Area, Houses and Persons

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AREA.

The Area as assigned to the several Parishes in England in the Abstract of 1831 has been adopted in the present Abstract. Attempts have been made without success to obtain authentic information whereby the apparent inaccuracies which exist in this computation of the Area might have been remedied; but nothing short of an actual survey would be calculated to give a more accurate result than has been here obtained by the labours of the late Mr. Rickman.

HOUSES.

It will be found that the number of inhabited houses has increased in a greater ratio than the population, both in England and Wales, a circumstance which would appear to show an increase of comfort, and of those habits of separate and independent residence which are so characteristic of our countrymen. In England and Wales the proportion per cent. of inhabited houses to population, in 1831, was 17.85, or 2,481,544 houses to a population of 13,897,187, or, in other words, 5.6 persons to each house; in 1841, the proportion of houses to every 100 of the population was 18.50, or only 5.4 persons to every house. Such is the result for England and Wales, showing that while the number of inhabited houses has increased at the rate of 18.6 per cent in the last ten years, the increase of population has been 14.5 per cent. in the period ending 1841, although it was 16 per cent. in the period ending 1831. Two short tables1 are here subjoined, one showing the results of a similar comparison for some of the municipal towns and districts of Great Britain; the other the number of persons to inhabited houses in England and Wales at each decennial period since 1801.

It will be seen that in the Metropolis the proportion of houses to inhabitants is slightly diminished, while in Middlesex it has remained stationary.

In Lancashire the average number to each house is very little above, and in Yorkshire it is slightly below that of all England, and in both counties house accommodation has increased in a greater proportion than the population.

With respect to the Return of Houses for Scotland, a comparison with the Return of 1831 has been rendered impracticable, owing to a misconstruction of directions on the part of many of the enumerators, and the peculiar difficulty attending the proper discrimination of houses from tenements .

By diligent investigation, and by collating the present Returns with those of 1831, we have been enabled to arrive at the conclusion, that the proportion which the population of Scotland now bears to the inhabited houses is rather above that exhibited in the Abstracts of 1831.

The total number of FAMILIES in Scotland, as returned in the Schedules, amounted to 550,428, or in the proportion of 1 to 4.76 of the population. The number of families in 1831 was 502,301, or in the proportion of 4.71 to the population. The total number now given in the Abstract as of Inhabited Houses is augmented by (in numerous cases) the return of families instead of houses.

By comparing this total of families with the number of houses as given in the Abstract (502,852), it will be seen that in most cases throughout Scotland flats, apartments, and families have been reckoned and returned as distinct houses.

TABLE for Scotland, showing the Number of Families to a Population of 100, and of Persons to each Family, in the Years 1831 and 1841: also, the Increase per Cent. in the Number of Families in 1831-41.

1831. 1841. 1831-1841.
Families. Population. Number
of
Families
to a
Population
of
100.
Number
of
Persons
to each
Family.
Families. Population. Number
of
Families
to a
Population
of
100.
Number
of
Persons
to each
Family.
Increase
per Cent.
in
Number
of
Families,
in 1841, as
compared
with 1831.
Increase
or
Decrease
in the
Number
of Families
to a
Population
of 100
in 1841, as
compared
with 1831.
SCOTLAND 502,301 2,365,114 21.2 4.71 550,428 2,620,184 21 4.76 9.6 Dec. 0.2
GLASGOW { City and
Suburbs
41,965 202,426 20.7 4.82 274,556 274,556 19.4 5.15 26.8 Dec. 1.3
EDINBURGH { City and
Suburbs*
35,116 161,909 21.7 4.6 166,450 166,450 21.7 4.6 2.8
ABERDEEN   City? 13,831 58,019 23.8 4.19 64,767 64,767 23.7 4.21 11.2 Dec. 0.1
DUNDEE { Burgh &
Parish
10,682 45,355 23.6 4.24 62,794 62,794 21.9 4.56 29 Dec. 1.7
PAISLEY { Town &
Parish
12,308 57,466 21.4 4.67 60,487 60,487 20.4 4.89 0.5 Dec. 1.0
GREENOCK { Town &
Parish
6,353 27,571 23 4.34 36,936 36,936 20 5.01 16 Dec. 3.0

* The Population, as given for Edinburgh City and Suburbs includes (for sake of comparison with the Returns of 1831) the Parishes of North and South Leith; but they are no longer considered as Suburbs of Edinburgh.

