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NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE, a town, four parishes, and a district, in Northumberland. The town stands on the river Tyne at the boundary with Durham, on the Roman wall, at a focus of the North eastern railway system, in the centre of a great coal-field, 10 miles abovethe influx of the Tyne to the sea, 65¼ by railway E of Carlisle, and 273 by road, but 305 by railway, N N W of London. It is separated only by the Tyne from Gateshead, and has, for all business purposes, the same connexion with that town which London city has with Southwark; and it is surrounded by a country which, within aradius of only a few miles, contains a population aboutequal to that of both itself and Gateshead.
History.An ancient British settlement is presumed, from the discovery of various urns and other sepulchralrelics in the neighbourhood, to have been on or near the site of Newcastle, but cannot be traced in record. A Roman station, the second in the line of the Romanwall, was built on the ground between the site of St. Nicholas church and that of the Literary and Philosophical society, and between the line of Collingwood-street and that of Baileygate; and was garrisoned, at leastduring the latter period of their Roman occupation, by acohort of Cornovii. Some strong remains of the Romanwall were exhumed in 1810, on the N side of Collingwood-street, close to the Groat-market; other pieces of Roman wall were laid bare in 1852 and 1853, in the samevicinity; and all these are believed, by competent judges, to have been part of the station. A Roman bridge alsowas built over the Tyne, adjacent to the station; and, in honour of Hadrian, who was of the Ælian family, both the bridge and the station were called Pons Ælii. The Ælian bridge, of five arches, at Rome, and thebridge across the Tyne here, are supposed to be the subjects of two medals struck in the reign of Hadrian, and exhibiting bridges of respectively five and seven arches. The piers of the bridge continued to stand, and to support a subsequent superstructure, till that superstructurewas overwhelmed by a flood in 1771; and they were thenfound to contain coins of Trajan, and of four other Roman emperors. There were found also two coins of Antoninus Pins, . large quantities of Roman pottery, two Roman altars, a Roman well, and part of a richly flutedshaft of a Corinthian pillar, at the digging of the foundations for the Moot-hall, in the Castle-garth, in 1810; and the Roman well still exists under the centre of the newbuildings. There were likewise found a headless figure of Hercules, in a garden off Pilgrim-street, behind theoffice of the Poor-Law guardians; a rude altar to Silvanus, at the pulling-down of the White Friar tower, near Hanover-square; and a figure of Mercury, at the digging of the foundation for the High Level bridge across the Tyne.
The Roman station, and any town which may havegrown around it, appear to have been destroyed by the Britons immediately after the departure of the Romans, and to have long lain in a state of desolation. A newtown, called Pampedon or Pandon, seems to have beenfounded by the Saxons, to the E of the ruined Romanstation, within the present township of by ker; and iscommemorated in the existing names of Pandon Bank, Pandon Hall, and Pandon Dean. Either that town, ora neighbouring and coeval one, comes into view in thewritings of Bede, under the name of Ad Murum, and was the residence of Oswi, king of Northumbria, and the scene of the baptism of Sigebert, king of Essex, and Pæda the son of Penda, king of Mercia. A resuscitation of the Roman town of Pons Ælii, or the founding of a new town on the site of the Roman station, took place, at a later period, on the part of a body of monks, who colonized it; and it assumed the name of Monkchester, or Munkeceastere; but it was plundered and dilapidated, in875, by the Danes; and thence, till 1073 when it receiveda fresh accession of monks from Mercia, it lay in desolation. Edgar Atheling and King Malcolm of Scotlandcaptured Monkchester in 1068; but William the Conqueror, soon afterwards, met and defeated them on Gateshead Fell, took possession of Monkchester, and, inorder to prevent it from again affording them an asylum, levelled a large part of it with the ground. William, with his army, was here again in 1072, making a halt onhis return from his Scottish expedition; and he was thenunable to find provisions in Monkchester, and required to obtain them-from Tynemouth. But the town, soonafterwards, took both a new start and a new name. Anecessity was felt for erecting defences here against the Saxon nobles who had taken refuge in Scotland; and this led to measures which speedily converted thequondam Pons Ælii into a place of permanent importance. The Roman bridge over the Tyne was repaired; a castle was built, within the site of the quondam Roman station, by Robert, the eldest son of the Conqueror; that castle probably was of wood, and soon disappeared; a new castle, on the same site, was erected by William Rufus; that fortress was of great strength, drew immediately a large population, and occasioned the refounded town to be called Newcastle; and a circuit of wall wasspeedily erected around the town, and defended by afosse. The founding of Newcastle, as distinguished from Monkchester, Ad Murum, Pampedon, and PonsÆlii, was thus the work of William Rufus; and is described as follows by the chronicler Hardyng:" He buylded the Newcastell upon Tyne, The Scottes to gainstand and to defend, and dwel therein: the people to incline The town to build and wall as did append, He gave them ground and gold ful great to spend, To buylde it well and wall it all about, and franchised them to pay a free rent out. The rents and frutes to th' archbishop perteinyng, and to the by shoppes of Wynchester and Sarum, and also of nyne abbeys lyvelod conteynyng, In his handes seazed and held all and some, But for his workes and buyldynges held eche crome, With whiche he made Westmynstre hall and the castle of the Newe Castell with all. That standeth on Tyne, therein to dwel in warre, Agayne the Scottes the countree to defende, Whiche, as men sayd, was to hym mekill deer, and more pleasyng than otherwise dispende, and muche people for it did hym commende, For cause he dyd the commen wealthe sustene, His marches vnnumerable to mayntene."
Early in the reign of Stephen, the town went by force, and the castle by treaty, into the possession of David I.of Scotland; and they remained 16 years under the Scottish crown. Henry II. regained possession, and established a mint. William the Lion of Scotland, in 1174, committed great devastation through Northumberland, and beyond the Tyne; and after he had been seized, kept prisoner, and held to ransom, and was peacefully onhis way home from his release at York, he sustainedan encounter on Tyne bridge, from the exasperated inhabitants of Newcastle, and had to cut his way with lossthrough the masses of the assailants. King John, in 1209, and at two subsequent dates, appeared at the town, with large armies, restless to precipitate them upon Scotland; but, on each occasion, he was conciliated by treaty; and he then, during a great part of his reign, sat peace-fully down in the castle, employed himself in strengthening its fortifications, and provoked the confederacyagainst him of the Northumberland barons and Alexander of Scotland. During the first half of six years succeeding 1234, Newcastle was scourged with a fearfulplague; and during the second half, it was visited, incommon with the country around it, with such weatheras brought on a disastrous famine. In 1235, Henry III.granted the inhabitants a special charter, prohibiting Jews from residing among them; in 1238, he eitheroriginated or strongly stimulated their coal trade, by granting them the lands and coal-strata of the places called the Castle-field and the Forth adjacent to the town; and, in 1244, he concentrated on the town anarmy for invading Scotland, but was diverted from warby prudent mediation. Much of the town and part ofits bridge were, about this time, destroyed by a great fire; and they owed their re-edification to the sale, by several bishops, of pretended pardon of sins. The chief local government, prior to 1251, was vested in a provost, appointed by the Crown; but subsequent to that date, it was vested in a mayor, chosen by the burgesses. Henry III. and his queen, in 1255, visited the town, on their way to the court of Scotland. Edward I., in 1291, received at Newcastle the homage of John Baliol for thecrown of Scotland; and he, on a future occasion, revisited the town to receive Baliol again in answer to asummons commanding his presence, but found that the kid-hearted Scottish king failed to appear. In 1296, when an invading army of Scots, under Sir William Wallace, overran Northumberland, a stern readiness and a northward march of the men of Newcastle to give thembattle, induced them to halt in their progress, and tochange their route. In 1299, Edward I. gave the landsand tenants of Pampedon to the burgesses; in the sameyear, but later, he visited the town, and heard the vespers of St. Nicholas performed by a boy-bishop; and, in 1302, he was again in Newcastle, antecedent to his assembling the army with which he conquered Scotland. In 1305, one of the quarters of Sir William Wallace wasexposed here on a gibbet; and in 1306, John de Seyton, one of the squires of Robert Bruce, was here publiclyexecuted. The town was visited, on three occasions, by Edward II.; it had his presence, on one of these, in 1314, during the assembling at Berwick of his army of 90,000against Scotland; and it was the rendezvous in the following year, of all the militia of England in anothermove of the international war.
In 1317, a famine prevailed of so appalling a characterthat the dead could with difficulty be buried, and some of the living did not scruple to eat human flesh. In 1319, a convention was held at Newcastle to negotiate apeace between England and Scotland, but proved abortive, next year, a Scottish army besieged the town, but was repulsed; and in 1323, another convention was heldhere, and negotiated a peace for 1 3 years. The king'smilitary vassals, in 1327, rendezvoused at Newcastle, and passed under the command of the Duke of Norfolk. Edward III., in 1334, received here the homage of Edward Baliol for the crown of Scotland; and, next year, he was again in Newcastle, with Baliol in his train. Agreat flood, in 1339, did severe damage to the bridge, and swept away 120 of the inhabitants. Edward III., in 1341, assembled an army at Newcastle, to be led against Scotland; and David Bruce, in his next year's invasion of England, vigorously but vainly attempted to take the town by assault. During the two years beginning in 1345, Newcastle was again scourged with the plague; and in the latter of these years, notwithstanding the distress, it furnished 17 ships with 314 mariners for thesiege of Calais, a quota larger than that from anynor thern or central port excepting Yarmouth. Commissioners met at it, in 1353, to negotiate the liberation of David II. of Scotland; and, by permission of the English king, the captive monarch was then present. English armies, a new to confront the Scots, were againin Newcastle in 1385, 1388, and 1400; and that of thesecond of these years was so large as not to be easily accommodated within the walls. The town had cost theinhabitants heavy outlay and great labour. for frequentrepair of its fortifications, from the early part of thereign of Edward I. onward; and it now was guarded atnight by regular warders on the walls, both to protect it from surprise, and to prevent the escape or rescue ofprisoners of war. At successive periods, however, it gotcompensation for its costs, by accession of privileges and immunities; in 1356, in particular, it got an enlargedcharter, conveying the manor to the mayor, and conferring important benefits on the burgesses; and in 1400, it was erected into a county separate from Northumberland. In 1416, it was once more desolated by theplague. In 1513, the army of the Earl of Surrey concentrated at it, to march against the Scottish invasionwhich terminated on the field of Flodden. In 1544, thearmy raised to castigate Scotland for rejecting Henry VIII. 's scheme of affiancing his son to the infant queen of Scots, also assembled at it, in preparation for embarking at Tynemouth. About the same time, the plague again re-appeared; in 1588-9, it cut down 1, 727 of the inhabitants; in 1625, it made a similar devastation; and in 1638, it carried off 5,037 persons in Newcastle, and 515 in Gateshead.
In 1603, James I., on his way to take possession of the English throne, was joyously welcomed and feastedby the burgesses; next year, he enlarged their charter, and defined their privileges and immunities; and in 1617, he was again in the town, and the Lord Presidentsat officially in the Guildhall. In 1639, Charles I., who had twice before visited it, remained 12 days in Newcastle, at the head of an army which he led against the Scottish Covenanters. The Covenanters, next year, on the day after their victory over the royalist troops at Newburn, marched into Newcastle; they thence, for ayear, held entire possession of it; and they eventually retired only on the degrading condition of £60,000 beingpaid for a truce. The effect of their seizing the town wasmost disastrous to its trade. " At this time Newcastle and the coal mines, that had wont to employ ten thousand people all the year long, some working underground, some above, and others upon the water in keelsand lighters, had now not a man to be seen, not a coalwrought, all absconding, being possessed with a fearthat the Scots would give no quarter; and of four hundred ships, which used to be there often at a time in the river, not a ship durst come in." In 1644, after the battle of Marston-moor, Newcastle, then the last bulwark of the royal cause in the North, sustained a vigorous siege of ten weeks by the Scottish forces, and was captured. Charles I. spent here the period of captivityafter his surrender to the Scottish garrison at Newark; is said to have assiduously attended the Scottish places of worship in the town; and was delivered here, by the Scottish army, to the Parliament's commissioners. The town, about that time, and at the national cost, was re-fortified, and put into a state of complete defence. Twenty-one prisoners were executed at it in 1649. Cromwelland his army spent three days in it, on their return from the taking of Berwick. General Lambert, with his army, took post in it in 1660; but retreated at the approach of General Monk.
