HULL, or KINGSTON-UPON-HULL, a large seaporttown, in E. R. Yorkshire; at the influx of the river Hull to the Humber, 2 ½ miles NNE of New Holland in Lincolnshire, 22 NW by W of Spurn Head at the Humber's mouth, 38 by road, but 41¼ by railway, ESE of York, and 171 by road, but 173½ by railway, through Grimsby and New Holland, N of London. The river Hull gives it inland navigation through the country between the wolds and the sea; the Humber at once lays it open to commerce with all the world, places it in command of the N coast of Lincolnshire, and gives it inland navigation, through Yorkshire and Lincolnshire, to the centre and the west of England; lines of railway, going from it in four directions, give it communication with most places in Yorkshire, and to the N and the W; a branch line to Doncaster, opened in 1869, increases that communication; and a nexus by steam ferry with railway at New Holland, running into many ramifications and junctions, gives it communication to all places in the S and the SW of England.
History.The early history of Hull is involved in some obscurity. A town existed here in the 12th century which bore the name of Wyke, or Wyke-upon-Hull; and was then a place of some importance, conducting trade in the exportation of wool and the importation of wine. It probably sprang, in some way, from the founding of Meaux abbey, near the river Hull, on a spot about 5 miles distant. That abbey was of the Cistertian order, and was founded by William le Gros, Earl of Albemarle, who, in 1150, made a vow to visit the Holy Land, but, afterwards finding himself unable to fulfil the vow, founded the abbey instead, and died in 1179. One account says that, while hunting in the neighbourhood, he was so struck with the site at the confluence of the Hull and the Humber, as a suitable one for a market and a port, that he made arrangement with the abbot respecting it, and there founded the town. Other accounts, without showing how the town originated, but assuming it as already a place of some trade, say that, about 1293, either the abbot of Meaux, by grant from Edward I., or the king himself, in result of an exchange of lands with the abbot, established at the town a market and a fair. All accounts say that then the town was made a manor of itself, and a free borough, that a harbour was completed at it, and that its name was changed into Kyngeston-super-Hull or Kingston-upon-Hull. The town appears to have thence increased rapidly in prosperity and population. A ferry was soon established at it over the Humber; and in 1316, vessels began to sail at fixed periods, for the conveyance of passengers, goods, and cattle, to the coast of Lincolnshire. A trade arose about the same time, in the importation of stock fish from Iceland, and in the whale fishery; and this very soon became lucrative and important. A fortification wall of stone was built round the town, in 1322, by license of Edward II.; and was repaired, in 1378, with brick, - which then, for the first time after the Roman period, came into revived use as a building material. The De la Poles, afterwards Dukes of Suffolk, settled here in the time of Edward III.; built here a monastery, an hospital, and a palace; and greatly stimulated and promoted the town's prosperity. Hull, in 1359, sent 16 ships, and 466 men, to the siege of Calais, -when London sent no more than 25 ships, and 662 men; and Hull again, in 1414, furnished several large ships for Henry V.'s expedition against France. The town adhered steadfastly to the house of Lancaster, in the wars of the Roses; and its mayor fell, in the moment of victory, at the battle of Wakefield green. It was the scene of a surprise and of an unsnccessful disturbance in 1537, by the insurgents of the " pilgrimage of grace. '' It was a great depôt of arms at the outbreak of the civil wars of Charles I.; but the magazine was, by order of the parliament, promptly removed from it to London. Hull, in the course of these wars, was twice besieged by the royalists, but without success; it witnessed much slaughter, on both sides, during the conduct of the sieges; and its governor, Sir John Hotham, and his son, were detected privately negotiating with the king, and were beheaded. A stand was made here on the side of the Stuarts, during the short period of excitement preceding the Revolution; but it terminated by the quiet capture of the governor of the citadel, who was on the Stuarts' side. Hull was then, and had long been, a very strong place. Taylor said respecting it, in 1622:-
"It is the only bulwark of the north;
All other towns for strength to it must strike,
And all the northern parts have not the like;
The people from the sea much wealth hath won,
Each man doth live as he were Neptune's son."
The old walls were nearly 1½ mile in circuit, and were strengthened by outworks; the ditches had such connexion with the neighbouring rivers as to admit of conversion into lake or flood; a castle and two blockhouses were added, in the time of Henry VIII., at a cost of £23, 000; a citadel, enclosing the castle and south blockhouse, was constructed in 1681; the ditches were renovated, and breastworks and batteries were erected, at the time of the rebellion in 1745; but all these works, the latest as well as the earliest, have disappeared, some having been converted for a time to other than their original uses, and the last having quite recently been swept away in the course of street and harbour improvements. The town was visited by plague in 1472, 1 476, 1576, 1603, 1635 (when it raged for three years), and in 1665. It was long subject also to damage by floods of the river Hull, and by high tides of the Humber; and, in particular, it suffered a severe inundation in 1571. It was visited, in 1332, by Edward III.; in 1448, by Henry VI.; in 1541, by Henry VIII.; in 1639, by Charles I.; in 1854, by Victoria; in 1869, by the Prince and Princess of Wales. The great Revolution jubilee was celebrated at it in 1788. Lawson, the naval commander, was a resident; and Foxe, who attempted the northwest passage, Marvel, the patriot of the time of Charles II., Johnson, the botanist, Spence, the entomologist, Mason, the poet, Wilberforce, the senator and philanthropist, Thompson, the translator of the " Stranger, '' and Thompson, the song writer, were natives. The town gave the title of Duke of Kingston to the Pierreponts.
