In 1887, John Bartholomew's Gazetteer of the British Isles described Carlisle like this:
Carlisle, city, parl. and mun. bor., and co. town of Cumberland, on river Eden, 60 miles W. of Newcastle, 98 S. of Edinburgh, 145 SE. of Glasgow, and 299 NW. of London by rail, 1570 ac., pop. 35,884; 4 Banks, 3 newspapers. Market-days, Wednesday and Saturday. Situated near the border and on the main route of traffic between England and Scotland, Carlisle has been closely associated with many important events in the history of the two countries. ...
It was a Roman station (Luguvallum) on the great wall of Severus, and the seat (Caerleol) of the old British kings of Cumbria; was destroyed by the Danes in 875; rebuilt and fortified by William II. (Rufus) in 1092, the walls having 3 gates; held from 1135 to 1153 by David of Scotland, who died here; was subsequently in the hands of the English, its possession being repeatedly contested by the Scots; and was occupied by Prince Charles Edward Stuart in 1745 on his invasion of England. C. is the see of a bishop. The cathedral, famed for its E. window, was founded by William Rufus and completed by Henry I. The old castle, which was garrisoned till quite recently, has a situation commanding a fine view of the Vale of the Eden. C. is a great ry. centre. The sta. is the terminus of no fewer than 8 lines. The mfrs. consist of cottons, woollens, linens, iron, leather, and hats. In the Eden there is good salmon fishing. Carlisle is 20 miles by rail SW. of Silloth; a dock was constructed there in 1855, and Silloth has gradually superseded Port Carlisle, which is no longer used as a harbour. (For shipping statistics, see Appendix.) The bor. returns 1 member to Parliament.
GB Historical GIS / University of Portsmouth, History of Carlisle in Cumberland | Map and description, A Vision of Britain through Time.
Date accessed: 27th March 2017
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