A very fine equestrian statue of James II., which had been placed on a pedestal in front of the Exchange, was torn down by the populace at the Revolution, and throwninto the Tyne. The Jacobite insurgents of 1715 wished and hoped to take Newcastle by surprise; but, on reaching Morpeth, they were confounded and scared by intelligence of complete preparations having been made by the burgesses to give them a fierce reception. A riot, occasioned by dearth, broke out in 1740; pillaged thegranaries, and a grain-laden vessel; wreaked violenceupon buildings, and upon several gentlemen; and wasquelled only by the arrival of a military force, and the capture of about 40 of the rioters. The town was againalarmed by the rebellion of 1745; it contributed 3,000volunteers to stand against any possible attack of the rebels; it also became the rendezvous of about 15,000 well-equipped troops, with several parks of artillery; and, in January of next year, it witnessed the transit of the Duke of Cumberland, on his way to extinguish the rebellion on the field of Culloden. In 1779 also, it under-went repair of its fortifications, by local subscription, towithstand a possible descent of the Americans or the French; and sent out two privateersthe first vessels of their class that ever sailed from the portto cruise against the enemy. In 1795, a large mob, incited by scarcity of food, took control of all the grain and provision markets of the town, and dictated prices, yet wasotherwise orderly, and abstained from violence. In 1797, and during each of the succeeding years of the war with France, the corporation subscribed £500 toward the national expense, and curtailed their accustomed public festivities. Subsequent public events have, for the mostpart, had reference to architectural, municipal, commercial, and social improvements; and, though less showy than the preceding ones which glittered in the burnishings of war, they have been immensely more useful, and have educed a surpassing amount of general prosperity. The chief ones of another kind were a great flood in 181 5, a considerable devastation of cholera in 1831, a still greater devastation by that disease in 1853, and a greatfire in 1854. Prominent among more recent events were the construction of the High Level bridge in 1846-50, and a highly successful meeting of the British Association of Science in 1864.
Among eminent natives of Newcastle have been Dynley, the scholar; Mrs. Astell, born in 1668; William Elstob and Elizabeth Elstob, the Saxon scholars; John Horsley, the author of " Britannia Romana; " Burden and Spence, the political writers; Akenside, author of.the " Pleasures of Imagination; " Hutton, the mathematician; Grey, the author of " Memoria Technica; " Brand, the antiquary and local historian; Scott, the engraver; . Dean Holdsworth; John Scott, Earl of Eldon, and Lord. Chancellor; Cuthbert Collingwood, afterwards Lord Collingwood; Thomas Miles Richardson, the artist; March, vicar of St. Nicholas; R. Grainger, the great local improver of Newcastle; the Rev. Dr. George Hall; Sir Robert Chambers; and Sir William G. Armstrong, inventor of the Armstrong gun. Among eminent persons, .connected with the town by residence or otherwise, have been Duns Scotus, who become a friar here; Hugh of Newcastle and Martin of Newcastle, who also were friarshere; Bishop Ridley, who was educated here; some of the Percy family, who had a residence in the town; Avison, author of an essay on Musical Expression, who was organist first of St. John's, and next of St. Nicholas'; Bewick, the woodengraver, who carried on business in St. Nicholas churchyard; Lord Stowell, who was born at Heworth; Dr. Morrison, the Chinese scholar, who worked as a last-maker in Groat-market; Martin, the historical painter, who was apprenticed to a coach-maker in Newcastle; George Stephenson, the civil engineer, who rose to eminence in the neighbourhood, and had large connexions with the town; Robert Stephenson, the son and coadjutor of the preceding, mingling in much of his connexion with Newcastle; and Dr. Bruce, author of a well-known work on the " Roman Wall."
Ancient Fortifications.The castle, whence the townhas its name, stands in an irregular open area, called the Castle-garth, about 8 chains from the Tyne, about the same distance S of St. Nicholas church, and accessible by various crooked alleys. It retains no portion of the original structure of William Rufus, but ismainly of the date 1172-7, and includes portions of laterperiods. It consists mainly of Norman architecture:and is the most complete specimen of a Norman castle, though not the largest, now in England. The keepcovers an area of 76 feet by 66; is from 14 to 17 feetthick in its walls; and rises, from the surface of theground to the top of the lowest battlement of the tower, upwards of 97 feet. A flight of 19 steps, within the inner wall which surrounded the keep, conducts to a second and exceedingly strong portal, the entrance to the outertower; another flight of 24 steps conducts to a guard-room 13 feet by 12, the interior of which appears to have been highly embellished; and a third flight of 8steps conducts thence, by a lofty and imposing portal, to the state apartments within the keep, marked withmuch antique grandeur. A winding staircase from the ground-floor to the summit, and galleries lighted with loop-holes and communicating with one another by secret stairs, are within the thickness of the walls. Achapel, 46 feet by 19 ½, richly constructed in Norman ecclesiastical architecture, stands at the entrance-tower. The outer wall of the fort enclosed an area of 3¼ acres, but has been entirely removed; and it was of great intrinsic strength, surrounded by a fosse. The black gate, or grand entrance through the wall, has a portal of 36feet, flanked by two strong towers; and was protected by two drawbridges and two portcullises. Three posterns, at other points in the outer wall, led respectively to the S, to the E, and to the W; and that which led to the Sstill stands on what is called the Castle-stairs, and presents several very curious features. The castle is nowoccupied by the Newcastle Society of Antiquaries; canbe readily examined, through all its parts, by a visitor; and contains a very interesting museum, stored with Roman antiquities found in Newcastle and its neighbourhood, and with a rich variety of other old relics. The top of the keep, too, commands a good view overthe town, and looks right along the High Levelbridge.
The walls, gates, and military towers of the town, aided by the Tyne on the S, and by the ravines of Ouseburn and Pandon Dean on the W, were regarded by Leland, in the time of Henry VIII., as excelling thefortifications of every other town of England, and of Most towns of Europe. They underwent repair at frequentperiods, from the time of their original construction by William Rufus till the year 1745; they were, at some of the periods, rebuilt entirely in parts, on new sites, to include a larger area within them; and, in 1745, they extended about 47 chains north-north-westward from the Tyne, and nearly the same distance in the opposite direction, described an outline somewhat waving or irregular, except along the Tyne, were further from the castle on the W side than on the E side, and described a circuit of 2 miles 239 yards. They were 8 feet thick, and from12 to 20 feet high; they were pierced by six embattled and remarkably strong gates; and they had, at anglesand at other points of the intervening line, strong two-storied and vaulted semicircular towers, alternating with a double number of quadrangular watch-towers. They were rendered no longer necessary by the settled course of peace which followed the battle of Culloden; they were soon found to obstruct the extensions of trade and of town improvement, particularly in the parts adjacent to the Tyne; they began to be taken down, in these parts, so early as 1762; and they have, at subsequent periods, been removed so unsparingly that only a few remains of them now exist. Sand-gate, so called from its looking outon a sandy deposit of the river, was taken down in 1798. Pandon-gate, situated at the foot of Pandon-bank, supposed to have been on a spot of the Roman wall, and possessing curious marks of antiquity and strength, disappeared in 1795. Pilgrim-gate, a low-arched and gloomy structure, at the head of Pilgrim-street, was removed in 1802. Newgate, situated on the street bearing its name at the W end of Blackett-street, was thegrandest and strongest of all the gates; had an outworkin aid of the defences of its main gate; was long used, like the Newgate of London, as a prison; and was takendown, in terms of an act for erecting a new prison, in 1822. Westgate stood on Westgate-street, at the end of Cross-street; was a "mightie strong thinge, " with fourwards of huge oak and iron doors; and was taken downin 1811. Close-gate stood on the street called the Close, at a distance of 50 yards from the Tyne; communicatedwith a tower standing on the margin of the river; and was a heavy and repulsive structure. Sallyport-gate, situated in Causey-bank, is the only gate now standing. Wall-Knoll tower, one of the towers of the wall, on aspot of the Roman wall, a little W of the Keelmen's hospital, was renovated in 1716, and became the hall of the Shipwrights company. Plumber's tower, near the jail, was re-fronted about 1835, and became the hall of the Masons' company. Carliol tower, in New Bridge-street, was renovated and embellished about 1830, and was then the hall of the Weavers' company. Ever tower, Mordentower, and Heber tower, between Westgate-street and St. Andrew's church, also became halls of Trades' companies, and are still standing. Gunner or Gunnertontower, near Forth-lane, was rebuilt in 1821, and madethe Slaters' hall. West Spittal tower, near St. Mary'shospital, was built by the authorities of that institutionabout the end of the 13th century, and still stands. Denton tower, at the end of the postern of a quondamseries of heavy defensive works, became the Bricklayers'hall. Pink tower, in Pink-lane, opposite the railway station, is now in a ruinous condition, and has on each side of it an extant portion of the wall. Another strip of the wall, in some places nearly perfect, extends from the railway, along the back of Hanover-square brewery, and across the Close, to the edge of the Tyne; and another, almost unbroken, extends from Westgate-street to St. Andrew's church, and includes four of the extant towers.
Site and Structure.A very narrow belt of plain along the margin of the Tyne, steep faces of three considerableeminences rising from the plain, prolonged summits of the eminences in the manner of tableau, and wavinghollows and a deep dell between the heights, form the site of Newcastle. The environs are diversified, and were naturally picturesque; but have, to some extent, been defaced by manufactories and smoke. The town, till a comparatively recent period, presented a rustic appearance, amid a splendid country. John Wesley, in anentry in his journal in 1759, says, " After preaching, rode on to Newcastle. Certainly if I did not believethere was another world, I would spend all my summershere, as I know no place in Great Britain comparable toit for pleasantness." So much as about one-third of even the area within the walls, so late as 1772, was disposed in lawns and gardens; and the lands immediatelywithout the walls were then all rural, and included many scenes and walks of great beauty. One of thewalks was Pandon dean, where the terminus of the Blyth and Tyne railway now stands; and another was the Maiden's walk, extending westward from the infirmary, commanding exquisite views of the vales of Tyne and Ravensworth, and now all edificed. The town, with its environs, continued to be clear and blooming long after Shields had become blackened by salt-works; in somuch that some townsmen still living remember a common saying of their youth to have been, " Up with canny Newcastle, and down with smoky Shields." The architectural aspect of the town, too, has very greatly changed. The old thoroughfares, evendespite the large reservation of space for lawns and gardens, were aligned with a most niggardly regard to thesaving of-ground; they were, for the most part, merelanes or alleys, narrow, winding, and unwholesome; and, though both curtailed by inroads upon them and muchimproved by various kinds of alterations, they now present a striking contrast to the spacious straight, well-built streets of the modern extensions. The old houses, also, were constructed chiefly of timber, with brick in the interstices between the beams, or covered with lath and plaster; they had projections of story above story, so as almost to overarch the narrow thoroughfares; and they were crowned with dormerwindows and gable-ends. Many of these houses still exist, and are very picturesque; but when such as they formed the entire town, they made it dismally dense and unhealthy. Even thehouses of the earlier extensions were, at best, built ofbrick; nor were stone houses, or at least houses of pol-shed stone, begun till 1823.
