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LINCOLN, a city and a district in Lincolnshire, and a diocese partly also in Notts. The city stands on Ermine-street, the Fosse way, and the river Witham, at a convergence of railways, 36 miles NW of Boston, and 132 by road, but 138 by railway, N by W of London. The Witham is navigable from it, for steam-boats, to the sea; the Fossdyke navigation connects it with the Trent, and with a ramified system of canals; and railways go from it toward Boston, Newark, Retford, Gainsborough, and New Holland, and give it communication with all parts of the kingdom.
History.Lincoln was the Lindcoit of the ancient Britons, the Lindum Colonia of the Romans, and the Lindeyllanceaster, the Lindcylne, the Lincolla, and the Lincolne of the Saxons. It took the first part of the ancient name, in every case, from the river Witham, which anciently was called Lindis; and it takes its pre sent name from a combination of the syllables Lin and Coln, -the latter of which is an abbreviation of the Roman Colonia. It was a seat of population in the time of the ancient Britons; and it figured as a place of great importance in the times of the Romans, the Saxons, and the Normans. The Romans made it not only a station, but a strong-walled town. The Saxons besieged it in 518; were driven off by the Britons; took and lost and re-took it in subsequent years; and made it one of the capitals of Mercia in 585. Edwin, King of Northumbria, obtained possession of all the portions of Lincolnshire N and E of it about 630; and St. Paulinus, under Edwin's authority, first preached Christianity in the city, was well received by the governor and many of the inhabitants, and built here a handsome stone church. The Danes repeatedly assailed or took the city, and ravaged it; and were eventually repelled in 1016, by Edmund, son of Ethelred. A castle was built in it, in 1086, by William the Conqueror, to keep the inhabitants in awe; and so great was the castle that 166 mansions were taken down to make room for it. The Domesday survey records the city to have contained 1,070 mansions, and to have had 950 burgesses. A great fire devastated it in 1110, and an earthquake seriously damaged it in 1185. The canal or Fossdyke was cut from it to Torksey, in the time of Henry I. The Empress Maud was besieged in its castle, in 11 40, by Stephen; and she made an escape, and the castle was surrendered. Her partizans got possession again in the following year; and the castle was again invested by Stephen; but the Earl of Gloucester came against it, took the king prisoner, and overthrew his army. Henry II., after having been crowned in London, came to Lincoln to be crowned again; and he thus gave evidence of the high position which the city held in public estimation. David, King of Scotland, met King John here, in 1201, and did him homage in the presence of a vast multitude. The rebel barons, in the interest of Louis the Dauphin of France, invested the city in 1217; they retired from it on the approach of John; they re-invested it on hearing that John had lost his army, and had died; and they were attacked and vanquished, in 1218, by the Earl of Pembroke, regent to the youthful Henry III. The victors pillaged the city; and, in consequence of the great booty which they found, the soldiers called their victory "Lincoln Fair." The city was sacked again in 1266; it came to the Lacys; it passed to John of Gaunt, who, in 1396, married here Lady Swinford, mother of the Beauforts; it became, in 1352, at the arrival of the Flemings, a seat of trade for woollens, leather, and lead; it rebelled, under Sir R. Wells, against Edward IV., and shared in the disasters of the ' ' battle of Lose-coat field;'' it rose, in 1536, under Abbot Mackerel, against the ecclesiastical reforms of the vice-regent Cromwell; and it declared for the king at the commencement of the civil wars of Charles I., but went early into possession of the parliamentarians. The royalists attempted to gain it by treachery, but failed; and they eventually took it by force. The Earl of Manchester, at the head of the parliamentary forces, in 1644, stormed the lower part of the city, and drove the royalists thence into the castle, and into the cathedral. The royalists fortified the cathedral, and made an obstinate resistance there and in the castle; but both places were taken by storm.
Several Jews were executed at Lincoln, in 1255, on the charge of crucifying a child. King Stephen kept Christmas here in 1147. Henry II. was here in 1158. King John, besides being here in 1201, to meet the King of Scotland, was here also in 1204. Edward I. held here, in 1301, a parliament which asserted his right to invade Scotland; and confirmed here, in 1305, the Magna Charta. Edward II. held parliaments here in 1316-7; and Edward III., in 1327. Richard II. was here in 1386; Henry VI., in 1446; Henry VII., in 1485, after Bosworth field; Henry VIII., in 1541, on his fatal visit to Catherine Howard; and Charles I., in 1642.-Willis the physician, Hilton the painter, and Disney, partridge, and Reyner, the theologians, were natives. The city gives the title of Earl to the Duke of Newcastle.
Site and Structure.The situation of Lincoln is eminently picturesque. The city extends from the Witham, on each side, N and S, by one chief line of streets of considerable length, intersected by shorter cross streets. It stands principally on the N bank, on an eminence which rises rather abruptly from the low ground; but it occupies also a spacious low tract on the S. The upper or N section is locally designated ' ' up-hill'' or ' ' abovehill; ''spreads over slopes and plateau, to a height of 210 feet above the river; is about a mile long and 1,000 yards wide; and contains the cathedral, the castle, the lunatic asylum, some of the other public buildings, and many of the best private houses. The lower or S section is locally designated ' ' below-hill; ''presents an appearance much inferior to that of the upper section; and contains the principal shops and inns, the markets, the least prominent of the public buildings, and most of the abodes of the working population. The exterior view, from the S, on the slope of the opposite hill, is peculiarly beautiful: comprising the open country on the left, the valley of the Witham on the right, and the city itself in front, stretching from the level ground up and over the hill, covering the slopes with its houses and embowering trees, and exhibiting on the top, in bold relief against the sky, the porticoed asylum, the ivy-covered castlekeep, and the magnificent mass and towers of the cathedral. Some interior views also, or rather views from the vantage-grounds of the city's upper section outward to the country, are eminently fine and of great extent, particularly toward Newark and Grantham on the S, and toward the Humber on the N. A vast extent of country, descending from the plateau of the wolds, and spreading away in a flat expanse of fens, lies below the eye like a map; and the cathedral dominates sublimely over the whole, so as to be visible from distances almost incredible, such as even from the hills beyond Buxton in Derbyshire.