Site and Streets.The town stands on flat and very low ground, close to the Humber, and partly on the E side of the Hull, but chiefly on the W side. The country around it, for several miles, is so low and flat that what would elsewhere be called a swell or a rising ground, ranks here as a good sized hill; and having scarcely any wood except a few scattered trees, it presents a very tame appearance; and yet it derives interest both from the results of labour on its own surface, and especially from the broad waters and the nautical stir of the Humber. Much of the town is on a level below high water mark, and therefore liable to inundation; but, in consequence of the combined effects of drainage and embankment, executed on an excellent system and at an enormous expense, it now suffers no inconvenience from the pressure of the contiguous waters. The oldest portion of the town, or that occupying the area within the cincture line of the ancient walls, lies in the S centre, between the river Hull on the E, the Queen's dock on the N, and the Prince's and Humber docks on the W; and this, as might be expected, is a dense mass of buildings, and consists chiefly of narrow thoroughfares; yet it contains a fine oblong or spacious street called the market place, good continuations of that street N and S, the long curving thoroughfare of High street in the same direction, and several good thoroughfares east and west. These three docks, which bound it on the N and W, were chiefly ex cavated from the site of the ancient walls and ramparts; and the portions of the town beyond these are all modern. The portion to the W of the Prince's and Humber docks bears the name of North and South Myton, and partly occupies the site of the ancient hamlet of Myton, which appears to have been as old as Wyke-upon-Hull, or older, but either crumbled to decay by the weight of time or became obliterated by the growth of Kingston-upon-Hull; and this part of the town now occupies an area considerably larger than that of the ancient portion, and consists partly of mean streets and alleys, partly of very respectable and spacious thoroughfares, partly of handsome airy places extending away into the country. The portion N of the Queen's dock, and of a line westward from it, is in Sculcoates parish; occupies an area about treble that of the ancient town; includes, on the E side, adjacent to the river Hull, a densely peop1ed region, chiefly of mean houses; but consists elsewhere, for the most part, of excellent streets; and contains the residences of a large proportion of the wealthy inhabitants. The portion E of the river Hull is in Sutton and Drypool parishes, and in Garrison-Side extra-parochial tract; communicates with the Sculcoates portion by a four arched bridge, with central drawbridge, on the line of Bridge street, -and with the ancient town by a new swivel bridge, completed in 1866, on the line of B1ackfriar gate; consists of streets, of varions characters, less densely arranged, in general, than those of the older portions; and includes, in the south, the site of the ancient fort or citadel, the site of more modern magazines, barracks, and batteries, and the Victoria dock and basin. A grand improvement which was finished in 1864, removed the town's military defences to Paul; swept away the quondam citadel, magazines, barracks, and batteries; and devoted the space which they had occupied to new streets, and to enlargements in the Victoria dock, and its timber ponds and yards. The town generally has undergone immense improvement since the beginning of the present century; and it was continuing to undergo it, on a great scale, in 1866. Its extent, exclusive of outskirts, from N to S, is about 2½ miles, -from E to W, about 3 miles.