The steep slope of the principal eminence facing the river, around the Castle and downward, was the part of the town's site first edificed; and, excepting in the immediate vicinity of the Castle, it became all covered withdense masses of building, traversed only by narrow lanesand alleys. The ground eastward from this over the other slopes, and the ground northward over part of thetableau, was afterwards edificed, and became similarlycharacterized. Much of these tracts continues to possessthe old character of density and gloom; aggravated, on the one hand, by age and smoke; mitigated, on theother, by ventilating intersections of railway, and stillmore by reconstructions and sanitary improvements. Sandhill, skirting the base of the chief eminence, and going with curves from the end of Tyne bridge to thefoot of the Side, was long a public promenade and aplace of public sports, and now presents an interestingmixture of some of the best old houses with modern improvement. The Close, going west-south-westward, on a line with Sandhill, was once the aristocratic quarter, is now almost wholly given up to trade, has such narrowness as to answer well to its name, and communicates by flights of steps, called the Castle-stairs, the Long-stairs, and the Tuthill-stairs, with the higher part of the town. Quayside, commencing at the bridge near the junction of Sandhill and the Close, and running eastward along themargin of the river, is the chief seat of the town's commerce; and was, with numerous lanes abutting on it, one of the most densely edificed parts of the old town, till the great fire, of 1854; but the western portion of it wasthen devastated by the fire, and has since been remodelled and rebuilt in a style of much beauty, not only in the river-frontage, but in Lombard-street, King-street, and Queen-street. Sandgate, running parallel with the New Quay, is an ancient thoroughfare of great note; used tobe the Wapping of Newcastle; and figures in a local song, called "the Keel Row, " set to a very beautiful air, and highly popular among Tyneside men. The Side, curving north-westward, with steep ascent, from Sandhill to the open space around St. Nicholas church, was long athoroughfare not unlike the famous old, narrow, winding, and acclivitous West Bow of Edinburgh; had theadditional feature of being traversed in its lower part, by the deep rut of a rivulet called Lork or Lort burn; wasimproved in its roadway in 1696, by the construction of arched-work; served, over all its length, till a recentperiod, as the chief thoroughfare on the line of the greatroad between Edinburgh and London; occasioned theproverbial absurdity of "the cart before the horse" tobe often no absurdity whatever, but a matter-of-fact and very prudent method of effecting a safe descent; is nowcrossed, near the middle, by a very lofty railway viaduct, with one of the grandest elliptical arches in the kingdom; contains striking juxta-positions of very picturesqueold houses with very handsome new ones; and presents, at a point bringing the coronal steeple of St. Nicholasinto view, a most remarkable and romantic picture. Dean-street, going off northward from the middle of the Side, is a spacious modern thoroughfare; diverts, to agentler acclivity, the part of the line of the great roadwhich previously went up the higher portion of the Side; and partly surmounts the filled-up bottom, partly restson the planks, of a deep and dangerous ravine, whichwas traversed by the Lort burn, and was, in 1783 and following years, laboriously converted into street-line. An ancient bridge spanned the ravine, at a place still indicated in the street by a flight of steps on each side; and is thought, by some persons, to have been on theline of the Roman wall. A new street was recentlyformed from St. Nicholas-square .to the road-way of the High Level Bridge; and part of it is already edificed with magnificent buildings.
Mosley-street, crossing the head of Dean-street atright angles, and passing right across the quondamravine, was constructed between 1783 and 1788; formed, with the opening of Dean-street, the first step in theprogress of the modern improvement of the town; measures 59 feet in breadth; and has an airy, commercial, and affluent appearance. Collingwood-street, continuous with Mosley-street west-southwestward, was begun to be built in 1809; consists of good or even eleganthouses, with spacious shops; and now leads from thecentral seats of business to the great spaces round thegeneral railway station. Pilgrim-street, crossing the Eend of Mosley-street, and continued northward by Northumberland-street, to the distance of very nearly a mile from the Tyne, took its name from the circumstance that pilgrims used anciently to go along it to afamous "holy well" and a chapel at Jesus' Mount, now-Jesmond; is one of the most spacious and agreeable of the ancient thoroughfares; and has been much modernized and architecturally adorned. The Royal arcade, offthe E side of Pilgrim-street, at a point looking along Mosley-street, was built in the eleven months succeeding June 1831, at a cost of nearly £45,000; presents afront 94 feet long and 75 feet high, with an entrance between two massive Doric pillars, supporting a very richentablature; and extends eastward 250 feet by 20, inranges of three stories, the lower one Doric, the upperone Corinthian. Grey-street, opening off Mosley-street, on a line with Dean-street, and running parallel to Pilgrim-street, connects some old parts of the town with aseries of splendid new streets; measures about 480 yards in length, with an average of 80 in breadth; has a slightcurvature of line, which presented serious difficulty to the creation of harmony in-its architecture, but was skilfully and tastefully subordinated to a property evenhigher than harmony; and is so very elegantly edificed-as to be the most imposing street in the town, and one of the most handsome anywhere in the empire. Its firstsuite, on the W side, is a slightly curved crescent 180yards long, consisting of a central elevation and twowings, the entablature of the former supported by eleven massive and finely proportioned Corinthian pillars, another suite, on the same side, follows the chaste and symmetrical Ionic of the Athenian temple of Illysus; and the other suites are in styles of similar beauty and excellence; while all are so grouped with one another, and so blended into one view with neighbouring edifices and street-vistas, as to produce a very imposing effect. Shakespeare-street, Hood-street, and Market-street, running from Pilgrim-street to Grey-street, and the last about as far beyond, are all fine thorough-fares, with beauty and variety in both their public and their private edifices. Grainger-street, going off at anangle of about 45 degrees from the N end of Grey-street, and running south-westward to the junction of Bigg-market and Newgate-street, measures about 300 yards inlength, and 22 in breadth; and is not much inferior, ineither elegance of architecture or impressiveness ofeffect, to Grey-street. Clayton-street, parallel to Grainger-street, about 6 chains W of it, and prolonged south-south-westward by West Clayton-street, is a degree ortwo less ornate, but is not less useful; and now forms amain thoroughfare from the N parts of the town to thegeneral railway station. Nelson-street and Nun-street, running parallel to each other from Grainger-street to Clayton-street, inclose, as in a square, the magnificentpublic markets; and present, on the one side, a range ofhandsome shops and houses, on the other side, one ofthose varieties in a suite of buildings which so remarkably characterize all the best of the new streets.
All the new streets now noticed, together with someother extensions, were built by Mr. Richard Grainger, a gentleman of such humble origin as to have beenproudly styled, by his admirers, "the charity boy." He was trained to be a builder; he performed the firstwork on his own account by rebuilding a house in High Friar-street, next the one in which he was born; and hebegan to form schemes for extensive street improvementin 1819. The town had then, indeed, been considerablyrenovated and enlarged; but it still presented, on thewhole, a dingy appearance, consisted of little more than the old, dense, and narrow thoroughfares, and still includeda large unedificed space which had long been disposed inlawn and garden. Mr. Grainger, in 1834, after a series of tentative efforts, enlarged his plans, and obtained thecommon council's concurrence in them; and, during thefive years thence till 1839, he constructed 9 new streets of aggregately 1 mile 289 yards in length, and built thenew market, the central exchange, the new theatre, thenew dispensary, the music hall, a lecture-room, 2 chapels, 2 auction-marts, the incorporated company's hall, 10 inns, 12 public houses, 40 private houses, and 325houses with shops. The value of these buildings is about £1,000,000; the ground for them cost £145, 937, and required to be disencumbered of two theatres, a butcher-market, a large mansion and offices, a large inn, 8 public houses, 80 private houses, and a large number ofworkshops; and the number of men employed on the erection of the buildings, during a great part of the fiveyears, was about 2,000. Mr. Grainger also, at a cost of £200,000, purchased the Elswick estate of about 750 acres, lying along the river to the W of the town; and isrecorded to have said, " I will not stop until I have made Elswick Hall the centre of Newcastle." He, however, had already built large houses more rapidly than occupants could be found for them; and he carried out hisplans, on the Elswick estate, to only a very small extent. Hood-street, the W end of Clayton-street, and some of the minor new streets, stood, for a few years, almost unoccupied, and looked very desolate. Yet all Mr. Grain-ger's buildings came to be in full use before 1864, and have since risen greatly in value. Mr. G. died in 1861.
Other important extensions of the town, by other builders, were achieved both during and after the activeperiod of Mr. G. 's enterprises. Brandling-place, or village, comprising a group of regular and elegant buildings, was erected in Jesmond township on the N; some handsome rows of houses were built on the great N road, nearer than Brandling-place; numerous streets, withhouses suited to the wants of the humble yet respectableclasses of the community, were erected on the E; and vast extensions, in a variety of styles, and compris ingnumerous streets, were made, and are still going on, in the townships of Westgate and Elswick on the W. Blenheim-street and Bland ford-street, running parallel toeach other, from Westgate southward, were among thefirst streets of the great western extension; a row on Rye-hill, East Parade, and West Parade, running parallelto one another south-south-eastward, and consisting ofgood and tasteful houses of moderate size, were of laterconstruction; streets, parallel with these or nearly at rightangles with them, are now so numerous as to form practically a considerable new town; and other streets or rows, mostly near the Carlisle railway and the Tyne, haverisen like a suburb away westward to the extensive ordnance and engineering works of Sir William Armstrong, near Scotswood. A new improvement act came into operation in Dec. 1865, authorizing the corporation to layout a dozen new streets, and to widen and otherwise improve about ten extant streets or roads, and empoweringthem to borrow, for these purposes, a sum not exceeding £150,000, in addition to a sum previously borrowed, and then unpaid, of £54, 744. So many as about 30 oldstreets remained unpaved at the end of 1866; and sovery many as nearly 300, in all, were then in that condition. The total of streets in 1867 was about 640; and the aggregate length of them was about 50 miles.
Public Buildings.Tyne bridge, as it stood for centuries till 1771, had originally twelve bold arches, butsuffered conversion of three of them into cellars at thebuilding of the quays; gave serious obstruction to thepassage of the stream, by the great aggregate bulkiness ofits piers; had a narrow roadway; was surmounted by ahermitage, a chapel, and numerous houses on the battlements, and by three gateway towers, with portcullises, at the ends and in the middle; and was destroyed, in Nov.1771, by a great flood, which demolished every bridgeon the river Tyne, except that at Corbridge The bridgewhich succeeded it, was built in 1774-9, at a cost of more than £30,000; had nine elliptical arches; was widened and enlarged in 1801; proved inconvenient, both by greatly impeding the current, and by preventing the passage of ships upwards; and, in order to be succeeded by a better structure, was taken down in 1866-7. A temporary wooden bridge, to accommodate the traffic till a new permanent bridge should be built, was opened in 1866; curves considerably round the line of the oldbridge, but adjoins it at the ends; is generally of the same dimension as the old bridge, and has the samenumber of arches; measures 660 feet in length from theapproaches, 22½ feet in width of roadway, and 6¼ feet inwidth of each side footpath; and was so substantiallyformed as to be likely to last for several years. A schemefor crossing the river at a high level, so as to save the toiland the risk of the declivitous descents to the bridgeboth from Newcastle and from Gateshead, was concocted and published, some years before the railway era, by Mr. Green of Newcastle; but was generally regarded as fartoo formidable, and failed to obtain approval by capitalists. A similar scheme, after the authorization of the North eastern railway, seemed to be essential for the transit of railway trains, if traffic between Edinburgh and London by way of York were not to be broken at Newcastle; but even then, in spite of the high demand for itwhich had arisen, it appeared so vast that the railway company, for a time, seriously contemplated leaving Newcastle out of their direct route, and crossing in thevicinity of Bill Point, some miles lower down the river. Robert Stephenson, however, looked the scheme in theface, and contrived means to execute it, not only for thetransit of railway trains, but also for ordinary road-traffic between Newcastle and Gateshead. A structure was devised by him, with an upper viaduct for the railway, and a lower bridge for carriages and foot passengers; was founded in Oct. 1846, and opened in Feb. 1850; and cost £243,096 for its own construction, £113,057 for itsapproaches, and £135,000 for land, or a total of £491, 153. The structure is known as the High Level bridge; and consists of six cast-iron arches, supported on piers ofsolid masonry. The length of the viaduct is 1, 337 feet; the length of the water-way, 512 feet; the height from high water-mark to the line of railway, 112 feet; and theheight from highwater-mark to the carriage-way, 85 feet. A fire, originating in a flour-mill partly under the Newcastle end of the bridge, on 24 June 1866, threatened fora time the entire destruction of the bridge, actually damaged the carriage-way and foot-paths to a value ofabout £2, 500, seriously injured one of the stone piers and much of the iron work, and occasioned a total damageestimated at between £25,000 and £30,000. A hoist, tolift passengers, goods, and vehicles from the level of the Close to the level of the carriage-way and the footpaths, and to be worked by hydraulic power, was projected by a Company who obtained an act of parliament for it in July, 1867, and was to be effected in connexion with awidening of the S side of the Close by the Corporation. Pandon dean bridge spanned the deep and narrowglen whence it has its name; was a handsome structure of three arches, erected in 1812; led the way from New Bridge-street to Ridley villas, on the road to Shields; and, on account of the filling up of the Dean, was removed in 1865.