The ancient British town occupied the crown of the hill; extended much further N than the Newport or N gate of the subsequent Roman town; and is supposed to have left vestiges in certain indications of ramparts and ditches still visible. The Roman town was a parallelogram, engirt by strong walls, with four gates; enclosing the site of the cathedral close on the E, and that of the castle on the W; and divided into four equal parts, by two streets crossing each other at right angles, and terminating at the gates. The S and the E gates were taken down at a comparatively recent period; the W gate, after long stimulating and baffling antiquarian inquiries as to its site and fate, was accidentally discovered, in 1836, among the great mounds of the castle wall, but fell to pieces almost as soon as found; and the N gate still stands, bears now the name of Newport-gate, gives admission to the city by the road from Hull, and is considered one of the most perfect and interesting extant English specimens of genuine Roman architecture. The main arch has a rude appearance, being composed of large coarse uncemented stones, while fully 11 feet of its height are sunk below the present level of the street. A smaller arch is at the E side; and another of the same character is on the W side, but is concealed by an adjoining house. Another fortified wall, with corner towers, was built by the Romans to the S of the parallelogram; and this descended from the top of the hill to the bottom, turned there at right angles, and went along the side of the river. The Roman walls were greatly altered or destroyed by the Saxons, in their refortifications of the town; they also underwent alterations and additions at subsequent periods, particularly during the civil wars; yet they have left many remains of ramparts and ditches, though these are now of such mutilated and mixed character that it is very difficult to define what portions of them are really Roman, and what portions are Saxon or Norman. The Roman Ermine-street gives its name to that part of the city's principal street which is above the castle-hill; it passes through the extant Roman or Newport gate; and, for 11 or 12 miles thence, it is as straight as an arrow. The Fossdyke also, though so cut or cleared out as to be a navigable channel in the time of Henry I., is supposed to have originally been a work of the Romans. Many Roman coins, tablets, inscriptions, and other Roman relics have been found. An ancient burial-ground, supposed to have been attached to one of the earliest churches, was, not long ago, discovered at the widening of a road up to the asylum; and the tombs in it were rough flat stones laid together in the manner of a rude receptacle for the body, without any coffin. Fragments of very ancient buildings, vari ously Saxon, Norman, and early English, and comprising arches, doorways, turrets, mullioned windows, and pieces of wall, are remarkably numerous, but, for the most part, have been so absorbed by other buildings, or so desecrated, or so severely damaged, as to be interesting only to enthusiastic antiquaries. The remains of the castle and some portions of churches are exceptions, as to breadth and boldness of appearance, but will afterwards be noticed. Monasteries, ancient churches, and edifices akin to them were so numerous and have been so extensively overthrown without being utterly extinguished, that many barns, stables, and even hog-sties may be found to include portions of their walls, doorways, or arched windows. An ancient chantry, now called St. Mary's conduit, at the W end of the church of St. Mary-le-Wigford, is a beautiful specimen of the architecture of the early part of the 14th century. The remains of a house in which John of Gaunt lived with his wife, Lady Swinford, are now included in a modernlooking mansion in the southern skirts of the city, close to the London road; and had a remarkably beautiful small oriel window of the 14th century, which has been removed, and placed between the gateways of the castle. Two remaining sides of a very old quadrangular house, which was probably connected with that of John of Gaunt, are on the opposite side of the road; and the entry to it passes under a semicircular arch, with zigzag or Norman decoration. Another. domestic building, of what may be called Norman times, is on the W side of the Steep-hill; shows a singularly ornamented front; and has a semi-arched entry decorated with mouldings. This is usually called the Jews' house, because it was inhabited by a Jewess named Belesset de Wallingford, who was hanged for clipping coin in the time of Edward I.; and, as it has, over the semi-arched entry, a chimney-projection for a room on the second floor, it has been depicted and described, in the Pictorial History of England, as evidence that, in the Norman times, the principal room of a house was on the next above the ground floor. A timber house near St. Mary's conduit is a good specimen of the timber architecture of the 15th century. ' ' Lincoln, ''remarks Mr. Chambers, "is still a preserved town of the middle ages, -a striking engraftment of Saxon upon Roman antiquities, and Norman upon Saxon, and an Elizabethan town upon all; exhibiting, indeed, memorials of almost all the past and gone things of English history, and surprisingly little of the tastes and habits of modern men to mar or interfere with the effect."
Yet the city has really undergone great modern improvement. Many old houses have been demolished or modernised; many new ones have been built; and some streets and outskirts present an entirely new aspect. The inhabited houses increased, during the ten years ending in 1861, from 279 to 350 in the parish of St. Nicholas, from 230 to 364 in the parish of St. Mary-leWigford, from 285 to 444 in the parish of St. Peterat-Gowts, and from 617 to 960 in the parish of St. Swithin; considerable increase by erection of new ones, or decrease by demolition of old ones, occurred in most of the other parishes; and 27 were in course of erection at the taking of the census. A new plan of drainage also was drawn out, in 1865, by the surveyor to the corporation, computed to cost £15,000, and of such a character as to correct or sweep away a great aggregate amount of nuisance. Water, for the supply of the inhabitants, is brought from Prial brook, some miles distant; and is sent to the upper part of the city by means of a steam-engine. There are three conduits, besides reservoirs; and the conduits give supply to the lower parts of the city. One of them has already been noticed, as anciently a chantry, at the W end of the church of St. Mary-le-Wigford; and another, of a different age and of different construction, is in a field near the workhouse. A large common, on the W of the city, gives a right of grazing for three cattle to every resident freeman, and for one to every other householder; and contains a race-course, where races are held annually in Spring, and which has a grand stand erected, by the old corporation, at a cost of £6,000. Another common, on the S, gives similar rights to those given by the W common; and two other fields, called the Holmes and the Monks'-Leys, belong exclusively to the freemen. A Spacions lake, called Brayford, is a harbour for vessels; is surrounded with wharves, warehouses, and flour mills, and commands very beautiful views of the upper part of the city.
Public Buildings.The castle, though extensively demolished and now a mere ruin, still presents an imposing appearance. The gateway has an elegant pointed arch, and a massive battlemented superstructure; and is supposed to belong to the 14th century. Remains of the original gateway, as built by William the Conqueror, are immediately within the arch. The keep stands half within and half without the walls; occupies nearly all the surface of a high, very large, and very stronglyformed artificial mound; and must, before the invention of modern artillery, have been almost impregnable. The walls inclose an area of about 1,790 feet; stand upon vast earth-works, sloping down exteriorly to a great depth; measure now from 17 to 30 feet in height, and from 5 feet at the top to a gradual increase downward in thickness; and were formerly surmounted by battlements 5 feet high and 2 feet broad. Cobbs' hall, or hole, is a ground-floor apartment beneath a small tower, overlooking the walls; has a finely groined roof, and vastly thick walls; and communicates, by a trap-door, with a dungeon-cell below. -The county hall stands on the W side of the castle-yard; was erected after designs by Smirke; is in the castellated style; and, inclusive of its internal decorations, cost nearly £40,000. The county jail stands at the back of the county hall; is a brick building, within a walled inclosure of 6¾ acres; and has capacity for 77 male and 15 female prisoners. The city jail stands in the New-road, and has capacity for 26 male and 9 female prisoners. The Judges' lodging, for the accommodation of the judges during the assizes, stands on the Castle hill, and is an elegant mansion. The guildhall is the Stone bow of the 15th century; stands across High-street, in a line with the southern boundary of the extended Roman city; comprises a large pointed gate way, with flanking circular towers, all decorated with mouldings, and embattled; and has, in a niche in the E tower, a large statue of the angel Gabriel holding a scroll,-in another niche, an effigies of the Virgin Mary trampling on a serpent, and, between them, on the outside of the two towers, the arms of the city. The High bridge over the Witham is of the 15th century, or possibly earlier; has a main arch 21¾ feet in span and 11 feet high, with two side arches at right angles; is traditionally said to have formerly had five arches, across as many channels of the river; was encumbered, or made difficult of access, by numerous old religions houses, which were taken down in 1815, when the bridge was widened; and is surmounted, at the centre, by a rustically ornamented obelisk, erected in 1763. Two other old bridges formerly crossed a branch of the Witham, in the line of the principal street: but they were taken down, and superseded by a handsome new one, in 1815. The corn-exchange is a recent erection, after designs by Bellamy; has a Roman basement and a Corinthian superstructure; and contains a large and elegant room for public meetings, concerts, and festivals. A row of shops, called the new market, is on the S side of the corn exchange; the vegetable market was recently formed out of the old sheep market; and the new cattle market was formed in 1848, and has attached to it a commodious hotel. The Midland Counties insurance office, in Silver-street, is an elegant recent edifice, in the modern classic style; and makes, from basement to frieze, a rich display of carving and sculpture. The lunatic asylum is a handsome edifice, 260 feet long; has a noble front, with Ionic portico; has also a statue of Dr. Edward P. Charlesworth, erected in 185 4; is conducted without any measures of coercion; and has usually from 80 to 110 patients. The county hospital, on Steep hill, was erected in 1769; had a new wing added in 1855, at a cost of £1,300; and is supported by voluntary contributions. The workhouse, situated near the lunatic asylum, was erected in 1837; is a Spacions building; and, at the census of 1861, had 232 inmates. The mechanics' institution was opened in 1832, on the ground-floor of the same building as the grammar school, on part of the site of the Franciscan friary; was removed to the city assembly-rooms in 1863; and contains a library of upwards of 4,000 volumes, and a museum containing antiquities found in the city and its neighbourhood, and many hundred specimens in natural history. There are a subscription library, a medical library, news-rooms, assembly-rooms, and a theatre. Other public buildings will be noticed in subsequent paragraphs.