? The Population as given for Aberdeen City, includes (for sake of comparison with 1831) the whole of Old Machar Parish.

PERSONS.

The following Table will show the Number of Persons enumerated in each County of England, Wales, and Scotland, with the progressive increase of Population at each decennial period since 1801; also the Number of Parishes and Places of which the population is distinctly stated in the Enumeration Abstract, together with the Area of each County in English statute acres.

To this Table is added another showing a similar comparison of the Population of several principal towns, wherein it has been necessary to give two columns of population for the year 1841, the one exhibiting each place according to its limits as they existed at former periods, the other according to its present boundaries, whether extended or otherwise.

COMPARATIVE POPULATION OF GREAT BRITAIN, 1801-1841.

COUNTIES. 1801. Increase
per
Cent.
1811. Increase
per
Cent.
1821. Increase
per
Cent.
1831. Increase
per
Cent.
1841. Number
of
Parishes.
Number of
Parishes
and Places
of which the
Population
is separately
stated.
Area
in English
Statute
Acres.
BEDFORD 63,393 11 70,213 19 83,716 14 95,483 13.0 107,936 123 166 297,632
BERKS 109,215 8 118,277 11 131,977 10 145,389 10.8 161,147 151 281 473,920
BUCKINGHAM 107,444 9 117,650 14 134,068 9 146,529 6.4 155,983 207 306 463,880
CAMBRIDGE 89,346 13 101,109 20 121,909 18 143,955 14.2 164,459 165 210 536,313
CHESTER 191,751 18 227,031 19 270,098 24 334,391 18.3 395,660 91 527 649,050
CORNWALL 188,269 15 216,667 19 257,447 17 300,938 13.4 341,279 205 246 854,770
CUMBERLAND 117,230 14 133,744 17 156,124 10 169,681 4.9 178,038 105 340 969,490
DERBY 161,142 15 185,487 15 213,333 11 237,170 14.7 272,217 140 385 663,180
DEVON 343,001 12 383,308 15 439,040 13 494,478 7.8 533,460 465 588 1,636,450
DORSET 115,319 8 124,693 16 144,499 10 159,252 9.9 175,043 275 361 627,220
DURHAM 160,361 11 177,625 17 207,673 22 253,910 27.7 324,284 76 330 679,530
ESSEX 226,437 11 252,473 15 289,424 10 317,507 8.6 344,979 414 446 979,000
GLOUCESTER 250,809 12 285,514 18 335,843 15 387,019 11.4 431,383 338 494 790,470
HEREFORD 89,191 5 94,073 10 103,243 7 111,211 2.4 113,878 223 335 543,800
HERTFORD 97,577 14 111,654 16 129,714 10 143,341 9.6 157,207 134 177 400,350
HUNTINGDON 37,568 12 42,208 15 48,771 9 53,192 10.0 58,549 102 118 242,250
KENT 307,624 21 373,095 14 426,016 12 479,155 14.4 548,337 413 495 972,240
LANCESTER 672,731 23 828,309 27 1,052,859 27 1,336,854 24.7 1,667,054 67 507 1,117,260
LEICESTER 130,081 16 150,419 16 174,571 13 197,003 9.5 215,867 213 382 511,340
LINCOLN 208,557 14 237,891 19 283,058 12 317,465 14.2 362,602 630 913 1,663,850
MIDDLESEX 818,129 17 953,276 20 1,144,531 19 1,358,330 16.0 1,576,636 197 284 179,590
MONMOUTH 45,582 36 62,127 15 71,833 36 98,130 36.9 134,355 123 166 324,310
NORFOLK 273,371 7 291,999 18 344,368 13 390,054 5.7 412,664 748 783 1,292,300
NORTHAMPTON 131,757 7 141,353 15 162,483 10 179,336 11.0 199,228 303 406 646,810
NORTHUMBERLAND 157,101 9 172,161 15 198,965 12 222,912 12.2 250,278 94 609 1,165,430
NOTTINGHAM 140,350 16 162,900 15 186,873 20 225,327 10.9 249,910 212 345 525,800
OXFORD 109,620 9 119,191 15 136,971 11 152,156 6.2 161,643 218 386 467,230
RUTLAND 16,356 16,380 13 18,487 5 19,385 9.9 21,302 51 61 97,500
SALOP 167,639 16 194,298 6 206,153 8 222,938 7.0 239,048 217 774 864,360
SOMERSET 273,750 12 303,180 17 355,314 13 404,200 7.8 435,982 474 756 1,028,090
SOUTHAMPTON (HANTS) 219,656 12 245,080 15.5 283,298 11 314,280 12.9 355,004 318 571 1,018,550
STAFFORD 239,153 21 295,153 17 345,895 19 410,512 24.3 510,504 151 425 736,290
SUFFOLK 210,431 11 234,211 15 270,542 9 296,317 6.3 315,073 509 561 918,760
SURREY 269,043 20 323,851 23 398,658 22 486,334 19.8 582,678 144 193 474,480
SUSSEX 159,311 19 190,083 22 233,019 17 272,340 10.0 299,753 314 389 907,920
WARWICK 208,190 10 228,735 20 274,392 23 336,610 19.3 401,715 201 351 567,930
WESTMORLAND 41,617 10 45,922 12 51,359 7 55,041 2.5 56,454 32 153 485,990
WILTS 185,107 5 193,828 15 222,157 8 240,156 7.7 258,733 303 515 868,060
WORCESTER 139,333 15 160,546 15 184,424 15 211,365 10.4 233,336 173 286 459,710
YORK, EAST RIDING 110,992 16 134,437 14 154,010 10 168,891 15.4 194,936 187 409 711,360
——— CITY AND AINSTY 24,393 12 27,304 12 30,451 17 35,362 8 38,321 48 75 52,440
——— NORTH RIDING 158,225 7 169,391 11 187,452 2 190,756 7.0 204,122 192 603 1,282,870
——— WEST RIDING 565,282 16 655,042 22 801,274 22 976,350 18.2 1,154,101 196 768 1,622,840
                         