The Moot-hall, till 1865 the County Court-house, stands in the immediate vicinity of the Castle, on a site100 feet above the level of the river; was built in 1810-2, at a cost of £52,000; is an imposing structure, with architectural details from the Athenian temple of The seus: has, on its N and S fronts, fine porticos of respectively 4 and 6 Doric columns, each 28 feet in heightand 5 in diameter; covers an area of 144 feet by 72; and, though containing court-rooms as good as those of mostcounty towns, was found to be not sufficiently commodious. The new County Court stands in Westgate-street, between the Assembly-rooms and the Savings-bank; was built in 1864-5, at a cost of about £10,000; has a front adorned with various stone figures; and contains a court-room 50 feet long, 38 feet wide, and 24 feet high, lightedby two lantern lights. A handsome residence for the judges, during the holding of the assizes, is in Ellison-place; and was purchased for its present use, and elegantly furnished, in 1866. The quondam Mansion-housestands on the S side of the Close; was rebuilt in 1691, at a cost of £6,000; gave entertainment to Leopold I. of Belgium, the Duke of Sussex, the Duke of Wellington, Lord Eldon, and other eminent personages; was denuded of its honours in 1836; and is now occupied as a timberwarehouse. The mayor, prior to the passing of themunicipal reform act, resided here during his year ofoffice, and had a salary of £2,000, besides a state-coach, a barge, and the use of a valuable service of plate; but, since 1836, he has had no official residence, and has bada salary of only £300. The Guildhall stands on the S side of Sandhill; originated in a Maison de Dieufounded by Roger Thornton in the time of Henry IV.; was rebuilt in 1658 at a cost of £10,000, and restored in 1809; is in a mixed renaissance style, with a steeple; and contains a court-room 92 feet long and 30 feet wide, with carved oak ceiling, elaborately ornamented walls, and paintings of Charles II., James II., George III., Lord Eldon, Lord Collingwood, and Lord Stowell. The New Town-hall, or Corporation Buildings, occupies asplendid site, in the centre of a spacious thorough fare, opposite St. Nicholas church, and immediately N of thejunction of Mosley-street and Collingwood-street; was erected in 1858, at a cost of about £65,000; includes, on the S, a banking office and several capacious shops; terminates, on the N, in a hotel surmounted by a spire; embraces, in the centre, the corn-market, which is muchused also, especially on Saturdays, as a general exchange; has, above the corn-market, a hall for concerts and public meetings, with accommodation for 3,000 persons; and contains the council-chamber, the municipal offices, and some committee-rooms. The Jail and House of Correction stands in Carliol-square; was built in 1823-8, at a cost of about £35,000, and afterwards improved at a cost of £15,000; is a massive and very strong erection, with a bold central tower; and has capacity for 165 male and 86 female prisoners. The Barracks are situated in the N W outskirts of the town, at Castle-Leazes, nearly ¾ of a mile N W of the W end of Blackett-street; comprise anextensive area; and are enclosed within a stone wall.
The Central Exchange and News Room presents three fronts to respectively Grainger-street, Grey-street, and Market-street; was a chef d'œuvre among the later erections of Mr. Grainger; and is a triangular block of building, in the Grecian style, with predominance of Corinthian features; but was greatly injured by fire in Aug.1867. The Central railway Station stands in an area, extending E and W, between Neville-street on the Nand Forth-street on the S; measures 592¾ feet in length of frontage, and 10, 997 square yards in area; was constructed, after designs by Mr. Dobson, at a cost of £130,000; is in the Roman Doric style, with a portico, originally intended to be ornate, but actually constructed with little embellishment; has a passengershed 179 yards long and 60 yards wide, with a roof inthree compartments, and supported on each side of theplatform by metal columns; includes a large hotel; and is remarkable both for convenience of situation relative to the great body of the town, and for excellence of interior arrangements. The Newcastle and Carlisle railway emerges from its W end, and the North eastern railway from its E end; and the latter forks, at a distance of 14 chains from it into two lines, respectively south-south-eastward toward the High Level bridge and Gateshead, and east-north-eastward, through the eastern parts of the town, to curve afterwards to the N; and both forks pass along lofty viaducts, overlooking greatmasses of the streets and houses. Other stations, foraccommodation of local traffic and of goods trains, are inother parts; the station of the Blyth and Tyne railway is at Pandon dean, adjacent to the quondam Pandondean bridge, and was originally Picton House, builtabout 1824; and the line of that railway leaves the townin a direction nearly due N.
The Post-Office forms part of the Royal Arcade. The Custom-house stands on Quayside; was originally a private edifice; and, in 1829, was purchased by government, and adorned with a neat stone front. The Merchants' Court adjoins the Guildhall; was recently re-built; and retains the internal decorations of the previous building, with curious wood carvings of 1636. The Old Markets stood in three narrow streets between the foot of Newgate-street and the line of Mosley-street and Collingwood-street; were of a character in keeping with the old condition of the town; and, together with one of the three streets in which they stood, were swept awayby the modern improvements. The New Markets present four fronts toward respectively Grainger-street, Nun-street, Clayton-street, and Nelson-street; occupy aquadrangular area of 13, 906 yards; were built in 1835by Mr. Grainger; and, as to both architectural featuresand convenient arrangements, are about the finest in thekingdom. The Green-market has a frontage of fruit and vegetable shops; measures 318 feet in length, 57 feet inwidth, and 40 feet in height; is roofed with woodenwork, in the manner of Gothic cathedrals; and has twoornate fountains, copied from the famous one in the Borghese palace at Rome, which, however, seldom play. The Meat-market consists of four avenues, each 338feet long, 19½ feet wide, and 27 feet high, crossed by fourlofty arcades, and provided with 360 glazed sashes; contains nearly 200 butchers' shops, and a weigh-house; and, as well as the Green-market, is brilliantly lighted up atnight with gas. A new wholesale vegetable market, withtwo entrances from Clayton-street and two from Green-court, and measuring 188 feet in length and 132 feet inwidth, was opened in Oct. 1866. The Grey monument, inmemory of Earl Grey, prime minister at the passing of thereform bill of 1832, stands immediately N of the N angle of the Central Exchange, at the common termination of Grey-street and Grainger-street; was erected in 1836; and consists chiefly of a column 121 feet high, bearing aloft a colossal statue of Earl Grey, an admirable likeness by Bailey. The Stephenson monument, in memory of the great engineer, George Stephenson, stands at the intersection of Westgate-street and Neville-street, 5chains N E of the Central railway station; was erected in 1862, at a cost of about £4, 500; and consists of acolossal bronze statue of Stephenson by Lough, on a massive pedestal 30 feet high, with statues of a pitman, a blacksmith, a plate-layer, and an engine-driver at the angles.
The Assembly-rooms stand detachedly in a recess off the N side of Westgate-street and S end of Fenkle-street; were built in 1776, at a cost of £6, 700; show a creditable degree of architectural taste; and contain a grand ball-room 94 feet long, 36 feet wide, and 32 feet high. The Theatre-Royal stands on the E side of Grey-street; was built in 1836-7, by Mr. Grainger; presents a beautiful frontage, 120 feet long; and has a hexastyle Corinthian portico, projecting over the entire breadth of a broad footpath, with pillars 41 feet high, and with a rich pediment bearing the royal arms. The Tyne Theatre and Opera house stands on the S side of Westgate, W of Thornton-street; was founded in 1866, and opened in Sept. 1867; is in the Italian style, after designs by W-Parnell; and has capacity for about 3,000 persons. The Music-hall stands on the N side of Nelson-street; was built also by Mr. Grainger; and is a handsome structure, with an apartment 80 feet long, 40 feet wide, and 25 feet high. A previous Music-hall, on the S side of Blackett-street, was built likewise by Mr. Grainger; but proved too small, and was alienated to other purposes. The Racket-court stands behind Westgate-street, and is approached from Newgate-street; was built in 1822-3, at a cost of £3,000; and contains a court 61 feet by 32, agallery for spectators, two fine billiard-rooms, and abath and dressing-rooms. The Public Baths, at the head of Ridley-place, off the E side of Northumberlandstreet, were commenced in 1838; occupy an area of 176feet by 134, in the middle of a field of 12 acres; and, besides ample suites of ordinary baths, contain two large open plunge baths. Baths also are in Scotswood-road; Turkish and galvanic baths are in Bath-road; and bathsand wash-houses are in Gallowgate and in New-road. Measures for the erection of a public gymnasium, by alimited liability company, after designs by Mr. Oliver, were adopted in the spring of 1867. A race-course, with suitable accommodations, is on the Town-moor, about 2 miles N of the Central Exchange; bears the name of the Hotspur Round; measures 3, 162 yards in the circuit of the course; and usually draws large assemblages at annual races in June.
Churches.The places of worship within the borough, in 1851, were 11 of the Church of England, with 9, 928 sittings; 2 of the Church of Scotland, with1, 500 s.; 2 of English or Free Church Presbyterians, with 1, 570 s.; 3 of United Presbyterians, with 1, 200 s.; 2 of Independents, with 1,036 s.; 5 of Particular Baptists, with 1,898 s.; 1 of Scotch Baptists, with 250 s.; 1 of Baptists not specially defined, the s. not reported; 1 of Quakers, with-512 s.; 2 of Unitarians, with 1,072 s.; 6of Wesleyan Methodists, with 3, 652 s.; 3 of New Connexion Methodists, with 1, 472 s.; 4 of Primitive Methodists, with 1,823 s.; 2 of Wesleyan Reformers, with495 s.; 1 of the New Church, with 400 s.; 2 of isolatedcongregations, with 150 s.; 2 of Roman Catholics, with1, 744 s.; and 1 of Jews, with 104 s. The places of worship in the town and its immediate neighbourhood, exclusive of Gateshead, in 1867, were at least 18 of the Church of England, 1 of the Church of Scotland, 2 of English or Free Church Presbyterians, 5 of United Presbyterians, 4 of Independents, 4 of Baptists, 1 of Quakers, 2 of Unitarians, 8 of Wesleyan Methodists, 4 of New Connexion Methodists, 6 of Primitive Methodists, 4 of United Free Methodists, 1 of the New Church, 1 of Glassites, 1 for the use of seamen, 3 of Roman Catholics, and 1 of Jews.