Public Buildings.The late mansion house or guildhall stood in Lowgate; was a plain brick edifice, and had, in the rear, court rooms and offices. The original guildhall stood at the south end of the market place, and was taken down in 1806. The new town hall superseded the late mansion house in Lowgate, on the same site; was completed in 1866, after designs by Cuthbert Broderick, at a cost of about £30, 000; is a splendid edifice, in the Italian style; presents a frontage of 105 feet to Lowgate, with eight circular headed windows on the basement story, and 9 similar windows, with intercolumniations, on the upper story, surmounted by ornamental cornice, frieze, and balustrade; has, in the centre, a clock tower, 135 feet high, with turrets at each angle; is commodiously arranged and beautifully decorated in the interior; includes a mayor's reception room, 57 feet long, 28 wide, and 25 high, and numerous rooms and offices for the business of the corporation and the borough; contains, in a niche in the grand hall, a Sicilian marble statue of Edward I., from the chisel of Thomas Earle of Brompton; and has, in the rear, the police and sessions courts, with magistrates and clerks' rooms, and with subjacent prisoners' cells. The old borough jail stood in Kingston street, near the Humber; occupied an area of 2½ acres, enclosed by boundary walls; was erected in 1827-30, at a cost of about £22, 000; comprised a central building and five radiating wings, three of which were each three stories high; and had capacity for 153 male and 62 female prisoners The new jail is situated on the Hedon road; occupies there a plot of about twelve acres; began to be constructed in 1866; superseded the old borough jail in 1868; and cost, according to estimate, upwards of £56, 000. The walls of it are formed of red brick, with stone dressings; the corridors connected with the cells cross one another at right angles; and the residences of the Governor and the Chaplain flank the outer entrance. The old exchange, in Exchange alley, was built in 179 4, and extensively improved in 1822. The new exchange, completed in 1866, stands at the corner of Lowgate and Bowl alley lane, on part of the site of the ancient palace of the De la Poles; is in the Italian style, three stories high, after designs by W. Botterill; includes a hall 70 feet by 40 with a fine barrelled roof, stations for three telegraph companies, and several suites of offices and rooms; and cost £17, 000. The corn exchange stands in High street, on the site of the old custom house; was built in 1856, at a cost of £5, 500; is a handsome structure, 60 feet high; and contains a hall 158 feet long and 36 feet wide, which is used for public meetings as well as for commercial purposes. The post office, up a wide court in Whitefriar gate, was built in 1843, and is a plain but well arranged building. The custom house, in Whitefriar gate, was originally the Neptune hotel; is a large and handsome erection of brick, ornamented with stone; and includes an apartment 52 feet long, and suitable offices of every kind for the customs. The inland revenue office is a new building in Trinity House lane. The pilot office stands at the corner of Queen street and Nelson street; is a modern lofty brick edifice; and serves, in the upper part, as a telegraph station for signalling vessels. The Trinity house stands in a lane of its own name; was rebuilt on an enlarged plan, in 1753; is a handsome edifice, in connection with which are a marine school, and several marine hospitals or alms houses; includes a museum, with portraits of George III. and Marvel, "Hawke's Victory'' by Serres, a curious Greenland boat, and other interesting objects; and belongs to a corporation who date from 1369, -who have been favoured with so many as ten royal charters, the last of which was received from Queen Victoria, -who comprise twelve elder brethren, six assistants, and an unlimited number of younger brothers, -who license pilots, examine ship masters, and grant pensions to seamen and their widows, -and who have an income of upwards of £50, 000. The amount received by them, during 1865, was £51, 726; which included £16, 117 derived from primage; £10, 616 from fines of aliens and haven master's fees; £6, 717 from rents of estates; and £5, 759 from buoyage and beacon age. The chapel of the Trinityhouse is a Grecian structnre, with marble floor, marble pillars and pilasters, stained glass east window, and two noble pillars in the sanctuary composed of a highly polished and valuable description of marble found only in small pieces. The Bank of England, in Whitefriargate, occupies the site of the old charity hall; was built about 1855; and is an imposing edifice, in the Italian style. The public rooms, in Jarratt street, were built in 1830; form a handsome structure; and contain a splendid music hall 91 feet by 41, and several smaller apartments. The Royal theatre, in Humber street, was built in 1810, burnt in 1859, and rebuilt in 1865-6; and it is in the Italian style, occupies an area of 146 feet by 72, and is approached by five distinct entrances. The Queen's theatre, in Paragon street, was erected in 1846, and is a spacious brick structure. The public baths and washhouses, in Trippett street, were built in 1850, at a cost of £12, 000; and form a neat structure, in the Tudor style. The railway station, in Paragon street, was constructed in 1847, at a cost of upwards of £60, 000; covers nearly 2½ acres; and has a handsome front elevation, in the Doric and Ionic styles, a main entrance with a colonnade, and two other entrances. A very fine hotel, also in the Doric and Ionic styles, adjoins the station, covers an area of 120 feet by 130, and forms a quadrangle, with an interior court 60 feet square. Rails, in connexion with the Hull and Selby railway, run from both sides of the Railway dock, which will be noticed in a subsequent paragraph. A pier, in the form of the letter T, was constructed, in 1847, in front of Nelson street; is used as the station, by ferry, for the railway at New Holland; and serves also as a delightful promenade. A statue of William III., by Scheemaker, stands in the market place; and was erected in 1734, by subscription, at a cost of £893. A monument to Wilberforce stands near the end of Junction street; is a Fine Doric column, upwards of 72 feet high, surmounted by a statue 12 feet high; and was erected in 1834, at a cost of £1, 250. A marble statue of Queen Victoria, stands in the new park; and was presented to the town, in 1863, by W. H. Moss, Esq. A marble statue of the Prince Consort was erected in the new park in 1868.
