In 1887, John Bartholomew's Gazetteer of the British Isles described Berwick upon Tweed like this:
Berwick on Tweed, par., mun. bor., and seaport town, Northumberland, 57½ miles SE. of Edinburgh, 64 miles NW. of Newcastle-on-Tyne, and 339 miles from London by rail -- par., 5790 ac., pop. 9179; bor., 7048 ac., pop. 13,998; 4 Banks, 3 newspapers.Market-day, Saturday. The town is situated on the N. ...
side of the mouth of the river Tweed, which is here crossed by a magnificent ry. viaduct of 28 arches and by a narrow old stone bridge of 15 arches. The fisheries are very important; the exports include grain, coal, salmon, herrings, &c.; timber is imported. (For shipping statistics, see Appendix.) There is a lighthouse on the pier head with 2 fixed lights seen at distances of 8 and 12 miles. Shipbuilding is carried on to some extent; other industries are iron-founding, the mfr. of agricultural implements and manures, ropes, &c. B., with its liberties, is a co. of itself, and is specified separately in Acts affecting the United Kingdom, but in Parl. returns is incorporated with Northumberland. It returned 2 members until 1885. Its origin is ascribed to the Northumbrian kings. It was an important seaport in the reign of Alexander I., and for centuries its possession was contended for by the English and Scotch, but was finally ceded to Edward IV. in 1482. In 1551 it was made a free town, and on the accession of James I. (1603) ceased to be of importance as a frontier stronghold. The walls and part of the old fortifications remain. Barracks for infantry are still maintained.
GB Historical GIS / University of Portsmouth, History of Berwick upon Tweed in Northumberland | Map and description, A Vision of Britain through Time.
Date accessed: 29th March 2017
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