St. Nicholas' church stands in an open area, immediately S of the junction of Mosley-street and Collingwood-street; occupies the site of a church built, in 1091, by Osmund, Prior of Tynemouth, and afterwards Bishop of Salisbury, given by him to the priory of Carlisle, and destroyed by fire in 1216; was rebuilt in 1359 and previous years, and extensively repaired at numerous subsequent dates; is cruciform, and chiefly decorated English, with a W tower and coronal spire; measures 245feet by 128½; and figures as the most conspicuous feature of the town. Aisles and a clerestory go all round. The nave is of four bays, 110 feet long, 74 feet wide, withoutseats, and of a character rather different from the otherparts. The N transept contains the font, with handsomecanopy; and has a great N window of exquisite work-manship, recently restored by Mr. Dobson. The S transept is used as a chapel on Wednesday and Friday mornings; contains old oak stalls, which formerly belonged to the choir, and contains also a picture, by Tintorett, of Christ Washing the Disciples' Feet. The choir is enclosed for regular service; is 110 feet long and 64 feetwide; and has a great E window which was renewed in 1861, and several other fine windows, variously altered, modernized, or recently inserted. The monuments include a recumbent effigies, supposed to be of Peter de Manley, warden of the E marshes in the time of Richard II.; a monument, by Bacon, to M. Ridley, who wasmayor of Newcastle in 1745; a monument, by Flaxman, to the Rev. H. Moises, with epitaph by Lord Stowell; a monument by Flaxman, to Sir Matthew W. Ridley; and a bust of Lord Collingwood. The church is notable for John Knox having preached in it duringnearly two years by commission of the government of Edward VI.; and it probably was the scene also of a famousformal statement of his Reformation faith, in presence of the Bishop of Durham and other ecclesiastical dignitaries. The tower is the great architectural glory of theedifice; but evidently is of later date than the rest; and is said to have been built by a merchant of the name of Rhodes, in the time of Henry VI. It is less ornatethan most buildings of early perpendicular date; yet itis so exquisite in composition as to produce a most imposing effect. It measures 36¾ feet by 35 at the base; risesto the height of 193 ½ feet; consists of three stories orstages, and a coronal; is pierced, through the basementstory, by the principal entrance, in the second story, by a great window, in each face of the third story, by twolarge two-light windows; has, on the summits of theangles of the third story, four lofty pinnacles; and is surmounted by an imperial crown, consisting first of fourflying buttresses springing from the bases of the pinnacles to an intersection 20 feet above the parapet, next of a light open lantern rising from the intersection of the flying buttresses and crowned at the angles with crocketted pinnacles, and finally of a crocketted and nicely-proportioned spirelet springing from the summit of the lantern. This steeple presents resemblances to the steeple of St. Giles in Edinburgh, to that of the Old Tolboothin Glasgow, and to that of St. Dunstan-in-the-East in London; but it far excels them in beauty. It was observed, in 1832, to incline from the perpendicular, and was then temporarily propped with beams of timber, and afterwards strengthened with buttresses; and it again drew serious attention by a seemingly decaying state, in 1866, and was restored in 1867-8, under the direction of Mr. Gilbert Scott, at a cost of about £6,000. Pennantremarks that "this tower is justly the boast of the inhabitants; " and Ben Jonson makes it the subject of thefollowing enigma:
My altitude high, my body four-square,
My foot in the grave, my head in the air,
My eyes in my sides, five tongues in my womb,
Thirteen heads upon my body, four images alone;
I can direct yon where the wind doth stay,
and I mind God's precepts twice a-day.
I am seen where I-am not, I am heard where I am not;
Tell me now what I am, and see that yon miss not.
All Saints' church stands on the brow of a steep bank, on the S side of Silver-street; occupies the site and retains the crypt of a previous church, dating from at least1286; was built in 1786-96, after designs by David Stephenson, at a cost of £27,000; is in the Grecian style, elliptical, 86 feet by 72; has a tower and spire 202 feethigh; and contains a brass and an altar-tomb of Roger Thornton, of date 1429. St. Andrew's church stands on the W side of Newgate-street; possibly occupies the site of a church or monastery of the ancient Monkchester; isevidently older than the church of St. Nicholas; has been ascribed to David I., the famous church and abbey-building monarch of Scotland; is chiefly Norman, withsome early English features, and with a massive tower; has been much modified by frequent alterations and repairs; was restored in 1866-7, under the direction of Mr. T. Oliver; and contains a picture of the Last Supper by Giordano, presented by Major and erson in 1804, and an altar-rail opening by a telescopic contrivance, and set upin 1867. St. John's church stands in Westgate-street, and has been noticed in the article John-Newcastle( St.) Christ church serves for the Shield field portion of All Saints parish; was built at the expense of the family of the late-Mr. Robert Boyd; and is in the decorated English style, with tower and spire. Jesmond churchstands on the road to Jesmond; serves for a portion of St. Andrew's parish, formed into a chapelry in 1861; was built in that year; and is in the decorated English style, with a tower, intended to be surmounted by a spire. St. Thomas' church stands in the Magdalene-meadows, near Barras-bridge; was built in 1830, to succeed ancient chapel taken down at the end of Tyne bridge; is in the early English style, after designs by Mr. Dobson; and has a tower 138 feet high. St Mary's church standsat Ryehill; was erected out of funds belonging to St. Mary's hospital; is in the decorated English style, afterdesigns by Mr. B. Green; and has a spire so lofty as to bedisproportionate to the main building. St Ann's churchstands on the N side of the New-road; was built in 1768; is in the Italian style, somewhat plain; and has a lighthigh steeple. St. Peter's church stands in the E part of the town, near Saville-row and Pandon Dean; serves fora part of St. Andrew's parish, formed into a chapelry in 1844; is in the decorated English style, very handsome, after a design by Mr. Dobson; has a tower and spire, several stained glass windows by Wailes, and several memorial windows put up in 1865; and contains a painting, by Reed, of the Crucifixion. St. Paul's church stands in High Elswick; serves for a portion of St. Nicholas parish formed into a chapelry in 1846; and is in the early English style, plain but commodious. St. Michael's churchstands in by ker; serves for a portion of All Saints parish, formed into a chapelry in 1862; was built in that year; and is in the decorated English style. Jesmond churchstands on the Jesmond road, a little W of the Blyth and Tyne railway; was erected in 1861, at a cost of about £6,000, as a memorial to the Rev. R. Clayton, incumbent of St. Thomas; is in the early decorated English style, after designs by Mr. Dobson; has an E window offive lights; and contains 1, 3 40 sittings.
Blackett-street Presbyterian church was built in 1858, after designs by Mr. M. Thompson, and is in the decorated English style. New Bridge-street Presbyterianchurch was built after designs by Mr. Dobson, and is infine early English style, but stands on too low a site. Gresham-place Presbyterian church was built in 1863, at a cost of £2,000, and is in a Pseudo-classic style. John Knox Presbyterian church stands near the general railway station; is in the early English style, after designs by Mr. Dobson; and has a tower, intended to besurmounted by a spire. Blackett-street Independent chapel is a neat stone edifice, after designs by Mr. T. Oliver; and has a tasteful interior, with a stone pulpit. West Clayton-street Independent chapel was erected by Mr. Grainger, in a manner to harmonize with the street; and is in the Italian style. Westgate Independent chapel was built in 1841, as a chapel of ease to St. John's parish; was sold, in 1854, to the Independent congregation of Zion chapel; and has not any striking architectural features. Bath-lane Independent chapel was built in 1861, after designs by Messrs. Oliver and Lamb, at a cost of £3,000; is in the middle pointed style, with ornamental spire; and contains 1, 200 sittings. An orphanage and schools, in connexion with this chapel, on a plotn early adjoining it, was erected in 1866, at a cost of about £ 4,000; is in a style to harmonize with the chapel; and has a front elevation of three stories, with gable-ends and a projecting tower, surmounted by a slated spire roof, intended to be used as an observatory. The Bewick-street Baptist chapel stands near the general railway station, and is commodious. Ryehill Baptist chapel was built in 1864, in lieu of a previous one in New Court; and is a very spacious edifice, in the Italian style. Marlborough-crescent Baptist chapel was almost entirely rebuilt in 1866, at a cost of £1, 200; is lighted with high side windows, in the form of a clerestory; and has an open roof and moveable sittings. A large schoolroom, attended by about 200 scholars, is behind this chapel. Brunswick-place Wesleyan chapel was erected in 1820; is of brick, with stone dressings; and is very large and commodious. Park-road Wesleyan chapel was built in 1866, at a cost of £3,000; is in the florid Italian style, of red brick, withstone dressings; contains about 600 sittings, and mayhave galleries to contain 300 more; and stands over aschoolroom, 60 feet by 40. Hood-street New Connexion Methodist chapel was built in 1835, by Mr. Grainger; is in the Grecian style; and has a recessed portico offour fluted Doric columns. Nelson-street Primitive Methodist chapel was built in 1838, by Mr. Grainger; has a font in the Roman style; and is capacious. Prudhoe-street United Free Methodist chapel was built in 1862, after designs by Mr. G. Kyle, at a cost of £3, 500; is in the Italian pointed style; and contains 800 sittings. New Bridge-street Unitarian chapel was built in 1854, in lieu of a previous chapel in Hanover square; is in the decorated English style, after designs by Mr. Dobson; and has several stained-glass windows, by Wailes, chiefly of a memorial kind. Clayton-street Roman Catholicchurch was built in 1844, after designs by Mr. Pugin; is in the decorated English style, with an E window offseven lights, and with many other windows of stainedglass by Wailes; has a tower intended to be surmountedby a spire; and ranks as a cathedral. A large adjoiningresidence, for the functionaries connected with it, was erected in 1858. Pilgrim-street Roman Catholic chapel was built in 1796; is a brick structure with large pointedwindows; and had galleries erected in it in 1830. A residence for its priests stands between it and the street; and was recently occupied by some Dominican monks, for whom a monastery and a chapel have been erectedat Red Barns. Wall Knoll Roman Catholic chapel was built in 1765, for a Presbyterian congregation; passed, after 1841, to a private individual; and was sold in 1852to Roman Catholics.
Ballast-Hill cemetery was originally, as its name implies, a desert accumulation of ballast; is conjectured to have been adopted as a burying-ground by Scottish immigrants who disliked the ritual of the Church of England; was inclosed, in 1785, by an effort of dissenters; and was afterwards used as a place of interment by thepoor of all denominations. Westgate-Hill cemetery was formed in 1829, to relieve a pressure upon the burying-grounds within the town; is situated in the angle between Elswick-lane and Carlisle-road; consists of threeacres; is adorned in imitation of the Pere-le-Chaise of Paris; and has no restrictions as to form of burial Jesmond cemetery was formed in 1834, by a joint stockcompany, at a cost of about £7,000; is situated between New-road and Benton-lane, beyond Carlton-terrace; consists of 15 acres; is tastefully arranged and planted; has a fine entrance-archway between two chapels, with lowtowers; and is allotted in two sections for respectivelychurchmen and dissenters. Cemeteries lie around five of the Establishment churches in the town, but wereclosed in 1854; ultra-mural cemeteries, in lieu of them, were then provided; and each of these is sectioned intotwo portions, with two chapels, for respectively churchmen and dissenters. That of St. John's parish is perhapsthe finest; occupies a beautiful site in Elswick-lane; isvery tastefully laid out; and has its two chapels standing conjointly, with a graceful and considerably highsteeple rising from the point of junction.
The monasteries and monastic churches of the ancient Monkchester are not individually traceable either in record or in remains; so that neither the number nor the sites of them can now be known. A Benedictine nunnery, dedicated to St. Bartholomew, was founded notlong after the Conquest, probably in the time of William Rufus; was approached from Newgate-street, by a narrow passage still called Nun's-gate; left some underground remains, which were discovered during the excavations for the new streets around the public markets; and is commemorated, as to name, in the modern Nun-street. A Dominican friary was founded about 1250; stood behind the site of Charlotte-square, a little to the N of Westgate-street; was surrendered to the Crown in 1539; passed to the borough corporation, who leased itto nine of the borough incorporated companies; and is now represented by a quadrangular block of building, still called the Friars, approached from Low Friar-street, anciently called Shod-Friar-chare. The chapel of thisfriary was the place where Edward Baliol did homage to Edward III. for the crown of Scotland, and is now the meeting-house of the Smiths' company. A Carmelite friary was founded, in the time of Henry III., on the Wall Knoll; was removed, in the time of Edward I., to the foot of Westgate-street; and has left no traces. A Franciscan friary was founded either about 1267, or in the time of Henry III., by the Carliols, wealthy merchants of the town; stood at the N extremity of the Wside of Pilgrim-street, on a spot now covered by the newmarkets; is notable for having had Duns Scotus for amember; and has left no traces. An Augustinian friarystood on what is now called the Manors, to the E of the Royal arcade; comprised stately buildings, with severaltowers and a fine chapel; was the burying-place of Northumbrian princes, and the place where the Princess Margaret, daughter of Henry VII., was entertained onher way to Scotland prior to her marriage; and has beenobliterated by the erection of nine or ten houses on itssite. A friary of the order of Sac, or, as they styledthemselves, of the penance of Jesus, stood on the site of Hanover-square. A Maturine or Trinitarian priory was founded at the Wall Knoll, on the site vacated by the Carmelites. An hospital of St. Mary Magdalene stoodat Barras bridge; is said to have been founded by Henry I.; was used first as a lazar-house for lepers, next as arefuge for the infirm poor; continued to exist in the time of James I.; was then incorporated, by charter, with thechapel of St. Thomas at the end of Tyne bridge; and, together with that chapel, has been entirely removed. The funds of the conjoint charity of this hospital and St. Thomas chapel were diverted to the use of the master and three brethren, yield now about £1,021 a year, and probably may again be appropriated chiefly to hospitalpurposes. An hospital of St. Mary the Virgin was founded near the close of the time of Henry I.; stood in Westgate-street, near the spot now occupied by the Stephenson monument; was used as a refuge to strangersand the poor; escaped the operation of the statute of dissolution in the time of Henry VIII.; contributed the chancel of its church, for some time afterwards, for the election of the mayor and the municipal corporation; and has now entirely disappeared. Another hospital of St. Mary stood on the N bank of Ouse burn at Jesmond, and shared in the great superstitions repute of the adjacent "holy well; " and the chapel of it still exists, in the form of a picturesque ivy-covered ruin. Threechapels, dedicated to respectively St. James, St. Lawrence, and St. John, and all apparently connected moreor less with monastic institutions, stood at Barras bridge, at the Tyne side below Ouse burn, and at Benwell; and several other ancient chapels are known to have existed in or near the town, but cannot now be very distinctlytraced.