The Cathedral.The cathedral of Lincoln occupies a more commanding site than any other cathedral in England; and, as already noticed, both makes a conspicuous figure over a great extent of circumjacent country, and is distinctly visible at remarkably great distances in other counties. It also is so grand in itself as to have no rival in England, except perhaps in the minster of York. It likewise forms a splendid-study to the architect and the antiquary, as containing within its compass every variety of style, from the simple massive Norman to the latest stage of pointed art. It once, too, had magnificence of another kind; for, in 1540, it lost by pillage 2,621 ounces of gold, 4,285 ounces of silver, and a countless number of rich pearls, diamonds, rubies, sapphires, carbuncles, and other gems. It comprises two western towers and a central one; a nave of seven bays, with aisles; a W transept, with an eastern chapel in the E wing; a great transept, with three bays and three eastern chantries in each wing; a galilee porch on the SW side of the main transept; a choir of seven bays, with aisles; a S chapel called Bishop Longland's chantry; a choir transept of two bays, with apsidal chapels in each wing, and with St. Hugh's chapel attached to the N wing, and a lavatory and three sacristies attached to the S wing; a presbytery, Lady chapel, or angel choir, of three bays, with aisles, and rendered cruciform by having Bishop Fleming's chapel on the N side, and Bishop Russell's on the S side; and a cloister and a chapter-house, the former N of the choir, and the latter reached from it by a vestibule. The ground covered by the pile measures two acres, two roods, and six perches. The W front is 173 feet long, and 83 feet high; the western towers are 35 feet along each side, and 206 feet high; the central tower is 53 feet along each side, and 268 feet high; each tower was formerly surmounted by a spire 101 feet high; the nave is 255 feet long, 80 wide, and 80 high; the main transept is 222 feet long, 66 wide, and 74 high; the choir is 158 feet long, 80 wide, and 74 high; the choir transept, with chantries, is 170 feet long, 44 wide, and 72 high; the presbytery or Lady chapel, is 116 feet long, 82 wide, and 72 high; the cloister is 18 feet long from N to S, and 90 feet wide; the chapter-house is 62 feet long, 62 wide, and 42 high; and the entire pile is 486 feet long. The building material is the oolitic and calcareous stone of the vicinity; and this has the peculiarity of becoming coated with a hard surface; which serves very considerably to prevent or retard decay.
The cathedral was commenced, on the plan of that of Rouen, in 1075, by Bishop Remigius; was completed, within its original design, in 1092, by Robert Bloet; and, after suffering much injury from a fire, was repaired and vaulted, in 1123-47, by Alexander. Additions to the original W front, the entire E front of the W transept, the entire E transept and chapels, the choir, and the chapter-house, were built, in 1186-1203, by St. Hugh. The galilee porch and the W side of the main transept were finished soon after St. Hugh's death. The roodscreen and the cloister were commenced in the time of Edward I. The nave was completed, in 1206-35, by Hugh of Wells. The central tower, originally ill-built, fell suddenly in 1237; and was rebuilt, up to a vaulted termination one story above the roof, in 1237-54, by Grosteste. The presbytery was begun, in 1256, by Lexington; and completed, in 1282, by Oliver Sutton. The upper portion of the central tower, and the spire which surmounted it, were built in 1300-19, by D 'Alberby. The Burghersh chapel was built in 1320-42, by Henry Burghersh. The statues and some windows in the W front, the upper part of the S front of the main transept, and the stalls of the choir were erected, in 135181, by the treasurer Welbourne. Bishop Fleming's chapel, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, was built, in 1420-31, by Richard Fleming. The great W window, and the upper parts of the western towers, were built, in 1436-50, by William Alnwick. Bishop Russell's chapel, dedicated to St. Blaise, was built, in 1480-95, by John Russell. Bishop Longland's chapel, dedicated to St. Catherine, was built in 1521-47, by John Longland. The spire of the central tower was destroyed by a storm in 1547; the spires of the western towers were taken down in 1807; and lightning conductions were placed along the body of the nave and on the corners of the towers, in 1865. Restorations of the cathedral, at great cost and with many results, were effected during numerous years prior to 1866, and were then still in progress. One series of them, during fourteen years terminating in 1859, cost nearly £22,000; and an important one, begun in 1865, and confined to the W front, was designed to collect the remains of old columns long removed, to copy them with minutest detail in Lincoln oolite, and to put in fresh pieces, copied with minutest accuracy, into those parts of the Norman doorway which were perishing from age.
The W front shows a Norman base covered with arcades, a broad early English screen above, and octagonal pinnacled towers at the sides. The jambs and lateral arches of the central doorway, the bases of the towers, and the adjacent gable are portions of the original front of Remigius and Bloet. A statue of Bloet is on the N; and one of St. Hugh is on the S. The Norman doorway is deeply recessed; an arcade of canopied statues of kings, from William the Conqueror to Edward I II., is above the doorway; and a lofty later English arch, with a cinquefoil above it, is beneath the gable. The front has also a series of emblematic sculptures, rude and quaint, but highly interesting; and it presents, on the whole, an imposing and elaborate appearance; yet it suffers the serious defect of exhibiting a comparatively great surface of masonry unrelieved by glass. The western towers have a base of three tiers of arcade; show, on each face, two very large windows of two lights, with magnificent canopies; and are crowned, at the angles, with turrets surmounted by pinnacles. The central tower rests grandly on four arches; is of similar design to the western towers, but much more richly decorated; and is so traversed or honey-combed with galleries and passages as almost to have two walls. The famous bell, called Great Tom, possibly a corruption of Grand Ton, was cast at Lincoln in 1610, and hung in the north-western tower; cracked and became useless in December, 1827: was recast, in November, 1834, by Thomas Mears of Whitechapel; and was hung in the central tower in 1835. The nave is divided by piers, with unfilleted columns; its triforium has two arcades, of alternately two and three arches, in each bay; and its clerestory has three pointed lights in each compartment. The morning service chapel, containing the Norman font of Remigius, is on the N side of the nave aisles; and the chapel of St. Hugh is on the S. The S front of the main transept has a decorated window of five lights and a double-crocketted gable, set between two tall pinnacles; and the N front forms a porch with pedimented canopy, and has seven lancets in the gable, flanked with turret pinnacles. The open central lantern is enriched with rose windows, each 24 feet in diameter, filled with stained glass of the 13th century; has a double arcade, the upper one a clerestory; and terminates in stone-vaulting, 127 feet from the pave ment. The presbytery, or Lady chapel has an E end of three gables, -the central one loftier than the others, and separated by ornate double buttresses, terminating in octagonal pinnacles and crocketted spirelets; has there a central window of eight lights, with geometrical tracery,-and above it, divided by a string-course, a window of five lights with geometrical tracery; has windows and pinnacles of the same character in the aisles; has a magnificent S porch, with deeply recessed doorway, gabled and flanked with pinnacles, and adorned with statues of the evangelists; and contains thirty ingenious sculptures, probably set up by Grosteste,. representing patriarchs, prophets, angels, and other subjects, playing on the shawm, the harp, the zebec, the cittern, the tabor, and other instruments. The cloister is remarkable for adjoining the choir rather than the nave; is mainly geometrical decorated, composed of bays; includes a N alley in the Doric style, built by Sir Christopher Wren, monstrously incongruous with the rest of the pile, and surmounted by the library; and contains, in the SW angle, a portion of Roman tesselated pavement, discovered in 1793. The chapter-house is decagonal; shows a W front of three pedimented arcaded compartments; has a vaulted stone roof, supported externally by flying buttresses, and internally by a central pair of Purbeck marble with ten engaged columns; and was probably the earliest of the many decagonal chapter-houses, with central supporting piers, in Britain.