TOTAL OF ENGLAND 8,331,434 14.5 9,538,827 17.5 11,261,437 16 13,091,005 14.5 14,995,138 9,942 17,476 31,770,615
                         
ANGLESEY 33,806 10 37,045 21 45,063 7 48,325 5.3 50,891 74 87 173,440
BRECON 31,633 19 37,735 16 43,603 10 47,763 16.4 55,603 68 144 482,560
CARDIGAN 42,956 17 50,260 15 57,784 10 64,780 6.1 68,766 63 133 432,000
CARMARTHEN 67,317 15 77,217 17 90,239 12 100,740 5.5 106,326 76 178 623,360
CARNARVON 41,521 19 49336 17 57,958 15 66,448 22.0 81,093 68 100 348,160
DENBIGH 60,352 6 64,240 19 76,511 8 83,629 6.2 88,866 60 289 405120
FLINT 39,622 17 46,518 15 53,784 11 60,012 11.5 66,919 25 144 156,160
GLAMORGAN 71,525 18 85,067 19 101,737 24 126,612 35.2 171,188 125 217 506880
MERIONETH 27,506 4 30,924 11 34,382 3 35,315 11.3 39,332 34 121 424,320
MONTGOMERY 47,978 8 51,931 15 59,899 9 66,482 4.1 69,219 52 304 536,960
PEMBROKE 56,280 7 60,615 22 74,009 9 81,425 8.1 88,044 141 175 390,400
RADNOR 19,050 9 20,900 7 22,459 9 24,651 2.8 25,356 52 92 272,640
                         
TOTAL OF WALES 541,546 13 611,788 17 717,438 12 806,182 13.0 911,603 838 1,984 4,752,000

SCOTLAND.