Park and gardens.Hull, till recently, was more devoid of interesting walks or public promenades than almost any other considerable town in the kingdom; but it now has many pleasing walks on the N and W sides, and a fine public park adjacent to the Beverley road. The park was presented to the town, in 1861, by the mayor, Z.Pearson, Esq.; comprises about 27 acres; was formed at a cost of about £11, 800; and is beautifully adorned with shrubs and trees, artificial water, and bridges. The botanic garden, near the Anlaby road, in the western outskirts, was opened in 1812, occupies about 5 acres, and is laid out with science and taste.
Churches.In 1851, according to the census, the places of worship within the borough were 15 of the Church of England, with 12, 830 sittings; 1 of United Presbyterians, with 600 s.; 8 of Independents, with 5, 978 s.; 2 of Particular Baptists, with 1, 140 s.; 2 of Baptists, not otherwise defined, the s. not reported; 1 of Quakers, with 386 s.; 1 of Unitarians, with 490 s.; 7 of Wesleyan Methodists, with 7, 456 s.; 2 of New Connexion Methodists, with 1, 080 s.; 5 of Primitive Methodists, with 2, 750 s.; 1 of Wesleyan Reformers, with 1, 000 s.; 1 of Brethren, with 710 s.; 2 of isolated congregations, with 534 s.; 1 of Latter Day Saints, with 500 s.; 1 of Roman Catholics, with 628 s.; and 1 of Jews, with 95 s. But prior to 1870, two others of the Church of England, several of Dissenters, a German Lutheran one, and another of Roman Catholics, were added.
Holy Trinity church, in the W side of market place, was built in 1285-1312, and enlarged in the time of Henry VIII.; includes much brick work, supposed to be the oldest extant in England, subsequent to the Roman times; forms an interesting specimen of its age of architecture, as to both character and completeness; is a cruciform structure, measuring 272 feet from E to W, and 96 from N to S; has a central tower of two stories, with crocketed pinnacles, and with pierced terminating parapet, 147½ feet high; and ranked for a time as a cathedral, having had three suffragan bishops, respectively in 1536, from 1539 till 1542, and from 1553 till 1579. Its west front has a large recessed door, a nine light window (recently filled with stained glass) and a quatrefoiled parapet; its nave is of eight bays, and has a clerestory of sixteen three light windows; its choir is of five bays, and has a clerestory of ten two light decorated windows; its E window was re built in 1562-73, has seven lights, and is very rich and canopied; its font is late decorated English; and its organ was originally designed for St. Paul's Cathedral. Other noticeable features are an oak screen, a double range of oak stalls, a recently restored chantry chapel, a library in what was once a chantry chapel, a handsomely sculptured stone pulpit, a brass of 1401, a canopied tomb and effigies of Michael de la Pole, and some modern mural monuments, one of which is of the Rev. Joseph Milner, author of the " History of the Church of Christ, '' who served here as vicar. A restoration of the nave was begun in 1861, but in 1866 the work had been suspended for want of funds.
St. Mary's church, in Lowgate, was founded in the beginning of the 14th century; but only the chancel of the original edifice remains; the other parts are later than 1540; the tower was built in 1696, and altered in 1826; and the entire structure, with addition of a new aisle, was restored in 1862, at a cost of about £9, 000. St. Mark's church in Jenning's street, was founded in 1842; is an elegant edifice; and has a beautiful and lofty spire. St. Stephen's church, in St. Stephen street, was built in 1844; is in the early English style; and has a fine spire 200 feet high. St. John's church, in St. Johnstreet, was built in 1792, at a cost of nearly £5, 000, and has recently been enlarged. St. James' church, in St. James street, was built in 1830, at a cost of £6, 000; and has a tower 100 feet high. St. Luke's church, in St. Luke's street, was built in 1862; is in the decorated English style; comprises nave, aisles, and chancel; and cost, exclusive of tower and spire which were afterwards to be added, and including the value of the site and the necessary endowment, about £6, 500. Mariner's church, at Prince's Dockwalls, was built in 1834, and has an early English front. Drypool church, near the Victoria dock, was originally an edifice of the early part of the 14th century, and was rebuilt in 1824. Sculcoates church, . near the river Hull, also was originally a very ancient edifice, was rebuilt in 1760, and contains many handsome monuments. Christ Church, in John street, was built in 1822, at a cost of about £8, 000, and enlarged in 1863. St. Paul's church, in Cannon street, was built in 1847, and is a fine structure in the early English style. St. Silas' church was founded in 1869, and was estimated to cost £3, 500. St. Michael's is recent and temporary.