The numerous chapels and chantries in the cathedral exhibit characters and decorations in full keeping with the rest of the pile. The rood screen shows exquisite workmanship; and the organ screen above covers the tabernacle-work. The oak stalls are of the 14th century, and sixty-two in number; and they have intricate canopies and miseries, sculptured and carved with great variety of subject. Eighty-seven tombs were in the nave, and very many in the other parts, prior to the civil wars of Charles I.; but great numbers of them were mutilated or destroyed at the storming of the city by the Earl of Manchester. The principal monuments now are, in the nave, a window by Eaton and Butler, of 1858; in St. Paul's chapel, a window by A. and H. Sutton, and a cinquefoil by Crace, both of 1858; in the Lady chapel, an effigies of Baron Burghersh, of 1356, beneath a canopywith three tabernacles; in the N aisle, an effigies of Bishop Burghersh of 13 40,-the head supported by evangelistic symbols; in the S aisle, effigies of Lord Cantilupe of 1355, and of Prior Wymbish of Nocton; in the S transept, remains of the shrine of D'Alderby; in Trinity chapel, effigies and cadaver of Bishop Fleming; in St. Blaise's chapel, altar-tomb and screen of Bishop Russell; in St. Catherine's chapel, altar-tomb, chantry, and screen of Bishop Longland; on the N side of the choir, an Easter tomb of Bishop Bloet, with figures of three armed knights watching; on the S side of the choir, monuments of Lady Swinford, her daughter Joan, and the Countess of Westmoreland; in the S choir transept, a recumbent figure of Bishop Kaye, by Westmacott; in the S aisle, the fragment of a monument of St. Hugh; and in the cloister, the dam aged Norman coffin lid of Remigius.
The Cathedral-close is an irregular space around the cathedral; was formerly enclosed by a fortified precinct wall; and, together. with adjacent courts and lanes, contains many pieces of curious old architecture-mullioned windows, projecting chimneys, armorial tablets, and other fragments-mixed up with more modern masonry. The enclosure wall was built by Bishop Sutton; and the Exchequer-gate was built in the time of Edward I. Portions of the deanery of the 13th century, and portion s of houses of the 14th and 15th centuries, still exist. The Vicar's court contains four houses, occupied by the vicars choral of the cathedral; once formed a quadrangle; and has a gateway of the time of Edward I. Buildings now used as stables were erected, in 1450, by Bishop Alnwick. One house in the close was occupied by Dr. Paley, as subdean of Lincoln; and was the place where he wrote some of his well known works. Ruins of the Bishop's palace stand near the close, a little way down the slope toward the S; include the shell of a hall, 75 feet long and 55 feet wide, consisting of nave and aisles; include also a kitchen, which is connected by a loftily-arched bridge with the hall, and has seven chimneys; and retains an entrance-tower, which was built by Bishop Alnwick. The palace itself was begun by Bishop Chesney; and it gave entertainment, in the time of Longland, to Henry VIII. and Queen Catherine Howard, -and in the time of Neile, to James I. The present palace of the Bishop is at Riseholme.
Churches.There formerly were 52 churches in the city; but now, exclusive of dissenting ones, there are only 12; and these, in the aggregate, possess much less architectural interest than any equal or similar number in most other large old towns. St. Benedict's church, near High bridge, presents some good specimens of Norman; has a handsome E aisle window, of the time of Henry VII.; and contains a brass of Alderman Becke of 1620. St. Martin's church contains a tomb of Sir T. Grantham. St. Mary-le-Wigford's church has a Norman nave and tower, and an early English E end; and has been restored. St. Nicholas' church was built in 1840, at a cost of £2,500; and is in the early English style. St. Paul-in-the Bail's church is conjectured to have been built on the remains of one erected by Paulinus. St. Peter-at-Arches' church is a modern structure, in the Grecian style. St. Peter-in-Eastgate's church was rebuilt in 1778, on the site of one of the earliest in the city. St. Peter-at-Gowts' church is Norman, with a tower; and contains an ancient font.
There were, in 1866, two Independent chapels, one Particular Baptist, one General Baptist, one Quaker, three Wesleyan, two Primitive Methodist, two United Free Methodist, one Unitarian, and one Roman Catholic. One of the Independent chapels was built in 1841, at a cost of £4,000; and is a large and elegant edifice, in the pointed style. One of the Wesleyan chapels was built in 1837; has a remarkably commodious gallery; and is the largest chapel of the Wesleyans in Lincolnshire. The Roman Catholic chapel was built in 1799; and contains a painting of the "Taking Down from the Cross," brought by the English nuns from Gravelines convent in France, at the time of the French revolution. The public cemetery, on the Canwick-road, was formed in 1856, at a cost of about £8,000; comprises an area of 15 acres, well laid out; and contains two chapels, semidetached, in the early English style, after designs by M. Drury. St. Peter-in-Eastgate and St. Margaret's cemetery, in Langworth-gate, was formed also in 1856; comprises 1 acre for St. Peter's parish, and 1½ for St. Margaret's; is pleasantly situated "above-hill, "and prettily laid out; and contains, among other tombstones, those of three persons whose united ages were 281 years. St. Swithin's cemetery, in Rosemary-lane, also is of re cent formation.
Parishes.The parishes within the city are St. Benedict, St. Botolph, St. John-in-Newport, St. Margaret-in-the-Close, St. Mark, St. Martin, St. Mary-le-Wigford, St. Mary Magdalene-in-the Bail, St. Michael, St. Nicholas, St. Paul, St. Peter-at-Arches, St. Peter-at-Gowts, St. Peter-in-Eastgate, St. Swithin, and a small portion of Canwick. There are also, within the city, the extra-parochial places of Bishop's-Palace, CastleDykings, Cold-Bath-House, Lincoln-Lunatic Asylnm, Lincoln-Castle, and Monks-Liberty. Acres of all the parishes and the places, inclusive of all Canwick parish, 10,689. Real property of all, exclusive of the portion of Canwick, in 1860, £82,975; of which £99 were in quarries, £240 in railways, and £2,000 in gas-works. Pop.in 1861, of St. Benedict's, 653; of St. Botolph, 1,027; of St. John, 285; of St. Margaret, 452; of St. Mark, 722; of St. Martin, 3,232; of St. Mary-le-Wigford, 1,7 46; of of St. Mary Magdalene, 625; of St. Michael, 1,296; of St. Nicholas, 1,515; of St. Paul, 789; of St. Peter-at-Arches, 562; of St. Peter-at-Gowts, 2,055; of St. Peterin-Eastgate, 1,028; of St. Swithin, 4,665; of the portion of Canwick, 4; of Bishops-Palace, 7; of Castle-Dykings, 188; of Cold-Bath-House, 5; of Lincoln-Lunatic-Asylum, 106: of Lincoln-Castle, 16; of Monks-Liberty, 21. The livings are all in the diocese of Lincoln; those of St. Mary Magdalene, St. Paul, and St. Peter-at-Arches are rectories; those of St. Martin, St. Mary-le-Wigford, St. Nicholas, and St. John are vicarages; all the others are p. curacies; and that of St. Peter-at-Arches is united with that of St. Benedict's, that of St. Nicholas is united with that of St. John, and that of St. Peter-in-Eastgate is united with that of St. Margaret. Value of St. Mary Magdalene, £120; of St. Paul, £68; of St. Peter-at-Arches-with-St. Benedict's, £234; * of St. Martin, £129; of St. Mary-le-Wigford, £114;* of St. Nicholas-with-St. John, £250; of St. Botolph, £150; of St. Mark, £73; of St. Michael, £116; of St. Peter-in-Eastgate-with-St. Margaret, £171; of St. Peter-at-Gowts, £94; of St. Swithin, /150. Patrons, of St. Mary Magdalene, and of St. Nicholas-with-St. John, the Dean and Chapter of Lincoln; of St. Paul, the Archdeacon of Lincoln; of St. Peter-at-Arches-with St. Benedict's, of St. Botolph, of St. Martin, and of St. Mary-le-Wigford, the Bishop of Lincoln; of St. Mark, of St. Michael, of St. Peter-atGowts, and of St. Swithin, the Precentor of Lincoln Cathedral; of St. Peter-in-Eastgate-with-St. Margaret, alternately the Bishop and the Precentor.