Schools and Institutions.The schools within the borough, at the census of 1851, comprised 26 public day-schools, with 5, 328 scholars; 89 private day-schools, with 3, 761 s.; and 40 Sunday schools, with 6, 221 s. One of the public schools, with 146 s., was a corporationschool; 1, with 161 s., was a workhouse school; 1, with117 s., was the grammar school; 4, with 1, 167 s., were other endowed schools; 4, with 1,067 s., were national schools connected with the Church of England; 4, with738 s., were national schools not connected with the Church of England; 1, with 64 s., was an English Pres-byterian or Free Church school; 1, with 98 s., was Baptist; 1, with 134 s., was Unitarian; 1, with 769 s., was Roman Catholic; 1, with 390 s., was undenominational British; 2, with 116 s., were ragged schools; 1, with 27 s., was the school for the deaf and dumb; and 3, with 334 s., were subscription schools of no specific character. Eight of the Sunday schools, with 1, 956 s., belonged to the Church of England; 1, with 75 s., to the Church of Scotland; 1, with 130 s., to the English Presbyterian or Free Church; 3, with 326 s., to United Presbyterians; 4, with 602 s., to Independents; 6, with729 s., to Baptists; 1, with 98 s., to Quakers; 2, with284 s., to Unitarians; 6, with 756 s., to Wesleyan Methodists; 2, with 201 s, to New Connexion Methodists; 3, with 577 s., to Primitive Methodists; and 3, with487 s., to Wesleyan Reformers. The schools in 1 867cannot be exactly enumerated; but, as compared withthose of 1851, they showed an increase at least proportionate to the increase of population.
The grammar school was founded in 1525, by T. Horsley, then mayor; was chartered, in connexion with St. Mary's hospital, by Queen Elizabeth; has about £420 a year from endowment, and a share in Bishop Crewe's twelve exhibitions at Lincoln college, Oxford; had, for masters, Dawes, the author of " Miscellanea Critica, " and Hugh Moises; and numbers among itspupils, the Saxon scholar W. Elstob, Chief Justice Chambers, the poet Akenside, the antiquary Brand, Lord Eldon, Lord Stowell, Lord Collingwood, Bishop Ridley, and the antiquary Horsley. A new building forit, on ground belonging to St. Mary's hospital, adjacent to St. Mary's church, at Ryehill, was erected in 1866-8, at a cost of about £9,000; occupies a site of about 2, 600square yards, together with a front play-ground of about5, 900 square yards, separated from the street by an ornamental palisading; is a square structure, in the mediæval pointed style, with one-story school-rooms filling the Nand the W sides; presents a storied main front to the S, subtended by flights of steps and by a terrace, pierced with a very large grand entrance, and surmounted by a tower and spire 98 feet high; and contains accommodation for teaching 500 pupils. St. Mary's school for boys, and St. Mary's alms-houses, stand in the vicinity of this edifice, and are of recent erection. St. Nicholas' or Mrs. Allen's school has £346 a year from endowment; St. Andrew's or Blackett's boys' school and girls' schoolhave respectively £131 and £28; St. John's school has £108; and All Saints' school has £125. The Jubileeschool, in the New-road, was built in 1810, at a cost of £2, 195; and is a handsome structure. The Royal Improved school, for girls, was founded in 1814, under the patronage of the Duchess of Northumberland. A schoolin Percy-street, conducted for more than half a centuryby Mr. John Bruce, and by his son the Rev. Dr. J.Bruce, author of the work on the " Roman Wall, " is notable for having well promoted the interests of middleclass education; and another school, in West Clayton-street, originated by the Rev. W. Spencer, has had a distinguished character as a boys' boarding-school.
A school for the education of medical practitioners was established in 1834, chiefly through the exertions of Sir John Fife; another institution of similar character, in connexion with Durham university, was formed in 1851; and the two institutions are now united, and maintainregular courses of lectures at Neville Hall, in Westgate-street. The Mechanics Institution originated in 1824, at a meeting presided over by George Stephenson; established classes for chemistry, mathematics, geography, drawing, and various departments of practical science; acquired a library of about 9,000 volumes; and occupied premises, with a large reading-room, on the S side of the eastern part of Blackett-street; but in 1864 a resolution was taken to erect a new and much more commodious building for it beside the Weavers' Towerin New Bridge-street. The Literary and Philosophical Society was instituted in 1793; occupies buildings in Newgate-street, at the junction of Collingwood-street and Neville-street, erected in 1825, on the site of the town-house of the Earls of Westmoreland, at a cost of £16,000:maintains lectures during the winter months, in a lecture-room constructed by Sir William Armstrong, at a cost of £1, 500; has a museum, containing some casts of the Elgin marbles, four slabs of sculptured alabasters from Nineveh, and multitudes of other interesting objects; hasalso a splendid library, with upwards of 30,000 volumes, and with marble busts of several local notabilities; received a bequest of £10,000 from Robert Stephenson; and has about 1, 340 members, each paying an annual subscription of £1 1s. The Antiquarian Society was instituted in 1813, under the patronage of the Duke of Northumberland; possesses a museum, lodged in the Castle, and peculiarly rich in Roman inscribed and Sculptured stones; and has published 4 quarto and 5 octavo volumes of Transactions. The Natural History Society was formed in 1828; numbers, among its promoters and members, many local naturalists, geologists, and botanists of distinguished character; and has, contiguous to the building of the Literary and Philosophic Society, a very fine museum, with rich collections of British birds and British fossils, open at the nominal charge of 2d. for each visitor, and much frequented, on Saturday afternoons, by the working-classes. The Tyneside Naturalists' Field Club was formed in 1846, for the practical study of natural history and antiquates; includes about 530 members; and has published 6 volumes of Transactions. The North of England Institute of Mining Engineers was founded in 1852; devotes itselfearnestly to the advancement of mining science, and to the prevention of accidents in mines; includes about 320members; and has published 12 volumes of Transactions. The Farmers' Club was formed about the close of 1845, maintains discussions, and diffuses knowledge, on agricultural subjects; has premises, with a well-selected library, adjacent to the corn-market; and includes about320 members. The Law Society was instituted in 1826, and promotes improvement in connexion with thelegal profession. A government School of Design occupies a building contiguous to that of the Literary and Philosophic Society. The Botanical and Horticultural Society was instituted in 1824; holds exhibitions, gives premiums, and otherwise incites interest in connexionwith botanical and horticultural interests; and has show-grounds at Barras-bridge.
The Savings' Bank was instituted at the beginning of1818; conducts its business now in an ornamental building in Westgate-street, erected in 1863 at a cost of £10,000; rose, in the number of its accounts, from 4, 200 in 1828 to 16, 232 in 1862; and has very materially nurtured habits of frugality among the working-classes. The Infirmary, as an institution, dates from 1751, as abuilding, from 1753; is situated in the Forth Banks, in Westgate township; was erected at a cost of £3,000, enlarged in 1802, at a cost of more than £5,000, againenlarged at several periods prior to 1852, further enlarged, by the addition of a great W wing, in 1852-5; treats yearly about 1, 700 inpatients, 2, 500 out-patients, and 11, 850 casual cases; and has invested funds to theamount of about £23,000, and an annual income, fromall sources, of nearly £8,000. The Dispensary, as auinstitution, dates from 1777, as a building, from1838; is situated in Nelson-street; affords relief toabout 15,000 cases in the year; and had, in 1863, an income of £1,031 from legacies and £1, 257 fromother sources. The Fever Hospital was founded in 1803, stands in Bath-lane, and is well managed. The Eye Infirmary was established in 1822, chiefly through theexertions of Sir John Fife and Dr. Greenhow; stands in Saville-row; and does much good at small cost. The Lying-in Hospital dates from 1760; is now a neat edificein New Bridge-street, erected in 1819, in the English style of the 16th century; and affords a retreat to about70 poor married women in the year. A kindred institution, for assisting poor married women lying-in at their own houses, was founded about the same time as the Lying-in Hospital, and is now incorporated with it. The Pauper Lunatic Asylum, for the borough, was built in 1866-7; stands at Coxlodge, near Bulman's Village, about 2 miles from the town; consists of two stories, on a plan in the form of the letter H, with the centre limb very much elongated; is in the Palladian style, plain and simple; and contains accommodation for 250 patients. The Victoria Asylum for the Industrions Blind, as an institution, dates from 1838, as a building, from 1843; stands in Northumberland-street; has commonly about 40 inmates, in nearly equal proportions of the two sexes; and, in 1863, had an income of £267 from legacies, and of £2, 100 from other sources. The Northern Counties' Institution for the Deaf and Dumb was established in 1839; is a splendid stone building in the pointed style, on the Moor Edge; has capacity for educating every indigent deaf and dumb child in the North of England; and, in 1863, had an income of £622 from legacies, and £1,065 from other sources. The Female Penitentiary, as an institution, dates from 1831, as a building, from1837; stands in Diana-street; and has a ward for the diseased, in connexion with the Infirmary. The Homefor Penitent Women is an establishment a kin to the Penitentiary. The Freemen's hospital or Hospital of Holy Jesus, was founded in 1683; is a large brickbuilding, on the E side of Manor-chare; and has an endowed income of £580. The Keelmen's Hospital was founded in 1701 by the bargemen, who carry coals in"keels" down the river to be shipped; and is a brickbuilding, on the N side of the New-road. The Trinity House, as an institution, dates from 1492, as a building, from 1505; was chartered by Henry VIII. for regulating pilotage, lights, and other matters connected with thenavigation of the Tyne; includes a fine hall with some good pictures, a small chapel with Tudor decorations, a museum with a model of a full-sized man of war, roomsfor 26 inmates, and a school founded in 1712 for teaching mathematics and navigation; and, in 1864, as to its buildings, was likely to be soon removed to give way forstreet improvement. Mrs. Davison's Hospital, for fivepersons, has £78 a year from endowment; T. Davison's, for six, has £78; and Blackett's, for six, has £72. The total of endowed charities is about £2, 766. Religiousand miscellaneous institutions are very numerous and diversified, but resemble those of other large towns.