Counties 1801. Increase
per
Cent.
1811. Increase
per
Cent.
1821. Increase
per
Cent.
1831. Increase
or Decrease
per Cent.
1841. Number
of
Parishes.
Number of
Parishes
and Places
of which the
Population
is separately
stated.
Area
in English
Statute
Acres.
In-
crease.
De-
crease.
ABERDEEN 123,082 10 135,075 15 155,387 14 177,657 8.3 192,387 87 155 1,254,400
ARGYLL 71859 19 85,585 14 97,316 4 100,973 3.7 97,371 50 81 2002560
AYR 84,306 23 103,954 22 127,299 14 145,055 13.3 164,356 48 87 664,960
BANFF 35,807 2 36,668 19 43,561 12 48,604 2.2 49,679 22 57 412800
BERWICK 30,621 1 30,779 8 33,385 2 34,048 1.1 34,438 32 50 282,880
BUTE 11791 2 12,033 15 13,797 3 14,151 11.2 15,740 6 18 103,040
CAITHNESS 22,609 4 23,419 29 30,238 14 34,529 5.2 36,343 10 33 439,680
CLACKMANNAN 10858 11 12,010 10 13,263 11 14,729 30.0 19,155 4 21 30,720
DUMBARTON 20710 17 24,189 13 27,317 22 33,211 33.4 44,296 12 49 145,920
DUMFRIES 54,597 15 62,960 13 70,878 4 73,770 1.3 72,830 45 111 801,920
EDINBURGH 122,954 21 148,607 29 191,514 15 219,345 2.8 225,454 45 165 226,560
ELGIN (MORAY) 26,705 5 28,108 11 31,162 10 34,231 2.3 35,012 20 56 302,720
FIFE 93,743 8 101,272 13 114,556 12 128,839 8.8 140,140 63 229 298,880
FORFAR 99,127 8 107,264 6 113,430 23 139,606 22.1 170,520 55 173 568,320
HADDINGTON 29,986 4 31,164 13 35,127 3 36,145 0.7 35,886 24 73 174,080
INVERNESS 74,292 5 78,336 15 90,157 5 94,797 3.2 97,799 32 114 2,594,560
KINCARDINE 26,349 4 27,439 6 29,118 8 31,431 5.2 33,075 19 47 243,200
KINROSS 6,725 8 7,245 7 7,762 17 9,072 3.5 8,763 4 17 46,080
KIRKCUDBRIGHT 29,211 15 33,684 15 38,903 4 40,590 1.3 41,119 27 76 525,760
LANARK 146,699 31 191,752 27 244,387 30 316,819 34.8 426,972 50 236 602,880
LINLITHGOW 17,844 9 19,451 17 22,685 3 23,291 15.4 26,872 13 45 76,800
NAIRN 8,257 8,251 9 9,006 4 9,354 1.5 9,217 4 15 124,800
ORKNEY and SHETLAND 46,824 46,153 15 53,124 10 58,239 4.8 61,065 39 97 819,200
PEEBLES 8,735 14 9,935 1 10,046 5 10578 0.7 10,499 16 24 204,160
PERTH 126,366 7 135,093 3 139,050 3 142,894 4.0 137,390 76 274 1,656,320
RENFREW 78,056 19 92,596 21 112,175 19 133,443 16.2 155,072 21 99 144,000
ROSS and CROMARTY 55,313 10 60,853 13 68,828 9 74,820 5.2 78,685 33 93 1,846,400
ROXBURGH 33,682 11 37,230 10 40,892 7 43,663 5.4 46,025 32 90 457,600
SELKIRK 5,070 16 5,889 13 6,637 2 6,833 16.9 7,990 5 15 168,320
STIRLING 50,825 14 58,174 12 65,376 11 72,621 13.0 82,057 26 94 312,960
SUTHERLAND 23,117 2 23,629 23,840 7 25,518 3.0 24,782 13 37 1,122,560
WIGTOWN 22,918 17 26,891 23 33,240 9 36,258 8.1 39,195 17 44 288,960
                           
TOTAL OF SCOTLAND 1,599,068 14 1,805,688 16 2,093,456 13 2,365,114 10.7 2,620,184 950 2,775 18,944,000


SUMMARY OF GREAT BRITAIN.