The Albion street Independent chapel was built in 1842,at a cost of £8, 000. The Wycliffe Independent chapel was built in 1867, and is in the second pointed style. The Great Thornton street Wesleyan chapel was built in 1842, the Beverley road Wesleyan chapel in 1862, each at a cost of £7, 000; and the latter is in the decorated English style. The Kingston Wesleyan chapel is one of the largest of the Wesleyan body in England. The Roman Catholic chapel in Jarratt street was built in 1829, and is handsome and spacious. Some of the other non Established places of worship are good or interesting structures. The general cemetery, on Springbank, comprises about 15 acres, with chapels and decorations; and has attached to it a cemetery of about 5 acres, under the Board of Health. Holy Trinity cemetery, on Hessle road, includes about 3 acres. A cemetery is attached to St. Peter's church, Drypool. A convent is on the Anlaby road; and, at the census of 1861, had 30 inmates. A priory for black monks was founded, about 1317, by Sir Jeffrey de Hotham; occupied half the street now called Blackfriar gate, -originally Monk street; had back buildings of much extent, fine gardens, fountains, and courts; was represented, till about 1784, by a square tower and some offices, used as an inn, behind the old guildhall; and proved to be represented also, by some groined arches of brick, in 1806, at the taking down of the guildhall. A priory of white friars was founded by Edward I., and enlarged, by Sir Richard de la Pole and others, in the time of Edward III.; stood adjacent to Whitefriar gate-its site being now occupied by the Trinity house-and was given, at the dissolution, to John Heneage. A Carthusian priory was founded, in 1350, by William de la Pole; stood on the ground now occupied by the charter house; had grand buildings, a splendid chapel, and extensive gardens, surrounded with walls. and gates; and was razed to the ground about 1538.
Parishes and Livings.The only entire civil parishes within the borough are the united parish of Holy Trinity and St. Mary, the parish of Sculcoates, and the parish of Drypool. The other civil tracts within it are the extra parochial place of Garrison side, and part of the parish of Sutton. But an ecclesiastical parish of St. Stephen was constituted, in 1859, within the united parish of Holy Trinity and St. Mary; one of St. Luke, in 1861, within the same parish; one of St. Paul was constituted in 1844, within Sculcoates; and one of St. Mark was constituted, in the same year, within Sutton. Acres of Holy Trinity and St. Mary, quoad civilia, 1,827; of which 867 are water. Pop. in 1 851, 50, 670; in 1861, 56, 888. Houses, 10, 892. Acres of Sculcoates, . quoad civilia, 1, 010. Pop. in 1851, 22, 325; in 1861, 27, 167. Houses, 5, 842. Acres of Drypool, 2, 206; of which 916 are water. Pop. in 1851, 4, 421; in 1861, 6, 241. Houses, 1, 305. Acres of Garrison side, 80. Pop. in 1851, 660; in 1861, 376. Houses in 1851, 37; in 1861, 78. The decrease of pop. here was caused by the removal of the military from the citadel; and the increase of houses, by the conversion of the barracks into dwellings. Acres of all Sutton, quoad civilia, 4, 450. Pop. in 1851, 7, 783; in 1861, 8, 348. Houses, 1, 720. Pop. of the portion of Sutton within the borough in 1861, 6, 989. Houses, 1, 399. Pop. in 1861, of St. Ste phen, 11, 428; of St. Luke, 7, 360; of St. Paul, 9, 480; of St. Mark, 7, 172. Houses of St. S., 2, 339; of St. p., 2, 080; of St. M., 1, 436.-The livings of Holy Trinity and eight others are vicarages, and the other livings are p. curacies, in the diocese of York. Value of Holy Trinity, £605;* of Sculcoates, £350; * of St. Mary, £260; * of St. Mark, £300; * of St. Stephen, £350; * of St. John, £205; of St. James, St. Luke, and Christ Church, each £300; of Mariners' church, £150; of Drypool, £335; * of St. Paul, £410; * of Sutton, £160.* Patrons of Holy Trinity, Trustees; of Sculcoates, the Lord Chancellor; of St. Mary, the Scott family; of St. Mark and St. Paul, alternately the Crown and the Archbishop; of St. Stephen, St. John, St. James, St. Luke, and Mariners, church, the Vicar of Holy Trinity; of Drypool, Simeon's Trustees; of Christ's church, the Vicar of Sculcoates and eight Trustees; of Sutton, W. H. Broadley, Es.