Schools and Charities.The grammar school stands in Broadgate, on part of the site of the Franciscan friary; was endowed, in 1693 by Henry Stone; has the Jersey school in connexion with it; and has £40 a year from endowment. The blue-coat school, or Christ's Hospital, on Christ's Hospital terrace, was endowed, in 1602, by Dr. Richard Smith, for educating and maintaining 12 poor boys; became so enriched, by subsequent bequests, and by the increased value of its estates, as to have been enabled, since 1815, to educate and maintain 100 boys; admits pupils at the age of 7 or 8, keeps them till the age of 14, and then apprentices them with each a premium of £16 and two suits of clothes; and has an endowed income of £1,578. Wilkinson s school has an endowed income of £12. The infant school in Langworthgate was built and endowed, in 1829, by Mrs. Brackenbury and Miss Massingberd; and has capacity for about 120 pupils. The central national school, in Silver-street, gives gratuitous instruction, on Dr. Bell's system, to boys and girls; and gives them also articles of clothing at every Christmas. A free school is in the Bail; a national school, for boys and girls, is in Westgate; a British school is in Newland; and infant schools are in Freeschool-lane and High-street. The Wesleyan schools, in Rosemary-lane, were built in 1859, at a cost of £3,227; present a façade in the modern Italian style, of party-coloured bricks and stone, with a clock-tower over the centre; are divided into compartments for boys, girls, and infants; and haVe capacity for upwards of 500 children.
The Bede houses, on Monks, hill, were erected and endowed, in 1847, by the Rev. R. W. Sibthorp; coniprise a neat range of fourteen small houses, each with three rooms and an attached garden; and give to the occupants each £18 a year, with fuel, and with some occasional clothing; and they have, in connexion with them, a neat chapel, also built by the Rev. R. W. Sibthorp, adorned with a fine stained-glass window, and served by a curate. Giles's alms houses have £8 a year. There are a lying-in-charity, a Dorcas charity, and a variety of benevolent and miscellaneous institutions. The endowed charities, additional to those for schools and alms houses, amount to at least £745 a year.
Trade.Lincoln has a head post office‡ in Guildhall-street, a receiving post office in Bailgate, several pillar-boxes in varions parts, two general railway stations in High-street, two banking offices, and five chief inns; is a seat of assizes, quarter-sessions, pettysessions and county courts; is also the place of election and a polling-place for North Lincolnshire; and publishes three weekly newspapers. A weekly market is held on Friday; a very largelyattended horse fair is held on four days in the last week of April; and other fairs are held on Mid-Summerday, 6 Oct., and 28 Nov. A large trade is done in flour, corn, and wool; and there are several large breweries, many malt kilns, corn-mills, corn warehouses, seedmills, bone-mills, tanneries, coach-factories, cooperages, rope-walks, nursery-grounds, brick-fields, lime-kilns, extensive iron foundries and machine-making works, and establishments for boat-building, brush-making, matmaking, nail-making, tobacco-pipe-making, and wireworking. The town is a borough by prescription; was first chartered by Charles I.; has sent two members to parliament since the time of Henry III.; and, under the new act, is divided into 3 wards, and governed by a mayor, six aldermen, and 18 councillors. The borough limits have already been indicated in our paragraph on its parishes, and are the same municipally as parliamentarily. The police force, in 1864, comprised 21 men, at an annual cost of £1,680; and the crimes committed, during the year ending in Sept. 1864, were 23,-the persons apprehended, 19,-the depredators and suspected persons at large, 99,-the houses of bad character, 34. Corporation revenue in 1861, £6,086. Amount of property and income tax charged in 1863, £1l,282. Electors in 1833,1,043; in 1863,1,659. Pop. in 1851,17,536, in 1861,20,999. Houses, 4,315.
The District.Lincoln district, or poor law union, is divided into the sub-districts of Lincoln-Home, Lincoln-Southwest, and Lincoln-Northeast. The Lincoln-Home sub-district contains Lincoln city, the rest of Canwick parish, the parishes of Boultham, Bracebridge, Greetwell, Cherry-Willingham, Fiskerton, Repham, Nettleham, Riseholme, Burton, South Carlton, and North Carlton, and the extra-parochial tract of Grange de Lings. Acres, 29,614. Pop. in 1851,20,756; in 1861,24,917. Houses, 5,303. The Lincoln-Southwest sub-district contains the parishes of Skinnand, Navenby, Boothby, Metheringham, Dunston, Coleby, Harmston, Nocton, Aubourn, Potter-Hanworth, Branston, Waddington, Mere, South Hyckham, North Hyckham, Thorpe-on-the-Hill, Eagle, Swinethorpe, Doddington, Skellingthorpe, Washingborough, Bardney, and Stainfield, and the extra-parochial tracts of Eagle-Hall, Eagle-Woodhouse, and Morton. Acres, 70,276. Pop. in 1851,13,004; in 1861, 13,605. Houses, 2,813. The Lincoln-Northeast subdistrict contains the parishes of Apley, Goltho, Rand, Holton-Beckering, Wickenby, Friesthorpe, Faldingworth, Snarford, Snelland, Stainton-by-Langworth, Barlings, Sudbrooke, Scothern, Dunholm, Welton, Cold Hanworth, Hackthorn, Spridlington, East Firsby, Owmby, Saxby, Normanby, Caenby, Ingham, Cammeringham, Brattleby, West Thorpe, Aisthorpe, Scampton, Broxholme, and Saxelby-with-Ingleby, and the extraparochial tract of Colstead. Acres, 59,030. Pop. in 1851,8,300; in 1861,8,541. Houses, 1,751. Poorrates of the district in 1863, £17,821. Marriages, in 1863,411; births, 1,694,-of which 138 were illegitimate; deaths, 944,-of which 345 were at ages under 5 years, and 31 at ages above 85. Marriages in the ten years 1851-60,3,646; births, 14,999; deaths, 9,107. The places of worship, in 1851, were 76 of the Church of England, with 12,942 sittings; 2 of Independents, with 1,550 s.; 3 of Baptists, with 720 s.; 1 of Lady Huntingdon's Connexion, with 260 s.; 2 of Quakers, with 110 s.; 1 of Unitarians, with 130 s.; 47 of Wesleyan Methodists, with 9,070 s.; 13 of Primitive Methodists, with 1,021 s; 6 of Wesleyan Reformers, with 848 s.; and 1 of Roman Catholics, with 200 s. The schools were 48 public day schools, with 3,899 scholars; 93 private day schools, with 2,276 s.; 80 Sunday schools, with 6,693 s.; and 3 evening schools for adults, with 83 s.