COUNTIES. 1801. Increase
per
Cent.
1811. Increase
per
Cent.
1821. Increase
per
Cent.
1831. Increase
per
Cent.
1841. Number
of
Parishes.
Number of
Parishes
and Places
of which the
Population
is separately
stated.
Area
in English
Statute
Acres.
ENGLAND 8,331,434 14.5 9,538,827 17 11,261,437 16 13,091,005 14.5 14,995,138 9,942 17,476 31,770,615
                         
WALES 541,546 13 611,788 17 717,438 12 806,182 13.0 911,603 838 1,984 4,732,000
                         
SCOTLAND 1,599,068 14 1,805,688 16 2,093,456 13 2,365,114 10.7 2,620,184 950 2,775 18,944,000
                         
Army, Navy,and Regis-
tered Seamen, &c.
afloat
470,598 640,500 319,300 277,017 188,453
                         
Persons ascertained to
have been traveling
on the night of the
6th of June 1841
} 5,016
                         
ISLANDS IN THE BRI-
TISH SEAS
89,508 158 103,710 39252.0 124,040 39 68  
                         
TOTAL 10,942,646 15.1 12,596,803 14.2* 14,481,139 14.9 16,643,028 13.2 18,844,434 11,769 22,303  

* For the purposes of Comparison with the Total of 1811, the Population of the Channel Islands, as taken in 1821, has been omitted.



COMPARATIVE POPULATION of the chief Cities and Towns in ENGLAND and SCOTLAND, 1801-1841.