Schools and Institutions.The public schools, within the borough, at the census of 1851, were 27, with 5, 090 scholars; the private schools 217, with 5, 119 s.; the Sunday schools 39, with 8, 112 s. Four of the public schools were supported by taxation; 3 were aided or supported by endowment; 18, by religions bodies; 2, by other means. The four supported by taxation were the marine school, the prison school, and two workhouse schools. One of those aided by endowment was the grammar school. This was founded in 1486, by the Right Rev. John Alcock, a native of Beverley, Bishop of successively Rochester, Worcester, and Ely; was rebuilt, in 1578, in the Tudor sty1e; stands on the S side of Trinity church; has an endowed income of £80, and an exhibition of £33 at Cambridge; and numbers among its masters, the Rev. A. Marvel, father of the patriot Marvel, the Rev. J. Clarke, translator of " Sallust, " and the Rev. J. Milner, the church historian, -and, among its pupils, the patriot Marvel, Bishop Thomas Watson, Dean Milner, Archdeacon Wrangham, the poet Mason, and William Wilberforce. The Vicar's school, which was held in Vicar lane, and was founded in 1734, by the Rev. William Mason, father of the poet, has been amalgamated with the Humber street national school. The marine school is connected with Trinity house; was founded in 1786, for supporting 36 boys, and for teaching them navigation in addition to ordinary education; and has an endowed income of £218. Cogan's charity school, in Salthouse lane, was founded in 1753, by Alderman Cogan; clothes and educates poor girls, and afterwards gives the well conducted ones marriage portions; and has an endowed income of £406. National schools are in Mason street, John street, Porter street, Salthouse Lane, Drypool, Collier street, Humber street, Great Union street, Spring street, Church street, Waltham street, and adjoining St. Paul's and St. Mark's churches; British and Foreign schools in Dansome lane; Catholic schools in Pryme street, Dansome lane, and at the before mentioned convent; Wesleyan schools in Adelaide street and Scott street; and ragged and industrial schools are in Marlborough terrace.
The Royal Institution, in Albion street, was founded under high auspices, in 1853; is a very fine and imposing edifice; contains the extensive and valuable museum of the Literary and Philosophical society; contains also a subscription library of upwards of 31, 000 volumes, belonging to about 500 shareholders; includes a lecture hall, in which an annual course of lectures is delivered; and was, in 1853, the head quarters of the British Association of Science. The mechanics, institute was founded in 1825; had a building of 1829 in Charlotte street; has now a handsome and more commodious edifice of 1841 in George street; and has a library of about 4, 700 volumes. The Hull and East Riding college was planned in the autumn of 1865; to comprise a hall 70 feet by 40, with class rooms, master's rooms., and provision for a fives court; and to be in the pointed style of the 15th century, in red brick with stone dressings.
The infirmary, in Prospect street, was founded in 1782; was enlarged, by the addition of two wings, in 1840; is a handsome edifice, with a monument to Dr. Alderson in front; has excel1ent arrangements; and, at the census of 1861, had 123 inmates. The borough lunatic asylum, in Argyle street, is a spacious building; and, at the census of 1861, had 122 inmates. The female penitentiary, on the Anlaby road, had then 36 inmates. And a temporary home for fallen women was established in Nile street, in 1861. There are a dispensary, and a school of medicine and anatomy. The charter house, in a lane of its own name, was founded in 1384, as a Maison Dieu, by Sir Michael de la Pole; was rebuilt, in 1780, as an hospital for poor men and women; is a brick edifice of centre and wings, with semi circular Tuscan porch, and circular Ionic turret; and has property yielding an income of nearly £2, 500 a year. Lister's hospital has £350 a year from endowment; Bishop Watson's, £82; Gee's, £55; Crowle's, £32; Harrison's, £20; and Gregg's, £8. Model dwellings for 32 families, at the junction of Midland street and St. Luke's street, were erected in 1862, by a munificent gift of £5, 000 from Miss Turner. The port of Hull society for the religions instruction of seamen, was instituted in 1821; the sailors' home was established in 1856; and the seamen's and general orphan asylum was founded in 1865, and the building cost about £5, 000. There are numerous literary and religions institutions, benefit societies, sick clubs, and miscellaneous institutions. The total yearly value of the endowed charities is about £9, 000.
Poor Law and Registration.The united parish of Holy Trinity and St. Mary forms a poor law union or district, under a local act; and is divided for poor law and registration purposes into the sub-district of Humber, comprising the wards of Humber, Austin, Trinity, and Whitefriars, -the sub-district of St. Mary, conterminate with the ward of St. Mary North, -and the subdistrict of Myton, comprising the wards of North Myton and South Myton. Pop. in 1861, of Humber sub-d., 10, 690; of St. Mary sub-d., 6, 132; of Myton sub-d., 40, 066. Poor rates for the whole, in 1863, £13, 004. Marriages in 1863, 682; births, 1, 985; of which 111 were illegitimate; deaths, 1, 592, -of which 741 were at ages under 5 years, and 19 at ages above 85. Marriages in the ten years 1851-60, 6, 382; births, 17, 437; deaths, 13, 279. The workhouse is in Anlaby-Road; was built in 1857; and, at the census of 1861, had 328 inmates. A previous workhouse was in Whitefriar gate. - The parts of the borough beyond Holy Trinity and St. Mary parish are in Sculcoates district, the statistics of which will be given in the article SCULCOATES. The workhouse for that district is within the borough; and, at the census of 1861, had 257 inmates.