Trade and Commerce.The head post-office, ‡ as already noted, is in the Royal arcade; and receivingoffices‡ are in Adelaide-place, Quayside, and Westgate. Telegraph offices of the British and Irish Magnetic company are in Quayside and the Central railway station, and formerly also in Exchange buildings; of the Electric and International company, in Lombard-street, Quayside; of the United Kingdom Electric company, in Princes-buildings, Queen-street and Market-street; of the Universal Private Telegraph company, in Printing-Court-buildings, Side. The banks are a branch of the Bank of England in Grey-street; Lambton and Co.'s, also in Grey-street; Wood's and Co.'s, in Mosley-street; Hodgkin, Barnett, Pease, and Spence's, in St. Nicholas'square; a branch of the National Provincial Bank of England, in Dean-street; and the Savings' Bank, in Westgate-street. The principal hotels number about ten, the principal temperance hotels and commercial boarding-houses about twelve; and are situated in Grey-street, Neville-street, Collingwood-street, Pilgrim-street, Grainger-street, and neighbouring places. The newspapers are the Newcastle Courant, established in 1711, and published weekly; the Newcastle Chronicle, established in 1764, and published weekly; the Newcastle Daily Chronicle, connected with the preceding, and begun in 1858; the Newcastle Journal, established for weekly issuein 1832, and made daily in 1861; the Newcastle Guardian, established in 1846, and published weekly; the North of England Advertiser, established in 1855, and published weekly; and the Northern Daily Express, established at Darlington in April 1855, and removed to Newcastle in Oct. of the same year. The corn marketis held on Tuesdays and Saturdays; a hay market is heldevery Tuesday; a cattle market, on a large piece ofground near the Infirmary, is held every Tuesday; a woolmarket is held on every Tuesday from May till Oct.; fairs for cattle and horses are held on the last Wednesday of March and Nov.; fairs for lean cattle are held on the last Tuesday of May and the first Tuesday of everymonth; general fairs, lasting nine days, are held on thesecond Wednesday of Aug. and the last Wednesday of Oct.; a fair for the best kind of horses is held three orfour days previous to each of the general fairs; a hiringmarket for hinds is held, in the Corn-Exchange, on the first Wednesday of April; and hiring markets for single servants are held, in the same place, on the Monday before 13 May and the Monday before 11 Nov.
The productive industry of Newcastle, as to kinds and comparative extent, may be proximately shown by a few of the chief items in the returns of the occupations of the people made by the census of 1861. There were, within the borough, at that census, 467 males under 20 years ofage, and 1,817 of 20 years and upwards, employed in the merchant seamen service; 8 and 135, in gardening; 467and 1, 695, in engine and machine-making; 6 and 21, infile-making; 58 and 221, in avocations a kin to machine-making and file-making; 49 and 178, in coach-making; 38 and 294, in ship-building; 4 and 27, in the making ofblocks, oars, and masts; 4 and 14, in boat and barge-building; 28 and 48, in sail-making; 5 and 14, in work connected with ship-building; 15 and 82, in chemical manufactures; 6 and 125, in brewing; 2 and 36, in malting; 1 and 22, in soap-boiling; 7 and 27, in tallow chandlery; 24 and 153, in tanning; 43 and 224, in currying; 11 and 29, in basket-making; 72 and 345, in coal mining; 6 and 45, in work connected with coal mining; 3 8 and 108, in brick-making; 136 and 375, besides 73and 76 females, in earthenware manufacture; 149 and 298, besides 20 and 40 females, in glass manufacture; 2 and 20, in tin-plate working; 8 and 159, in lead manufacture; 80 and 192, in brass founding; 283 and 806, in iron manufacture; 8 and 11, in nail-making; 18 and 112, in anchor and chain-making; and 120 and 438, inboiler-making. Yet the real aggregate of the town's industry is far from being indicated by these figures, evenin the departments to which they refer; for it practically includes much of Gateshead as well as all Newcastle, and includes also a main share in numerous and extensive scenes of operations beyond the bounds of bothboroughs.
The coal trade, at once for mining employment, forconnection with the chief departments of manufacture, and for the export commerce, is a great staple. " The coal trade, " justly says a historian, "hath made thistown to flourish in all trades; and, in addition to this, hath been a valuable nursery for hardy and skilful British seamen." The trade, as noticed in our historicalsection, either originated in the time of Henry III., orwas stimulated by a special charter of that king; and, during the 14th century, it seems to have formed connection, not only with London but with France; yet, previous to the latter part of the 16th century, it wasvery limited. Newcastle coal was much in demand in London, in the time of Charles I.; it was exported to the amount of 48,000 Newcastle chaldrons (each of whichis nearly equal to two of the late London measure)in 1703; and it rose to the amount of 178, 143 in 1710, to 326, 542 in 1773, and to 491, 185 in 1779. The exporttrade, since the last of these dates, has been far from increasing in the ratio of its previous progress; is said to have suffered great damage by repression from monopoly and imports; and has undergone considerable fluctuations. The quantity exported in 1820 was 2,004, 759tons, and in 1840, was 2, 267,082 tons; and the quantityexported in the intermediate years ranged between 1,736,171 and 2,453,225 tons. The quantity, in 1863, coastwise and to London, was 2,088,028 tons of coals and 21, 408 of coke from Newcastle, and 38, 443 tons of coalsfrom North and South Shields, to foreign countries, 1,813,039 tons of coals and 130, 872 of coke from Newcastle, and 50, 444 of coals and 897 of coke from Shields; in 1864, coastwise and to London, 2,086, 403 tons ofcoals and 14, 275 of coke from Newcastle, and 56, 572 ofcoals and 11 of coke from Shields, to foreign countries, 1,839, 121 tons of coals and 124, 928 of coke from Newcastle, and 62, 260 of coals and 1, 720 of coke from Shields; in 1865, coastwise and to London, 2, 518, 554tons of coals and 12, 461 of coke from Newcastle, and 80, 573 of coals from Shields, to foreign countries, 2, 277, 532 tons of coals and 155, 460 of coke from Newcastle, and 117, 379 of coals and 2, 294 of coke from Shields; in 1866, coastwise and to London, 2, 520, 445tons of coals and 10, 404 of coke from Newcastle, and 62,062 of coals and 66 of coke from Shields, to foreign countries, 2, 388, 218 tons of coals and 173, 931 of cokefrom Newcastle, and 165, 289 of coals and 1, 529 of cokefrom Shields.
Extensive works exist for casting, forging, and rolling iron; and they yield produce, not only for the uses of the town, the port, and the collieries, but also for exportation. Factories for making locomotive-engines, marine-engines, and other iron machines, are on a vastscale, have been in operation since the time of the improvement of the steam-engine, and are computed to have produced, prior to the close of 1866, nearly 3,000locomotives, at a cost of not less than £6,000,000. The works of Messrs. R. Stephenson and Co. and those of Messrs. R. and W. Hawthorn, in the Forth Banks, areparticularly famous. The works of Sir. W. G. Armstrong also, at Elswick, about 2 miles W of Newcastle, produce engines and ordnance on a vast scale; and areso extensive as of themselves, with the adjacent residences for their work-people, to form a considerable suburb. Ship-building is carried on in extensive yards; hasalways been notable for the excellence of the vesselsbuilt; has mainly passed, in recent years, from the construction of wooden vessels to the construction of iron ones; and, together with ship-building in yards lowerdown the Tyne, launched iron ships, in 1864, to theaggregate of 52, 821 tons, representing 8, 301 horse-power, in 1865, 74, 359 tons, 8, 472 horse-power, andin 1866, 35, 856 tons, 5, 183 horse-power. The falling off in the latter year was occasioned by the general dullness of trade, experienced throughout the United King-dom. Several manufactories are in operation, the earliest begun in 1796, for the conversion of lead intosheets, pipes, shot, white-lead, red-lead, and litharge. The manufacture of glass was commenced about the close of the 6th century; flourished long in the production of crown-glass; passed entirely from the production of thatarticle to the production of sheet-glass; and is now engaged largely in the making of pressed flint-glass, and in the polishing and silvering of plate-glass. Mr. Wailes'stained-glass works, in Bath-lane, are known in most parts of Britain and of the British colonies for fine artistic execution in glass-staining. Potteries are numerous, and, in some instances, large; and they produce ware, chiefly for the use of the middle and the working-classes, equalto that of Staffordshire. Seventeen chemical works, some of them very extensive, are on the margin of the Tyne, and more or less connected with Newcastle; produce carbonate of soda, chloride of lime, sulphuric acid, and other chemical articles; and consume about 78,000 tons of salt a year, brought from the salt-beds of Cheshire. The chimney-stalks of these works rise to heights of from 150 to 300 feet, form a striking feature in thelandscape, and are seen at a great distance. Four coachmanufactories are in respectively Pilgrim-street, Westgate-street, Northumberland-street, and Northumberland-place; a hat-manufactory, employing upwards of250 persons, is in Wellington-place. There are alsolinen-yarn factories, paper-mills, roperies, paint and colour manufactories, glue and varnish manufactories, coal-tar and lamp-black works, linseed oil-mills, bone-mills, saw-mills, seed-crushing mills, corn mills, and establishments of other kinds indicated by our statistics of thepeople's occupations.
The commerce of the Tyne is distributed among the ports of Newcastle, South Shields, and North Shields; and less than one-third of the shipping hails from Newcastle. The vessels belonging to this port, at the beginning of 1864, were 143 small sailing-vessels, of aggregately 3, 902 tons; 330 large sailing-vessels, of aggregately 101, 463 tons; 94 small steam-vessels, of aggregately 1, 665 tons; and 26 large steam-vessels, of aggregately 7, 413 tons. The vessels which entered, in 1863, were 55 British sailing-vessels, of aggregately 15, 542tons, from British colonies; 17 foreign sailing-vessels, ofaggregately 3, 793 tons, from British colonies; 1,858 British sailing-vessels, of aggregately 321, 954 tons, from foreign countries; 2, 381 foreign sailing-vessels, of aggregately 360, 756 tons, from foreign countries; 170 British steam-vessels, of aggregately 55, 101 tons, from foreign countries; 11 foreign steam-vessels, of aggregately5,018 tons, from foreign countries; 1, 915 sailing-vessels, of aggregately 168, 264 tons, coast-wise; and 650 steam-vessels, of aggregately 156, 863 tons, coast-wise. The vessels which cleared, in 1863, were 315 British sailing-vessels, of aggregately 67,028 tons, to British colonies; 52 foreign sailing-vessels, of aggregately 20,082 tons, to British colonies; 3, 325 British sailing-vessels, of aggregately 701, 291 tons, to foreign countries; 4, 133 foreign sailing-vessels, of aggregately 636, 670 tons, to foreign countries; 3 British steam-vessels, of aggregately 1,023tons, to British colonies; 1 foreign steam-vessel, of 546tons, to British colonies; 200 British steam-vessels, of aggregately 72, 953 tons, to foreign countries; 17 foreign steam-vessels, of aggregately 6, 673 tons, to foreign countries; 9,068 sailing-vessels, of aggregately 1, 184, 880tons, coast-wise; and 1, 127 steam-vessels, of aggregately422, 715 tons, coast-wise. The amount of customs in 1862 was £243, 956. About 250 small steam-vessels are employed in passenger-trips to Shields and Tynemouth, and in towing sailing-vessels on the Tyne; large, well-built, sea-borne steam-vessels ply regularly to Aberdeen, Dundee, Leith, Hull, Lynn, Yarmouth, and London; and first-class steamers run with coals, goods, and passengers from the Tyne to Holland, Germany, France, Russia, Prussia, Norway, Sweden, Belgium, and Italy.