Name of Place. 1801. Increase
or
Decrease
per Cent.
1811. Increase
or
Decrease
per Cent.
1821. Increase
or
Decrease
per Cent.
1831. Increase
or
Decrease
per Cent.
1841.
Same Limits
as in
1801-1831.
Present
Limits.
The Metropolis 864,845 16.7 1,009,546 21.4 1,225,694 20.1 1,471,941 14.8 1,690,084 1,873,676
Manchester, Salford, and Suburbs 90,399 22.0 110,244 40.4 154,807 47.2 227,808 30.0 296,183 296,183
Liverpool, with Toxteth Park 79,722 25.7 100,240 31.5 131,801 43.6 189,242 39.6 264,298 286,487
Birmingham and Suburbs 73,670 16.4 85,753 24.5 106,722 37.7 146,986 29.6 190,542 182,922
Leeds Borough 53,162 17.6 62,534 34.0 83,796 47.2 123,393 23.1 151,874 152,054
Bristol, with Barton Regis 63,645 20.1 76,433 14.8 87,779 18.3 103,886 17.7 122,296 122,296
Plymouth, Devonport, and
Stonehouse
Boroughs 43,194 29.8 56,060 9.2 61,212 23.4 75,534 6.0 80,059 80,059
Sheffield Town 31,314 14.5 35,840 17.6 42,157 40.0 59,011 15.5 68,186 68,186
Rochdale (part of) Parish 29,092 28.0 37,229 26.5 47,109 24.1 58,441 16.2 67,889 67,889
Norwich City 36,832 1.2 37,256 35.0 50,288 21.5 61,116 2.0 62,344 62,344
Nottingham Town 28,861 18.7 34,253 18.0 40,415 25.4 50,680 4.8 53,091 53,091
Portsmouth (including
Southsea)
Borough 33,226 22.1 40,567 12.5 45,648 10.4 50,389 5.2 53,032 53,032
Preston Borough 11,887 43.6 17,065 44.0 24,575 34.7 33,112 51.4 50,131 50,131
Newcastle-on-Tyne Borough 28,366 -2.8 27,587 27.5 35,181 21.5 42,760 16.6 49,860 49,860
Leicester Borough 16,953 36.5 23,146 30.1 30,125 34.5 40,512 25.2 50,733 48,167
Brighton Parish 7,339 63.7 12,012 103.4 24,429 66.3 40,634 14.8 46,661 46,661
Stoke-upon-Trent Parish 16,414 37.0 22,495 29.9 29,223 27.4 37,220 24.5 46,342 46,343
Ashton-under-Lvne Parish 15,632 21.9 19,052 36.3 25,967 29.4 33,597 37.8 46,304 46,304
Oldham Township 12,024 38.8 16,690 29.7 21,662 49.5 32,381 31.5 42,595 42,595
Hull Town 22,161 9.6 24,299 17.6 28,591 15.3 32,958 26.3 41,629 41,629
Bath City 27,686 13.8 31,496 16.8 36,811 4.0 38,063 0.7 38,314 33,304
Blackburn Township 11,980 25.9 15,083 45.4 21,940 23.5 27,091 35.2 36,629 36,629
Wolverhampton Township 12,565 17.9 14,830 23.8 18,380 34.6 24,732 47.1 36,382 36,382
Merthyr Tydfil Parish 7,705 44.1 11,104 56.7 17,404 26.9 22,083 50.8 34,977 34,977
Bradford (York) Township 6,393 21.5 7,767 68.3 13,064 77.8 23,223 48.8 34,560 34,560
Bolton, Great Township 12,549 36.0 17,070 29.0 22,037 28.4 28,299 18.8 33,610 33,610
Bolton, LittIe Chapelry 4,867 47.5 7,079 30.8 9,258 39.3 12,896 25.3 16,153 16,153
Chatham & Rochester Town and City 17,322 25.4 21,722 10.8 24,063 9.6 26,376 25.7 33,174 33,174
Derby Borough 10,832 20.4 13,043 33.6 17,423 35.6 23,627 38.6 32,741 32,741
Cheltenham Borough 3,076 170.6 8,325 60.9 13,396 71.2 22,942 36.9 31,411 31,411
Exeter City & County 17,398 8.6 18,896 24.3 23,479 20.3 28,242 10.9 31,312 31,312
Dudley Parish 10,107 37.8 13,925 30.8 18,211 26.5 23,043 35.5 31,232 31,232
Coventry City 16,034 11.8 17,923 18.5 21,242 27.4 27,070 13.6 30,743 30,743
York City 16,145 12.8 18,217 14.1 20,787 26.2 26,260 5.9 27,818 28,842
Stockport Township 14,830 18.3 17,545 23.8 21,726 17.2 25,469 11.6 28,431 28,431