Harbour.The outside harbour, in the Humber, has anchorage in from 4 to 8 fathoms. The first reach of the river Hull bears the name of the Old harbour; and, till 1778, afforded all the wharfage and quayage which the town possessed. The Old dock, now called the Queen's dock, was formed in 1775-8, with the aid of £15, 000 from parliament; is 1, 703 feet long, 254 wide, and 23 deep; has commodious wharfs and quays; and communicates with the river Hull through a basin, 211 feet long and 80 wide. The Humber dock was formed in 1807-9, at a cost of £220, 000; is 914 feet long, and 342 wide; and communicates with the Humber through a large basin. The Junction dock, now called Princes' dock, was formed in 1827-9, at a cost of £180, 000; is 645 feet long, and 407 wide; communicates with the Queen's dock on the N, and with the Humber dock on the S; and has locks 124 feet long and 36½ wide, with excellent drawbridges 24 feet wide. The Railway dock was opened in 1846; extends to the W of the Humber dock, and is entered from it; is about three fourths as long as that dock, and about one half as wide. The Victoria dock was commenced in 1845; lies to the E of the site of the citadel; is entered from the Humber, through a capacious basin; communicates with the river Hull through another basin, and with timber ponds adjoining it.
The West dock was begun to be constructed in 1864; was opened, by the Prince of Wales, in 1869; is reported to have cost about £1, 000, 000; comprises a water area of about 17 acres, a tidal basin of nearly 7 acres, a wharfage area of 24 acres, an inside quayage of 5, 460 lineal feet, area of 24 acres, an inside quayage of 5, 460 lineal feet, and an outside quayage of 3, 600 feet; and is entered from the Humber dock basin, now enlarged. The aggregate of the port's docks, prior to the opening of the West dock, comprised about 62 acres of water area, about 7 acres of tidal basins, 24 acres of wharves, and 16, 450 lineal feet of quayage for ships' berths. But other accommodations are included in the harbour. Two timber ponds have jointly an area of nearly 25 acres. The Ferry boat dock is a tidal space of 1½ acre, with 1, 100 lineal feet of landing quays; was constructed in 1831, by the Corporation, and afterwards altered in its form; and had the Victoria pier constructed across it in 1848. The old tidal harbour, extending from the Humber to the North bridge, measures 3, 500 feet in length, and 200 feet in mean width, and has an area of 16 acres. The entire port accommodation, since the completion of the West dock, therefore, comprises about 103 acres of dock and tidal water space, 48 acres of wharves, and upwards of 33, 335 feet of quayage.
Commerce.The vessels belonging to the port, at the beginning of 1864, were 372 small sailing vessels, of aggregately 14, 305 tons; 133 large sailing vessels, of aggregately 28, 331 tons; 15 small steam vessels, of aggregately 292 tons; and 64 large steam vessels, of aggregately 25, 366 tons. The vessels which entered, during 1863, were 49 British sailing vessels, of aggregately 22, 156 tons, from British colonies; 62 foreign sailingvessels, of aggregately 29, 677 tons, from British colonies; 581 British sailing vessels, of aggregately 96, 730 tons, from foreign countries; 1, 123 foreign sailing vessels, of aggregately 176, 489 tons, from foreign countries; 1 British steam vessel, of91 tons, from British colonies; 898 British steam vessels, of aggregately 319, 435 tons, from foreign countries; 245 foreign steam vessels, of aggregately 79, 323 tons, from foreign countries; 569 sailingvessels, of aggregately 38, 223 tons, coastwise; and 550 steam vessels, of aggregately 98, 154 tons, coastwise. The vessels which cleared, during 1863, were 52 British sailing vessels, of aggregately 17, 300 tons, to British colonies; 8 foreign sailing vessels, of aggregately 3, 960 tons, to British colonies; 235 British sailing vessels, of aggregate1y 33, 647 tons, to foreign countries; 790 foreign sailing vessels, of aggregately 137, 116 tons, to foreign countries; 1 British steam vessel, of 231 tons, to British colonies; 893 British steam vessels, of aggregately 314, 608 tons, to foreign countries; 259 foreign steamvessels, of agggregately 84, 439 tons, to foreign countries; 917 sailing vessels, of aggregately 108, 268 tons, coastwise; and 605 steam vessels, of aggregately 103, 885 tons, coastwise. The amount of customs, in 1858, was £312, 425; in 1867, £334, 090. The foreign commerce is mainly with Russia, Sweden, Denmark, Prussia, Germany, the Low Countries, France, Portugal, Spain, the Levant, and the Black sea; and much of the home commerce is up the Humber and coastwise, in communication with the foreign. Steamers sail regularly to Antwerp, Bremen, Christiana, Christiansand, Copenhagen, Konigsberg, Dunkirk, Ghent, Gothenburg, Hamburg, Riga, Rotterdam, Stettin, Harburg, Aberdeen, Dundee, Leith, Newcastle, Goole, Keadby, Gainsborough, Lynn, York, Grimsby, Yarmouth, and London. Timber is a very extensive import, occupies yards of vast aggregate area; and is always stored in great quantity. Linseed, from the Black sea, and recently from India also, is very largely imported. Oranges, since about the beginning of the present century, have been a conspicuous import; and fresh fruits of other kinds, together with vegetables, potatoes, and other similar products, since the epoch of free trade, have been very largely added. Other chief imports are corn, wool, flax, hemp, hides, tallow, iron, pitch, tar, rosin, bones, and horn. The exports are chiefly soft goods and hardware; and, in 1863, they included 37, 34 2, 348 yards of cotton fabrics, 19, 769, 503 lbs. of cotton yarn, 6, 909, 480 yards of linen fabrics, 7, 184, 264 lbs. of linen yarn, 27, 245, 722 yards of woollen and mixed stuffs, 16, 070, 508 lbs. of woollen and worsted yarns, 2, 709, 251 lbs. of wool, and £809, 156's worth of machinery. The whale fishery was, for a considerable period, a prominent part of the commerce; but, of late, has very much declined.