The Diocese.What became the diocese of Lincoln was originally the diocese of Wessex; but, prior to its becoming the diocese of Lincoln, it underwent great and varions changes. The seat of it, for a short time, was Leicester; the seat afterwards was Dorchester in Oxfordshire; and the seat was transferred thence, in 1088, to Lincoln. The diocese, therefore, in its early periods, bore a diversity of names, and was usually called by the place where the bishop dwelt. It also, at different periods, was of varions extent, sometimes enormously large, at other times comparatively small; yet, even after it acquired settledness of limits, it was long so extensive as to comprehend not only the counties of Lincoln, Leicester, Huntingdon, Bedford, Buckingham, and part of Hertford, but also the further territories which subsequently became subject to the Bishops of Ely, Peterborough, and Oxford. Henry I. took the bishopric of Ely out of it, and Henry VIII., the bishoprics of Peterborough and Oxford. Even portions of the bishoprics of Winchester, Salisbury, Bath, Exeter, Worcester, Hereford, Gloucester, and Bristol, were at one time included in it. The bishop had no fewer than twenty palaces, or official residences; and so eminent was he, as compared with the other English bishops, that no instance appears to have occurred till the Reformation of any bishop of Lincoln having ever been translated to another see, except Winchester. Among the bishops have been Remigins, who sat originally at Dorchester, was the first bishop of Lincoln proper, and founded the cathedral; Robert Bloet, who was Lord Chancellor; De Blois, who was Chief Justice, and the founder. of four abbeys; Walter de Constance, who went to the crusades; Hugh de Grenoble, who was canonized; Grosteste, noted for learning and for alleged thaumaturgy; Henry Burghersh, who was Lord Chancellor; Buckingham, who was Lord Keeper; Fleming, who founded Lincoln college, in Oxford; Russell, who was Lord Chancellor: Wolsey, who became Cardinal; Smith, who founded Brasenose college, in Oxford; Longland, who incited the divorce of Queen Catherine; Chaderton, who, in a remarkable sermon on marriage, compared a quest for a good wife to a search for an eel in a barrel of snakes; Barlow, who was nicknamed by the Puritans the barley loaf; "Neile, noted for ambition; Sanderson, noted for learning; the second Barlow, who never once visited his cathedral, and was nicknamed "bishop of Buckden;" Thomas, who was noted for his wit, and was five times married; and Kaye, noted for learning. Among the dignitaries were Henry of Huntingdon, Polydore Vergil, W. Outram, H. Thorndike, George Herbert, L. Echard, S. Pegge, and W. Paley; also two who became archbishops, and twenty-nine who became cardinals.
The cathedral establishment comprises the bishop, who is provincial chancellor of Canterbury; the dean; four canons residentiary, one of whom is sub-dean, one precentor, and one chancellor of the church; three archdeacons; thirty-six prebendaries; a chancellor of the diocese; and four minor canons. The bishop's income is £5,000; and the income of the chapter, which consists of the dean and the four canons, is £8,800. The diocese, as now constituted, consists of all Lincolnshire, and of all Notts except part of Ironville; and is divided into the archdeaconries of Lincoln, Stowe, and Nottingham. Acres, 2,302,814. Pop. in 1861,706,026. Houses, 149,129. The archdeaconry of Lincoln comprises the deaneries of Aveland-first, Aveland-second, Aswardhurn-with-Lafford-first, Aswardhurn-with-Lafford-second, Beltisloe-first, Beltisloe-second, Bolingbroke, Christianity, Calcewaith-first, Calcewaith-second, Candleshoe-first, Candleshoe-second, Gartree, Graffoo, Grantham-first, Grantham-second, Grimsby-first, Grimsby-second, Hillfirst, Hill-second, North Holland-first, North Hollandsecond, South Holland-first, South Holland-second, Horncastle, Longoboby, Loveden, Louthesk and Ludburgh-first, Louthesk and Ludburgh-second, Louthesk and Ludburgh-third, Ness, Stamford, Walshcroft-first, Walshcroft-second, Wraghoo, Yarborough-first, and Yarborough-second. The archdeaconry of Stow comprises the deaneries of Aslacko, Axholme, Corringham, Lawress-first, Lawress-second, and Manlake. The archdeaconry of Nottingham comprises the deaneries of Nottingham-first, Nottingham-second, Nottingham-third, Bingham-first, Bingliam-second, Bingham-third, Newarkfirst, Newark-second, Retford-first, Retford-second, Retford-third, and Southwell.
The deanery of Aveland-first contains the rectories of Dembleby, Falkingliam, Haceby, Newton, Pickworth, Spanby, and Willoughby-Scott, and the vicarages of Billgborough, Laughton, Horbling, Osbournby, Swaton, Threckingham, and Walcot. The deanery of Aveland-second contains the rectories of Dowsby, Dunsby, Kirkby-Underwold, and Rippingale; the vicarages of Aslackby, Bourn, Hacconby, Morton, and Sempringham; and the chapelries of Stainfield and Burthorp. The deanery of Ashwardhurn-with-Lafford-first contains the rectories of Bloxholme, Branncewell, Dunsby, Evedon, North Leasingham, South Leasingham, and RuskingtonFirst; the vicarages of Ashby-de-la-Launde, Digby, Anwick, Cranwell, Dorrington, Ewerby, Rauceby, Rowston, and Ruskington-Second; and the p. curacy of South Kyme. The deanery of Ashwardhurn-with-Lafford second contains the rectories of Aswarby, Aunsby, Howell, Kirkby-la-Thorpe, Quarrington, and Silk-Willoughby; and the vicarages of Burton-Pedwardine, HaleMagna, Heckington, Helpringham, Asgarby, Scredington, New Sleaford, Old Sleaford, and Swarby. The deanery of Beltisloe-first contains the rectories of Burton-Coggles, Colsterworth, Ingoldsby, Irnham, Stainby, Gunby, North and South Stoke, Swayfield, and Welby; and the vicarages of Bassingthorpe-cum-Westby, Bitchfield, Corby, Lavington, and Skillington. The deanery of Beltisloe-second contains the rectories of BythamParva, Careby, Carlby, Creeton, North Witham, and South Witham; the vicarages of Bytham-Castle, Swinestead, and Witham-on-the-Hill; the chapelry of Holywell; and the donative of Edenham. The deanery of Bolingbroke contains the rectories of Bolingbroke, Hareby, Mavis-Enderby, Halton-Holgate, East Keal, West Keal, Lusby, Miningsby, Raithby, Little Steeping, Stickney, and Toynton-St. Peter; the vicarages of East Kirkby, Stickford, and Thorpe-St. Peter; and the p. curacies of New Bolingbroke, Hagnaby, Revesby, and Toynton-All Saints. The deanery of Christianity contains the livings in Lincoln city. The deanery of Calcewaith-first contains the rectories of Beesby, Belleau-with-Aby, Gaytonle-Marsh, Mablethorpe-St. Mary, Stane, Maltby-in-the-Marsh, Muckton, South Reston, Swaby, TheddlethorpeSt. Helen, Mablethorpe-St. Peter, South Thoresby, Tothill, Trusthorpe, and Withern; the vicarages of Calceby, Strubby, Sutton-in-the-Marsh, and Theddlethorpe-All-Saints; and the p. curacies of Haugh and Rigsby. The deanery of Calcewaith-second contains the rectories of Anderby, Cumberworth, Ulceby, Well, and Willoughby; the vicarages of Alford, Bilsby, Farlesthorpe, Hogsthorpe, Huttoft, Mumby, Saleby, and Claxby; and the p. curacies of Hannah-with-Hagnaby, Markby, Mumby-Chapel, Thurlby, and Fordington. The deanery of Candleshoe-first contains the rectories of Ashby-by-Partney, Bratoft, Candlesby, Gunby, Orby, Partney, and Scremby; the vicarages of Burgh, Winthorp, and Skendleby; and the p. curacies of Irby-in-the-Marsh and Welton-in-the-Marsh. The deanery of Candleshoe-second contains the rectories of Addlethorpe, Firsby, Ingoldmells, Skegness, and Wainfleet-All-Saints; the vicarages of Croft, Great Steeping, and Friskney; and the p. curacy of Wainfleet-St. Mary. The deanery of Gartree contains the rectories of Gautby, Horsington, Kirkby-on-Bain, Langton-by-Horncastle, Mareham-le-Fen, Martin, Moorby, Ronghton, Haltham, Tattershall, Thornton, and Waddingworth; the vicarages of Edlington, Stixwold, Wispington, and Woodhall; the p. curacies of Langton-St. Andrew and Thornton-le-Fen; and the donative of Kirkstead. The deanery of Graffoo contains the rectories of Bassingham, Boultham, Doddington, South Hyckham, North Scarle, and Thorpe-on-the-Hill; the vicarages of Aubourn, Carlton-le-Moorland, Stapleford, Eagle, Norton-Disney, Skellingthorpe, and Swinderby; and the p. curacies of North Hyckham and Thurlby. The deanery of Grantham-first contains the rectories of West Allington, Barkstone, Belton, Sedgebrook, and Wilsford; the vicarages of Long Bennington, Gonerby-Magna, Grantham, Haydor, and Syston; and the p. curacies of Foston, Kelby, Manthorpe, Landonthorpe, East Allington, and Spittlegate. The deanery of Grantham-second contains the rectories of Barrowby, Boothby-Pagnell, Denton, Harlaxton, Great Ponton, Little Ponton, Ropsley, Sapperton, Somerby, Stroxton, and Woolsthorpe; the vicarage of Braceby; and the chapelry of Humby.