Southampton County of
the Town
7,913 21.5 9,617 38.9 13,353 44.7 19,324 43.6 27,744 27,744
West Bromwich Parish 5,687 31.6 7,485 27.0 9,505 61.3 15,327 70.4 26,121 26,121
Woolwich Town & Parish 9,826 73.6 17,054 -0.3 17,008 3.8 17,661 46.0 25,785 25,785
Wigan Boro' & Township 10,989 27.0 14,060 26.0 17,716 17.3 20,774 22.8 25,517 25,517
Worcester City 11,352 25.3 14,233 19.2 16,965 5.0 17,811 9.3 19,473 25,401
Ipswich Borough 11,336 22.8 13,918 25.6 17,475 17.5 20,528 23.1 25,264 25,384
Huddersfield Boro. & Township 7,268 33.1 9,671 37.4 13,284 43.3 19,035 31.7 25,068 25,068
Cambridge Borough 10,087 10.1 11,108 27.3 14,142 47.9 20,917 16.9 24,453 24,453
Bishop.s Wearrnouth Township 6,126 15.2 7,060 34.2 9,477 52.6 14,462 67.4 24,206 24,206
Macclesfield Township 8,743 40.7 12,299 44.3 17,746 30.3 23,129 4.4 24,137 24,137
Yarmouth Borough 14,845 21.1 17,977 0.4 18,040 17.1 21,115 14.1 24,086 24,086
Oxford City 11,694 10.5 12,931 26.5 16,364 26.2 20,649 15.4 23,834 23,834
Deptford Town 17,548 13.0 19,833 0.1 19,862 -0.3 19,795 17.0 23,165 23,165
Chester City 15,052 7.2 16,140 23.6 19,949 6.9 21,344 8.3 23,115 23,115
Carlisle City 10,221 22.6 12,531 23.5 15,476 29.9 20,006 15.0 23,012 23,012
Dukinfield Township 1,737 75.8 3,053 66.9 5,096 188.1 14,681 52.5 22,394 22,394
Northampton Borough 7,020 20.0 8,427 28.1 10,793 42.2 15,351 38.4 21,242 21,242
Walsall Boro'& Parish 10,399 7.6 11,189 6.5 11,914 26.5 15,066 38.4 20,852 20,852
Bury Township 7,072 23.9 8,762 20.8 10,583 42.6 15,086 37.3 20,710 20,710
Bilston Township and Chapelry 6,914 39.5 9,646 24.4 12,003 20.7 14,492 39.3 20,181 20,181
Ecclesall Bierlow Township 5,362 22.5 6,569 38.7 9,113 56.9 14,279 40.0 19,984 19,984
Halifax Township 8,896 3.1 9,159 37.9 12,628 21.8 15,382 29.9 19,881 19,881
Gateshead Township 8,597 2.2 8,782 34.0 11,767 29.0 15,177 28.5 19,505 19,595
Warrington Township 10,567 11.8 11,738 15.6 13,570 18.0 16,018 18.4 18,981 18,981
Reading Borough 9,742 10.7 10,788 19.3 12,867 21.2 15,595 21.4 18,937 18,937
Shrewsbury Borough 14,739 12.7 16,606 23.1 19,602 8.6 21,297 -1.8 20,921 18,285
Maidstone Borough 8,027 17.6 9,443 32.5 12,508 23.0 15,387 17.5 18,086 18,086
Colchester Borough and Liberties 11,520 8.9 12,544 11.7 14,016 15.3 16,167 10.0 17,790 17,790
Sunderland Town and Parish 12,412 -1.0 12,289 19.8 14,725 15.9 17,060 -0.2 17,022 17,022
Saddleworth Chapelry 10,665 17.9 12,579 10.5 13,902 15.0 15,986 5.3 16,829 16,829
Swansea Borough 6,099 31.2 8,005 25.0 10,007 32.4 13,256 26.6 16,787 16,787
Lincoln City 8,676 17.8 10,217 15.3 11,776 12.1 13,203 22.5 16,172 16,172
King.s Lynn Borough 10,096 1.6 10,259 19.4 12,253 9.1 13,370 20.0 16,039 16,039
Canterbury City 9,000 13.3 10,200 25.3 12,779 7.0 13,679 12.8 15,435 15,435
Wakefield Township 8,131 5.7 8,593 25.3 10,764 13.6 12,232 20.6 14,754 14,754
Heaton Norris Township 3,768 38.9 5,232 33.0 6,958 61.5 11,238 30.2 14,629 14,620
Kidderminster Borough 6,110 31.6 8,038 33.2 10,709 39.9 14,981 -4.0 14,399 14,399
Gloucester City and County 7,579 9.3 8,280 17.7 9,744 22.5 11,933 18.6 14,152 14,152
Durham City 7,530 5.6 7,953 23.5 9,822 3.2 10,135 39.6 14,151 14,151
                       