Trade and Manufactures.Hull has a head post. office, ‡ six receiving offices, 19 pillar and wall boxes, four banking offices, six or seven excellent hotels, a large number of good inns, commercial boarding houses, and offices of four telegraphic companies; and publishes eight newspapers, -two of them daily, the others weekly. A weekly market, for corn, is held on Tuesday; a weekly market, for meat and vegetables, on Friday; markets for wool, on the two last Tuesdays of June, all the Tuesdays of July, and the two first Tuesdays of Aug.; and fairs, for horses and cattle, on the second Tuesday of April and 11 Oct. Races used to be run; but they have long been discontinued, the last having been hold on Wold Carr in 1796. Iron ship building is largely carried on; employs, in one suite of yards, upwards of 1, 200 hands; and has produced steamers of the largest size and horse power. The manufacture of chains, chain cables, steam boilers, steam engines, sacking, sail cloth, ropes, and other things connected with ship building and with the wants of a great port, also is largely carried on. The crushing of linseed, the sawing of timber and veneers, the grinding of corn, paint, and bones, the refining of oil and of sugar, the working of white lead and turpentine, the tanning of hides, the making of pottery, the spinning of flax and cotton, and the manufacture of linen and cotton fabrics likewise are prominent. One flax and cotton mill company was formed in 1836; and another cotton mill company, whose works are very extensive, was formed in 1847.
The Borough.Hull, as we have seen, was made a borough by Edward I.; it had twenty charters under subsequent reigns; and, from the time of Charles II. till the reform and municipal acts, it was governed under a charter of 13th Charles II. It is now divided into seven wards; has a separate commission of the peace; and is governed by a mayor, fourteen aldermen, and fortytwo councillors, assisted by a recorder, and the usual officers. Assizes used to be held in it, for its own territory, as a county within itself, called Hullshire. Borough courts and quarter sessions are now regularly held, at the usual periods; sheriff's courts leet and baron, about Easter and Michaelmas; courts of venire, for civil causes; a bankruptcy court, for not only the borough itself, but also for a large part of E. R. Yorkshire and for Lincolnshire; and a county court, for small debts, and for some cases by juries. The borough sent members to parliament once in the time of Edward I.; and it has sent two from 12th year of Edward II. till the present time. Constituency in 1863, 5, 789, -of whom 1, 350 were freemen; in 1868, 6, 498. Hull is also a polling place for E. R. Yorkshire. The police department, in the year 1864, had a force of 142 men, and was maintained at a cost of £10, 711. The crimes committed in that year were 104; the persons apprehended, 111; the depredators and suspected persons at large, 852; the houses of bad character, 351. The central parts of the town are lit by the Hull gas company, whose works are in Broadley street; the northern parts, by the British gas company; the eastern parts, by the Sutton. gas company. The whole is supplied with water from works at Stoneferry, about 2 miles from the town; constructed, in 1844-5, at a cost of £92,808; drawing their supplies from Spring head, and conveying, from the top of a tower upwards of 150 feet high, through pipes, about 3,000,000 gallons of water a day. The Spring head water works, completed in 1864, cost about £51,000. Borough income in 1861, £29,870; of which £2,876 were from watch rates. Real property in 1860, £347,111; of which £3, 920 were in gasworks. Pop. in 1851, 84,690; in 1861, 97,661. Houses, 19,516.
(John Marius Wilson, Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales (1870-72))
|Feature Description:||"a large seaport town" (ADL Feature Type: "cities")|
|Administrative units:||Kingston upon Hull Borough Yorkshire AncC|
|Place names:||HULL | HULL OR KINGSTON UPON HULL | KINGSTON UPON HULL|
|Place:||Kingston upon Hull|
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