his people in battaile against the Mercians, together with his company lost his life. In that place now there are onely ruinous wals in forme, as it were, foure square, built of flint stone and British Bricke, but all overgrown with briers and bushes: among which otherwhiles are Romane peeces of coins gotten foorth, so that it may seeme to have been one of those fortifications that the Romans placed upon the river Yare to represse the piracies of the Saxons, or rather that it was the ancient Garianonum it selfe, where the Stablesian Horsmen had their Station and kept ward at the declination of the Romane Empire in Britaine.

16. Suffolke hath had Earles and Dukes out of sundry families. There be of the later writers who report that the Glanvils in times past were honoured with this title. But seeing they ground upon no certaine authority, whereas men may easily mistake and I have found nothing of them in the publicke records of the Kingdome, they must pardon me if I beleeve them not, untill they produce more certainty. Yet in the meane while I confesse that the family of the Glanvils in this tract was of right good note and high reputation. Neither have I hitherto learned by witness of credite that any one was entituled Earle of this province severally before the daies of King Edward the Third, who created Sir Robert Ufford Steward of the Kings house under King Edward the Second, by Cecilie de Valoniis Ladie of Orford. After him succeeded his sonne William, who having foure sonnes that were taken away by untimely death during his life, died himselfe suddenly in the Parliament house as he was about to report the minde of the Commonality. And then Sir Robert Willoughby, Roger Lord Scales, and Henrie Ferrars of Groby, the next of his bloud and his heires, divided the inheritance betweene them. Afterward King Richard the Second promoted Michael De-la-Pole to this title, and made him Lord Chancellor of England, Who, as Thomas Walsingham writeth, imploied himselfe more in trafficke and merchandise (as having beene a merchant and a merchants sonne) than in martiall matters. For he was the sonne of William De-la-Pole, that first Maior of Kingston upon Hull, and for his welthy estate adorned by King Edward the Third with the dignity of a Baneret. But whenas in the prosperous confluence of so many advancements, the mans nature was not capable of so great fortunes, he was enforced by his adversaries envie to depart out of his country, and so died a banished man. His sonne Michael, being restored, died at the siege of Harflew, and againe within one moneth his sonne Michael was slaine in the battaile of Agincourt, leaving daughters only. Then William his brother succeeded, whom King Henrie the Sixt so favoured that he made him also Earle of Penbroke, and then Marquesse of Suffolke, to him and the heires masles [male] of his body, And that both hee and the heires of his body should carry the golden rod having a dove at the top thereof on the coronation day of the King of England, and the like rod or verge Yvory at the coronation of the Queenes of England. And afterwards he advanced the same William for his great service and deserts to the honor and title of Duke of Suffolke. Certes hee was an excellent man in those daies, famous and of great worth. For whereas his father and three brethren had in the French warres lost their lives for their countrie, he, as we find in the Parliament Rols of the 28 of King Henrie the Sixth, in the same war served full 34 yeeres. For seventeene yeeres together he never returned home from warfare, being once taken prisoner when hee was as yet no better than a private Knight, he paid downe for his ransome twenty thousand pounds of our English money. He was of the Kings privie Counsell 15 yeeres, and a Knight of the Order of the Garter 30. Heereupon, as he stood in especiall grace and favour with his Prince, so hee incurred therefore the greater envy of the common people and some emulatours, ?being grievously charged with treason and misprisions. And therefore called before the King and Lords of Parliament, after he had answered the Articles objected, referred himselfe to the Kings order. Whereupon the Chancellour by the Kings commandment pronounced that, whereas the Duke did not put himselfe upon his Peeres, the King, touching the Articles of treason, would be doubtfull, and as for the Articles of misprison, not as a Judge by advice of the Lords, but as one to whose order the Duke had submitted himselfe, did banish him the realme and all other his dominions for five yeeres. But when he was embarked for France,? he was by his adversaries intercepted upon the sea and beheaded. He left a sonne named John De-la-Pole, who wedded King Edward the Fourth his sister, and of her begat John Earle of Lincolne, by King Richard the Third proclaimed heire apparent of the Crowne: whose ambitious minde puffed up and giddy therewith could not contain it selfe, but soone after brake out against King Henrie the Seventh, to his own destruction (for in the battel at Stoke he was quickly slain), to his fathers death also (who for very griefe of heart ended his daies), and to the utter ruine of the whole family, which together with them was in a sort extinguished and broght to nothing. For his brother Edmund, being Earle of Suffolke, fled into Flanders, began there to conspire and stirre up rebellion against King Henrie the Seventh, who, albeit hee feared him, would seeme to favour him, and as a Prince better contented with repentance than punishment, freely pardoned him for sundry offences, that he might winne him. But after he was thus fled, his estate was forfeited and the King never thought himselfe secure from his practises untill he had so farre prevailed with Philip Duke of Burgundie that he was delivered into his hands (against the law of hospitality toward strangers, as some then gave out) upon solemne promise in the word of a Prince that his life should be spared. Neverthelesse he was kept close prisoner, and after executed by King Henrie the Eighth (who thought himselfe not tied to his fathers promise) what time as he first minded to make warre upon France, for feare least in his absence some troubles might be raised at home in his behalfe. Yet his younger brother Sir Richard de la Pole, a banished man in France, usurped the title of Duke of Suffolke: who being the last male (to my knowledge) of this house, was slaine in the battaile of Pavie (wherein Francis the First King of France was taken prisoner in the yeere of our lord 1524), fighting manfully among the thickest of his enemies. For whom, in consideration of his singular valour and high parentage, the Duke of Burbon himselfe, although hee was his enemie, made a sumptuous funerall and honoured the same with his presence in mourning blacke. In the meane time, King Henrie the Eighth adorned Sir Charles Brandon, unto whom hee had given in marriage is owne sister Mary, widdow and Dowager to Lewis the Twelft King of France, with the title of Duke of Suffolke, and granted him all the Honours and Manours which Edmund Earle of Suffolke had forfeited. After whom succeeded Henrie his sonne, a child, and after him his brother Charles, who both died of the English swet upon one day in the yeere 1551. Then King Edward the Sixt honoured with that title Henrie Grey Marquesse Dorset, who had married Francis their sister: but hee, enjoying the same but a small time, lost his head in Queene Maries daies for complotting to make his daughter Queene, and was the last Duke of Suffolke. From that time lay this title of Suffolke void, untill that very lately King James advanced to that honor Thomas Lord Howard of Walden, the second sonne of Thomas Howard Duke of Norfolke, whom for his approved fidelity and vertue he also made his Lord Chamberlaine, in his first entrie into the kingdome.

The Parishes in this County amount to the number 575.

William Camden, Britain, or, a Chorographicall Description of the most flourishing Kingdomes, England, Scotland, and Ireland (London: George Bishop and John Norton, 1610) Copyright 2004 by Dana F. Sutton. This text was transcribed by Professor Sutton, of the University of California, Irvine, from Philemon Holland's 1610 translation [British Library Short Title Catalogue 4509, Early English Books reel 911:1]. For a full critical edition presenting Camden's original Latin text in parallel with Holland's translation, visit Professor Sutton's site at:


Placename mark-up by Humphrey Southall.

Next Selection Previous Selection