The deanery of Grimsby-first contains the rectories of Beelsby, Cuxwold, Hatcliffe, Hawerby, Healing, Irby-upon-Humber, Laceby, Newton-le-Wold, Rothwell, Swal low, and Swinhope; the vicarages of Cabourn and East Ravendale; and the p. curacy of West Ravendale. The deanery of Grimsby-second contains the rectories of Ashby-with-Fenby, Barnoldby-le-Beck, Bradley, Brigsley, Great Coates, North Coates, Grainsby, Scartho, and Waltham; the vicarages of Clee, Little Coates, Great Grimsby, Holton-le-Clay, Humberstone, and Tetney; and the p. curacies of Ailsby and Waithe. The deanery of Hill-first contains the rectories of Belshford, ClaxbyPluckacre, Fulletby, Greetham, Hameringham, Scrayfield, South Ormsby, Ketsby, Driby, Oxcomb, Ruckland, Fairforth, Salmonby, Somersby, Tetford, Low Toynton, and Winceby; the vicarages of Ashby-Puerorum and Maidenwell; and the p. curacy of Scamblesby. The deanery of Hill-second contains the rectories of Aswardby, Bag-Enderby, Hagworthingham, Harrington, Langton-by-Partney, Sausthorpe, Spilsby, and Sutterby; the Vicarage of Hundleby; and the p. curacies of Asgarby and Dalby. The deanery of North Holland-first contains the rectories of Algarkirk and Wyberton; the vicarages of Bicker, Donnington, Frampton, Gosberton, Kirton-in-Holland, Sutterton, Swineshead, Wigtoft, and Quadring; the p. curacies of Chapel-Hill, Fosdyke, Holland-FenChapel, and Surfleet; and the donative of Brothertoft. The deanery of North Holland-second contains the rectories of Bennington, Fishtoft, Leverton, and Skirbeck; the vicarages of Boston, Frieston, Butterwick, Leake, Sibsey, and Wrangle; and the p. curacies of BostonChapel, Carrington, Eastville, Frithville, Langriville, Midville, and Thornton-le-Fen. The deanery of South Holland-first contains the vicarages of Deeping-St. James, Moulton, Pinchbeck, Weston, and Whaplode; and the p. curacies of Cowbit, Crowland, Moulton-Chapel, West Pinchbeck, and Spalding. The deanery of South Holland-second contains the rectories of Fleet and Tydd-St. Mary; the vicarages of Gedney, Holbeach, and SuttonSt. Mary; and the p. curacies of Gedney-Hill, DroveEnd, Sutton, Sutton-St. Edmnnd, Sutton-St. James, and Sutton-St. Matthew. The deanery of Horncastle contains the rectories of Asterby, Bucknall, Dominationon-Bain, Hemingby, Mareham, Scrivelsby, Dalderby,.Stennigot, and Thimbleby; the vicarages of Calkwell, Goulceby, Horncastle, Minting, and Ranby; and the p. curacies of West Ashby, Bamburgh, Enderby-Wood, Mareham-on-the-Hill, High Toynton, and Market-Stainton. The deanery of Longoboby contains the rectories of Blankney, Boothby-Graffoe, Branston, Navenby, Potterhanworth, Skinnand, Waddington, Washingborough, and Welbourn; the vicarages of Billinghay, Bracebridge, Canwick, Coleby, Dunston, Harmston, Kirkby-Green, Metheringham, Nocton, Scopwick, Timberland, and Wellingore; and the chapelries of Walcot and Heighington. The deanery of Loveden contains the rectories of Beckingham, Brant-Broughton, Carlton-Scroop, Caythorpe, Claypole-North, Claypole-South, Fulbeck, Hougham, Marston, Long Ledenham, Normanton, Stubton, and Westborough; the vicarages of Ancaster, Hon mington, Hough-on-the-Hill, and Doddington; the p. curacy of Stragglethorpe; and the chapelries of Fenton, Friston, and Brandon. The deanery of Louthesk and Ludburgh-first contains the rectories of South Calcethorpe, Covenham-St. Bartholomew, Covenham-St. Mary, Ludborough, North Thoresbury, Wyham, and Yarborough; the vicarages of North Elkington, South Elkington, Fotherby, Fulstow, Little Grimsby, Keddington, Kelstein, Nun-Ormsby, and Utterby; and the chapelry of Cadeby. The deanery of Lonthesk and Ludburghsecond contains the rectories of Carlton-Parva, Carlton Castle, Comsholme, Grimoldby, Manby, Marshchapel, Saltfleetby-All Saints, Saltfleetby-St. Clement, Saltfleetby-St. Peter, and South Somercotes; the vicarages of Carlton-Magna, Cockerington-St. Leonard, Skidbrooke, and North Somercotes; and the p. curacies of Alvingham, Cockerington-St. Mary, and Grainthorpe. The deanery of Louthesk and Ludburgh-third contains the rectories of Authorpe, Cawthorpe, Gayton-le-Wolds, Biscathorpe, Haugham, Raithby, Louth, Stewton, Welt on-le-Wold, and Withcall; the vicarages of Hallington, North Reston, and Tathwell; and the p. curacies of Leg bourne, Louth-St. Michael, and Louth-Trinity. The deanery of Ness contains the rectories of Baston, Braceborough, Market-Deeping, West Deeping, Gretford, and Uffington; the vicarages of Barholme, Stowe, Langtoft, Tallington, and Thurlby; and the chapelry of Wilsthorpe. The deanery of Stamford contains the livings in Stamford borough. The deanery of Walshcroft-first contains the rectories of Claxby, Normanby, Croxby, South Kelsey, Stainton-le-Hole, Thoresway, Thorganby, Thornton-le-Moors, and Walesby; the vicarages of Kingerby, Kirkby, and Owersby; and the p. curacy of Usselby. The deanery of Walshcroft-second contains the rectories of Binbrook-St. Mary, Linwood, Newton, West Rasen, and Toft; and the vicarages of Binbrook-St. Gabriel, MarketRasen, Rasen-Drax, Rasen-Tupholme, Tealby, and North Willingham. The deanery of Wraghoo contains the rectories of East Barkwith, West Barkwith, Benniworth, Biscathorpe, Hatton, Holton-with-Beckering, LudfordParva, Panton, Rand, Snelland, Sotby, East Torrington, Wickenby, and South Willingham; the vicarages of Bardney, Bourgh-on-Bain, Hamton, Kirmond-le-Mire, Langton-by-Wragby, Legsby, Lissington, Ludford-Magna, Wragby, Sixhills, Stainton-by-Langworth, and West Torrington; the p. curacies of Apley, Bullington, and Stainfield; and the donative of Goltho. The deanery of Yarborough-first contains the rectories of Croxton, South Ferriby, and Saxby; the vicarages of Barnetby-le-Wold, Barrow-upon-Humber, Barton-upon-Humber-St. Mary, Bonby, Elsham, Goxhill, East Halton-on-Humber, Horkstow, Killingholme, Harburgh, Kirmington, Thornton-Curtis, Ulceby, Wootton, Worlaby, and Wrawby; and the p. curacies of Barton-upon-Humber-St. Peter, Melton-Ross, and Brigg. The deanery of Yarboroughsecond contains the rectories of Bigby, Brocklesby, Nettleton, and Somerby; the vicarages of Cadney, Grassby, Immingham, Keelby, North Kelsey, Great Limber, Riby, Searby, Owmby, and Stallingborough; and the chapelries of Clixby and Holton.
