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ROCHFORD, a small town, a parish, a sub-district, a district, and a hundred, in Essex. The town stands on the river Roche or Bromhill, an affluent of the river Crouch, 3½ miles N by W of Southend r. station, and 16½ S E of Chelmsford; gave the title of Earl to the father of Queen Anne Boleyn; is a sub-port to Maldon, a seat ofpetty sessions and county courts, and a polling-place; isapproached, from the W, through a fine avenue of elms and oaks, upwards of a mile long; consists of four streets, with rather irregularly constructed houses; is well supplied with water, and drained by public sewers; and has a post-office‡ under Chelmsford, a banking office, twochief inns, a police station, two bridges, a court-house, a corn exchange, a church, Independent and Wesleyan chapels, national and British schools, alms-houses for12 persons, a workhouse, and charities £42. The court-house was built in 1859, at a cost of nearly £3,000; and is a handsome edifice. The corn exchange was built in 1866, at a cost of about £1,000. The church stands about a ¼ of a mile distant; is ancient, but good; and consists of nave, aisles, and chancel, with lofty brick tower, bearing the Boteler arms. The workhouse was built in 1837, at a cost of £5,000; and has accommodation for 290 inmates. A weekly market is held on Thursday; fairs are held on Easter-Tuesday and the Wednesday after 29 Sept.; and commerce is carried on from Broomhills, less than a miledistant. The parish comprises 1,855 acres. Real property, £7, 219; of which £50 are in gas-works. Pop., 1, 696. Houses, 306. The property is much subdivided. The manor was held, at Domesday, by Suene; and passed to Guy Fitz-Eustace, the St. Johns, the Childs, the Longs, and the Wellesleys. R. Hall was the birthplace and residence of Queen Anne Boleyn; and part of it stillstands, and belongs now to J. Tabor, Esq. A curiouscustom connected with the manor is the holding of whatis called the Lawless Court, on Wednesday morning after Michaelmas-day, on King's Hill, adjoining the town; and is said to have originated in the discovery of an ancient conspiracy. The living is a rectory in the diocese of Rochester. Value, £585.* Patron, Earl Cowley.
The sub-district contains also the parishes of Sutton, Shopland, Hawkwell, Little Stambridge, Great Stambridge, Canewdon, Paglesham, and the Wallisea part of Eastwood. Acres, 16, 793. Pop., 3, 895. Houses, 751. The district comprehends also the sub-district of Prittlewell, containing the parishes of Prittlewell, Leigh, and Southchurch; the sub-district of Great Wakering, containing the parishes of Great Wakering, Little Wakering, North Shoebury, South Shoebury, Barling, and Foulness, and the extra-parochial tract of Havengore; and the sub-district of Rayleigh, containing the parishes of Rayleigh, Thundersley, South Benfleet, Hadleigh, Rawreth, Hockley, South Fambridge, Ashingdon, and the rest of Eastwood. Acres, 107, 846. Poor-rates in 1863, £9, 973. Pop. in 1851, 15, 838; in 1861, 18, 282. Houses, 3, 381. Marriages in 1863, 113; births, 647, of which 41 wereillegitimate; deaths, 357, of which 153 were at ages under 5 years, and 5 at ages above 85. Marriages in the ten years 1851-60, 1,084; births, 5, 422; deaths, 3, 502. The places of worship, in 1851, were 28 of the Church of England, with 7, 393 sittings; 9 of Independents, with1, 876 s.; 5 of Baptists, with 754 s.; 4 of Wesleyans, with 387 s.; and 2 undefined, with 300 s. The schools were 19 public day schools, with 1, 546 scholars; 38 private day schools, with 606 s.; 27 Sunday schools, with1, 725 s.; and 2 evening schools for adults, with 98 s. The hundred is nearly identical with the district, butless extensive. Acres, 101, 986. Pop. in 1851, 14, 776; in 1861, 17, 178. Houses, 3, 144.
(John Marius Wilson, Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales (1870-72))
|Feature Description:||"a small town, a parish, a sub-district, a district, and a hundred" (ADL Feature Type: "cities")|
|Administrative units:||Rochford AP/CP Rochford Hundred Rochford SubD Rochford PLU/RegD Essex AncC|
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