The imports of foreign and colonial produce, in 1866, comprised 8, 339 head of oxen, bulls, and cows, 20, 197head of sheep and swine, 1,057 tons of bones, 191, 437quarters of wheat, 24, 755 quarters of barley, 95, 515quarters of oats, 6, 387 quarters of pease, 581 quarters ofbeans, 188, 467 cwts. of wheatmeal and flour from foreign ports, 6, 889 bushels of lemons and oranges, 46, 780 cwts.of hemp, 5, 368 seal skins, 2, 823 tons of copper ore and regulus, 32, 480 tons pyrites and iron ore, 7,014 tons ironbars, 15, 258 cwts. beef, pork, and bacon, 29, 836 cwts.butter, 21, 786 cwts. of cheese, 41, 462 tons of materialsfor making paper, 90,080 cwts. of saltpetre and cubicnitre, 1,084 cwts. of clover seed, 12, 239 quarters of flax-seed and linseed, 489 puncheons 2, 303 cases of spirits, 9, 640 cwts. of sugar, 13,000 cwts. of tallow, 40 pipes1, 815 cases of wine, 78, 817 loads of unsawn timber, 46, 756 loads of sawn timber, 489 loads of staves, 1,803tons of bark, 21, 786 cwts. of cheese, 608 tons of chromeore, 476 tons of flax and codilla, 3, 298 tons of guano, 1, 273 tons of hay, 421 tons of oil cake, 49, 744 bushels of onions, 70, 540 bushels of apples and pears, 745 tons of oil, 600 barrels of pitch, 866 tons of potatoes, 227 tons of shumac, 538 tons of salt, 75, 257 tons of sulphur ore, 18, 228 barrels of tar, 7, 879 gallons of mineral waters, 8, 776 cwts. of yeast, and 538 tons of zinc. The quantity of grain imported coastwise in 1866 was 323, 807quarters, and 125, 387 sacks. The exports of British produce, in 1863, comprised 751, 921 cwts. of soda, £126 value of apparel and slops, 23, 788 lbs. of gunpowder, 89 barrels of beer and ale, 311 cwts. of butter, 341 lbs. of candles, 2,058, 897 tons of coals, cinders, and culm, 361, 255 lbs. ofcotton yarn, 10, 142 yards of cotton piece goods, £120value of hosiery and small wares, 6,063 packages of earthenware, 175 barrels of herrings or other fish, £23, 617 value of glass, £9, 510 value of hard wares and cutlery, 386 cwts.of unwrought tan leather, £97 value of wrought leather, £50 value of saddlery and harness, 119, 144 lbs. of linenyarn, 625, 964 yards of piece goods, £505 value of thread, tapes, and small-wares, £56,014 value of steam-engines, £19, 140 value of other sorts of engines, 27, 943 tons ofpig, bar, bolt, wire, and castiron, 6, 213 tons of rail-road iron, 6, 766 tons of other kinds of iron, 39 tons of unwrought steel, 660 cwts. of unwrought copper, 1, 960cwts. of part wrought and part unwrought copper, 1, 692tons of lead and shot, 204 cwts. of unwrought tin, 1, 132cwts. of tin plates, 80, 173 gallons of seed-oil, £17, 140value of painters' colours, 1,018 cwts. of paper, 409 tons of salt, £52 value of silk manufactures, 263 gallons ofspirits, 70 cwts. of refined sugar, 5, 697 lbs. of woollen and worsted yarn, 612 yards of woollen cloth, 2, 450yards of worsted and mixed stuffs, and 1, 293 yards offlannels, carpets. The exports of foreign and colonialproduce, in 1863, comprised 5, 993 lbs. of coffee, 6 cwts.of cochineal, 33 cwts. of indigo, 2 cwts. of rais ins, 10cwts. of untanned hides, 3 cwts. of cocoa nut oil, 1,080lbs. of quicksilver, 12 cwts. of unhusked rice, 99 gallons of brandy, 53 gallons of geneva, 13 cwts. of unrefinedsugar, 479 lbs. of tea, 189 lbs. of foreign manufactured tobacco and snuff, and 46 gallons of wine. The harbour, as yet, is all tidal; and it extends abouta mile, from Tyne bridge, along all Quayside and the New quay, to the berths of the ocean-going steamers; but it has intimate connexion both with the reach of the river up to Blaydon, and especially with all the reachesdown to the sea. The entire river, on both banks, fromits month, or at least from the vicinity of Shields to Blaydon, is an almost continuous harbour, for the shipment of coals, and a nearly continuous seat of manufactories making imports and exports. Great improvementson its navigable capacities and on its harbour accommodations were begun about 1838, were carried forward insubsequent years, and were still progressing in 1867. The river, prior to these improvements, had a meanbreadth of about 420 feet at Newcastle, rose there about 11 or 12 feet in spring tides, ebbed so far as to leavebelts of dry beach at low water, and brought up to the town vessels of from 200 to 300 tons in ordinary tides, and vessels of 400 tons in high spring tides. The improvements have removed extensive sandbanks at the river's mouth; have deepened the channel, by dredging, all the way up to Newcastle; have cut away an inconvenient projection, called Bill Point, a little below Newcastle; have formed commodious docks both below and above Shields; have added about 3,000 feet of quayageto the accommodation at Newcastle; have necessitated theremoval of Tyne bridge, in order to its being substitutedby a new bridge of such construction as to allow sea-going vessels to pass; have included important means offacility for loading and unloading at the Newcastle quay; and are likely to lead very soon to the formation of docksat Newcastle. Three hydraulic cranes assist the loading of ships at Quayside; and another crane, capable of lifting 60 tons, is worked by hand-power. Coal-staithsstand thickly on the banks, both above the town to Blaydon, and below to Shields; and are now managed with great economy of time and labour. Coal was formerly carried in a kind of barges, called keels, to the coal-ships, and shovelled into them by hand; but now itis either shot into the hold by spouts, or let down in waggon-loads on the deck, and emptied there into thehold by the tilting down of the waggon's bottom; and so expeditions is the process that the largest screw-collier can now receive her cargo in four hours.
The Borough.Newcastle is a borough by prescription; was first chartered by Henry II.; was divided, by thenew municipal act, into 7 wards; is governed under thatact, by a mayor, 14 aldermen, and 42 councillors; and sends two members to parliament. Its limits are the same municipally as parliamentarily; include all St. Nicholas parish, all by ker, Heaton, Elswick, Westgate, and Jesmond townships, and other parts of All Saints, St. John, and St. Andrew parishes; and comprise 5, 730 acres. There are about 26 borough magistrates, and about 1,800 registered freemen. The police force, in 1864, consisted of 1 chief constable, 4 superintendents, 12 inspectors, 7 serjeants, 112 constables, and 4 detectives; and cost in the year ending 29 Sept. 1864, £10, 415. The crimes committed, in that year, were 288; the persons apprehended, 78; the depredators and suspected persons at large, 891; the houses of bad character, 202. The volunteer force in 1864, comprised 115 engineers, 485 artillery, and 750 rifles. The water-works were established in 1845; draw chiefly from reservoirs at Whittle Dean, 12 miles to the W, and 360 feet above high-water level at Tyne bridge; derive their reservoirsupplies from a number of burns and from the river Pont; and bring daily to Newcastle and Gatesheadabout 4, 700,000 gallons. The gas-works are situatednear the river Tyne, in Elswick township; belong toa company formed by union or absorption of severalprevious companies; were constructed only a few yearsprior to 1867; have nearly 500 retorts, and a gasometercapacity of about 2,000,000 cubic feet; and supply both Newcastle and Gateshead. The town is the seat of boththe spring and the summer assizes for Northumberland, a seat of quarter sessions and county courts, a polling-place for the S division of Northumberland, and the head of an excise collection. Corporation income, in 1866, £74, 208. Amount of property and income tax charged in 1863, £46, 298. Real property in 1860, £865,060; of which £3, 100 were in mines, £585, 701 in railways, and £7, 846 in gas-works. Electors in 1833, 3, 905; in 1863, 6, 838. Pop. in 1841, 71, 850; in 1851, 87, 784; in 1861, 109, 108. Inhabited houses, 13, 979; uninhabited, 588; building, 330.
The Parishes.The four parishes of Newcastle are St. Nicholas, All Saints, St. John, and St. Andrew. Real property of St. Nicholas, in 1860, £61, 118. Pop. in 1851, 6, 586; in 1861, 7, 487, of whom 1, 916 were persons on board vessels. Houses, 525. All Saints is bi-sected by the Ouse burn; and includes, to the E of thatburn, the townships of by ker and Heaton. Acres, 2, 201; of which 72 are water. Pop. in 1851, 33, 592; in 1861, 37, 529. Houses, 4, 613. St. John's includes the townships of Benwell, Elswick, and Westgate. Acres, 2, 358; of which 82 are water. Pop. in 1851, 31, 146; in 1861, 46, 533. Houses, 6, 409. The increase of pop. was chieflyin Elswick and Westgate townships; and arose, in the former, from the operations of Sir-William Armstrong's engineering and ordnance works, and from facilities afforded for building, in the latter, principally from the extension of the iron trade. St. Andrew's includes the townships of Jesmond and Fenham, in Newcastle district, and the chapelry of Cramlington in Tynemouth district. Acres, 6,035. Pop. in 1851, 21, 199; in 1861, 22, 720. Houses, 3, 471. Nine chapelries with definitelimits, and three with indefinite limits, are in the townor the suburbs. The nine defined ones, with their respective pop., are Christchurch, 7,094; St. Ann's, 4, 537; St. Peter's, 4, 559; Jesmond, 3, 442; Gosforth, 2, 325; North Gosforth, 1, 667; Benwell, 4, 323; Elswick, 22, 275; and by ker, 10, 388. The three undefined are St. Thomas, St. Mary, and Trinity. The living of St. Nicholas is a vicarage, and all the other livings are p.curacies, in the diocese of Durham. Value of St. Nicholas, £474; * of All Saints, St. Andrew, and Christchurch, each £300; * of St. John, £355; * of St Ann, £150; * of St. Peter, £125; * of St. Thomas, St. Mary, and Trinity, not reported. Patron of St. Nicholas and Christchurch, the Bishop of Durham; of All Saints, St. John, St. Andrew, St. Ann, and St. Peter, the Vicar of St. Nicholas; of St. Thomas and St. Mary, the Corporation of Newcastle; of Trinity, Trinity House. The values and patrons of the other livings are noticed in thearticles on the several chapelries.
The District.The poor-law district is divided into the sub-districts of Westgate, St. Andrew, St. Nicholas, All Saints, and by ker. Westgate sub-d. comprises the St. John's townships of Westgate, Elswick, and Benwell, and the St. Andrew's township of Fenham. Acres, 2, 778. Pop. in 1851, 21, 388; in 1861, 37, 477. Houses, 5, 377. St. Andrew's sub-d. comprises all St. andrew's parish, except the townships of Fenham and Jesmond. Acres, 1, 649. Pop. in 1851, 15, 643; in 1861, 17, 100. Houses, 2, 400. St. Nicholas sub-d. comprises all St. Nicholas' parish, and the part of St. John's parish notincluded in Westgate sub-d. Pop. in 1851, 16, 444; in 1861, 16, 632. Houses, 1, 571. All Saints' sub-d. consists of the portion of all Saints' parish to the W of the Ouse burn. Pop. in 1851, 23, 401; in 1861, 26, 765. Houses, 3, 178. The increase of pop. arose mainly from the improvements in the reconstruction of dwelling-houses subsequent to the great fire of 1854. by ker sub-d.comprises the All Saints townships of by ker and Heaton, the rest of the part of All Saints parish to the E of the Ouse burn, and the St. Andrew's township of Jesmond. Acres of the St. Nicholas, the All Saints, and the by kersub-districts, 2, 855. Pop. of by ker sub-d., in 1851, 12, 280; in 1861, 12, 994. Houses, 1,817. Acres of theentire district, 7, 102. Poor-rates in 1863, £38, 925. Pop. in 1851, 89, 156; in 1861, 110, 968. Houses, 14, 343. Marriages in 1863, 1, 763; births, 4, 605, of which 358 were illegitimate; deaths, 3, 198, of which1, 578 were at ages under 5 years, and 33 at ages above85. Marriages in the ten years 1851-60, 15, 418; births, 35, 688; deaths, 27, 388. The places of worship, in 1851, were 12 of the Church of England, with 10, 488 sittings, 4 of New Connexion Methodists, with 1, 610 s.; 3 of Wesleyan Reformers, with the s. of only 3 of them reported; and the same of all other denominations as in the borough. The day-schools, both public and private, were the same as in the borough; the Sunday-schoolswere 41, with 6, 321 scholars; and the evening schoolsfor adults were 5, with 407 s. The workhouse is in Elswick township; and, at the census of 1861, had 597 in-mates.
(John Marius Wilson, Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales (1870-72))
|Feature Description:||"a town, four parishes, and a district" (ADL Feature Type: "cities")|
|Administrative units:||Newcastle upon Tyne AP/CP Newcastle upon Tyne CP Newcastle upon Tyne PLU/RegD/PLPar Northumberland AncC|
|Place:||Newcastle upon Tyne|
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