The deanery of Aslacko contains the rectories of Blyborough, Cainby, Fillingham, Cold Hanworth, Owmby, Firsby, and Spridlington; the vicarages of Cammeringham, Glentham, Glentworth, Hackthorne, Ingham, Normanby, Bishops-Norton, and Willoughton; the p. curacy of Hemswell; and the donative of Harpswell. The deanery of Axholme contains the rectories of Althorpe, Epworth, Luddington, Owston, and Wroot; the vicarages of Crowle and Haxey; and the p. curacies of Amcotts, Belton, and West Butterwick. The deanery of Corringham contains the rectories of Grayingham, Heapham, Lea, Northorpe, Pi1ham, Scotter, Scotton, and Springthorpe; the vicarages of Blyton, Corringham, Gainsborough, Kirton-in-Lindsey, and Laughton; and the p. curacies of East Stockwith, Gainsborough-Trinity, Wilsworth, Morton, and East Ferry. The deanery of Lawressfirst contains the rectories of Buslingthorpe, Faldingworth, Fiskerton, Friesthorpe, Snarford, Riseholme, Sudbrook, and Willingham-Cherry; the vicarages of Dunholme, Reepham, Scothorne, and Welton; and the p. curacies of Barlings, Greetwell, and Nettleham. The deanery of Lawress-second contains the rectories of Aisthorpe, Brattleby, Broxholme, Burton-by-Lincoln, GateBurton, Kettlethorpe, and Scampton; the vicarages of Thorpe-le-Fallows, Coates, Marton, Newton-on-Trent, Saxilby, Upton, and Willingham-by-Stow; the p. curacies of North Carlton, South Carlton, Stow, and Torksey; and the donative of Knaith. The deanery of Manlake contains the rectories of Broughton, Flixborough, West Halton, Manton, Waddingham, Whitton, and Winteringham; the vicarages of Appleby, Alkborough, Burtonon-Stather, Frodingham, Hibaldstow, Messingham, Bottesford, Redbourne, Roxby, Risby, Scawby, and Winterton; and the p. curacies of Gunhouse and Snitterby.
The deanery of Nottingham-first contains the rectories of Bilborough, Bulwell, Eastwood, Kirkby-in-Ashfield, Lindby, Nuthall, Trowell, Teversall, and Wollaton; the vicarages of Basford, Beeston, Greasley, Mansfield, and Selstone; and the p. curacies of Annesley, Awsworth, New Basford, Brinsley, Hucknall-Torkard, Papplewick, Mansfield-St. John, Mansfield-Woodhouse, Skegby, Stapleford, Sutton-in-Ashfield, and Cossall. The deanery of Nottingham-second contains the rectories of Colwick, Epperstone, Gedling, Gonalstone, Lambley, and Swinton; the vicarages of Arnold, Attenborough, Burton-Joyce, Lowdham, and Gunthorpe; and the p. curacies of Bramcote, Bulcote, Carrington, Hoveringham, and Thurgarton. The deanery of Nottingham-third contains the livings in Nottingham borough; the vicarages of Lenton and Radford; and the p. curacies of Hyson-Green, Kemberley, and Radford-Christchurch. The deanery of Bingham-first contains the rectories of BroughtonSulney, Costock, Hickling, Keyworth, Langar, Rempstone, and Staunton-on-the-Wolds; the vicarages of Colston-Bassett, Kinoulton, Radcliffe-on-Soar, Willoughby, and Wysall; and the p. curacies of Barnstone and Owthorpe. The deanery of Bingham-second contains the rectories of Bingham, East Bridgeford, Eltonon-the-Hill, Hawksworth, Holme-Pierrepoint, and Screveton; the vicarages of Carcolston, Bishop-Cropwell, Flintham, Granby, Orston, Radcliffe-on-Trent, and Whatton; the p. curacies of Kneeton, Scarrington, Thorston, and Shelford; and the donative of Tithby. The deanery of Bingham-third contains the rectories of Barton-in-Fabis, West Bridgeford, Clifton, Cotgrave, Gotham, East Leake, West Leake, Normanton-on-Soar, Plumtree, Stanford-on-Soar, Sutton-Bonnington-St. Anne, Sutton-Bonnington-St. Michael, Tollerton, Widmerpool, and Wilford; the vicarages of Bradmore, Bunny, and Ruddington; and the p. curacies of Edwalton, Kingston-on-Soar, and Thrumpton. The deanery of Newark-first contains the rectories of South Collingham, Cromwell, Elston, Fledborough, and Winthorpe; the vicarages of Barnby-in-the-Willows, North Clifton, North Collingham, Holme, Laxton, Marnham, Normanton, South Scarle, Sutton, Thorney, and Weston; and the p. curacies of Coddington, Harby, Langford, Ossington, Girton, and Besthorpe. The deanery of Newark-second contains the rectories of Averham, Hawton, Kelham, Kilvington, Shelton, Staunton, and Thorpe; the vicarages of Balderton, Newark, and East Stoke; the p. curacies of Newark-Christchurch, Flawborongh, Syerston, and Elston; and the donatives of Cotham and Sibthorpe. The deanery of Retford-first contains the rectories of Carlton-in-Lindrick, Clayworth, Finningley, Grove, Harworth, West Retford, Saundby, and South Wheatley; the vicarages of Beckingham, Blyth, Bole, Clarborough, Everton, Gringley-on-the-Hill, Hayton, Mattersea, Misson, East Retford, North Wheatley, Sturton, Suttonon-Lound, Scrooby, and Walkeringham; and the p. curacies of Austerfield, Bawtry, West Bnrton, Clarrborough-St. Saviour, Misterton, and West Stockwith. The deanery of Retford-second contains the rectories of Eakring, Kirton, and Treswell; the vicarages of East Drayton, Dunham, Egmanton, Headon, Laneham, North Leverton, South Leverton, East Markham, West Markham, Rampton, Tuxford, and Walesby; and the p. curacies of Apesthorpe, Askham, Cottam, Darlton, West Drayton, Ragnall, and Stokeham. The deanery of Retford-third contains the rectories of Babworth, Elkesley, Gamston, Ordsall, and Warsop; the vicarages of NortonCuckney, Edwinstowe, Eaton, Kneesall, and Worksop; and the p. curacies of Bothamsall, Carburton, Boughton, Ollerton, Perlethorpe, Scofton, Shireoaks, and Wellow. The deanery of Southwell contains the rectories of Bilsthorpe, Hockerton, and Southwell; the vicarages of Bleasby, Blidworth, Calverton, Caunton, Farnsfield, North Muskham, South Muskham, Norwell, Oxton, Rollestone, and Upton; the p, curacies of Carlton-onTrent, Edingley, Halam, Halloughton, Kirklington, Maplebeck, Morton, Southwell-Trinity, and Woodborough; and the donative of Winkbourne.
(John Marius Wilson, Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales (1870-72))
|Feature Description:||"a city and a district" (ADL Feature Type: "cities")|
|Administrative units:||Lincoln CP Lincoln RegD/PLU Lincolnshire AncC Nottinghamshire AncC|
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