Edinburgh City (including North and
South Leith)
82,560 24.7 102,987 34.2 138,235 17.1 161,909 2.8 166,450 138,182
Glasgow City and Suburbs 77,385 30.1 100,749 45.9 147,043 37.7 202,426 35.6 274,533 274,533
Parsley Town and Parish 31,179 17.8 36,722 28.0 47,003 22.3 57,466 5.3 60,487 60,487
Aberdeen City 27,608 28.6 35,370 26.6 44,796 29.5 58,019 11.6 64,767 63,288
Dundee Burgh and Parish 26,084 13.5 29,616 3.0 30,575 48.0 45,355 38.5 62,794 62,794
Greenock Town and Parish 17,458 9.1 19,042 16.0 22,088 24.8 27,571 34.0 36,936 36,936

It will be perceived that, according to the Returns of the total population of England and Wales, there appears to be a diminution in the rate of increase on the last ten years, as compared with the preceding decennial period, of 1 per cent., or the difference between 16 per cent. and 14.5. We have thought it our duty to inquire whether this arises from a difference between the excess of births over deaths in the latter of these two periods, or from some cause quite unconnected with the statistics of vitality. As one very obvious cause for an increased or diminished rate of increase of the population would be found in the greater or less extension of emigration, we directed our inquiry to the Returns on this subject. The additional population which would be required, in order to make the ratio of increase on the present occasion equal to that of the former decennial period, would be 208,998, being 1 per cent. on the total population of 1831; and from Returns which have been furnished from the Emigration Board, it appears that the total excess of emigration in the ten years ending 1841, compared with the ten years ending 1831, may be estimated at 282,322.2 Of this number a large proportion were natives of Ireland, who sailed from the Ports of England, particularly from Liverpool; but allowing a reasonable deduction for such persons, it may still be assumed that the apparent falling off in the rate of increase of population in England in the ten years ending 1841, as compared with that observable in the previous ten years, has been influenced more by the progress of emigration, than by any causes affecting the natural increase by the excess of births over deaths. When it is considered, that though the ages of parties emigrating are not returned, it is notorious that the greater part consist of persons in the prime of life, a class from which there would probably be a great excess of births over deaths, there can remain no doubt that the multiplication of numbers in England, by the excess of births over deaths, has continued at an undiminished, if not an increased rate, in the last ten years.

It should be here noticed that an excess of births over deaths may be maintained in different periods at exactly the same rate by two entirely different conditions, inasmuch as greater fecundity in a population may be, and in fact is, counteracted by increased mortality, the previous rate of increase being thus barely maintained; while, on the other hand, a diminution in the number of births to any given number of the population may be made up by a diminished rate of mortality. In either of these cases, the result, on striking a balance between the births and deaths, would be the same, and would afford the same natural rate of increase for the two periods compared; while the condition of the people, which is the subject of inquiry, would be very dissimilar. When we come to the detailed Abstract of Ages, it may appear as if the latter of these two causes had been principally operating in the course of the last ten years.

Whether the total increase of population represented by the Returns of this or any former period can be wholly ascribed to the mere excess of births over deaths, depends upon the satisfactory solution of either of two intricate propositions, applicable to any given period:—1st. Whether the exact proportion of births to deaths can be ascertained; and 2nd. Whether the counterbalancing effects of immigration and emigration have been in equal operation. With respect to the former proposition, the result obtained through the General Registry Act3 cannot, at present, be deemed wholly conclusive; and with respect to the latter proposition, the means of secure calculation are destroyed by the impossibility of ascertaining the exact numbers of immigrants. It might not be unreasonable to assume that the amount of emigration, although very extensive, does not differ widely from the amount of immigration, which will always result from the temptations held out by capital and enterprise to the productive classes of every kind. In confirmation of this it will be seen, that (although there is no reason to suppose that the fecundity of the population is there less than in England) the population of Ireland has only increased, according to the Returns presented by the Irish Commissioners, at the rate of 5 per cent. It cannot be doubted that a large proportion of the increase that would there arise from the mere excess of births over deaths, has gone to swell the Returns of the existing population of England and Scotland. Here, again, it should be borne in mind, that the immigrants will be generally just of the age most likely still further to increase the population, their children born in the last ten years serving to swell the number of those "born in the county" in which they were enumerated. When we come to examine the column (included in these Returns) which contains the birth-place of those living in each place, it will be generally found that every remarkable increase in the population is attended by a proportionate increase in the number of persons not natives of the place which is the subject of inquiry.


1 Table I.—Showing the Number of Inhabited Houses to a Population of 100 and Number of Persons to each Inhabited House, in the Years 1831 and 1841; also, the Increase per Cent. in the Number of Houses in 1841 as compared with 1831.

1831. 1841. 1831-41.
Inhabited
Houses
Population Number
of
Inhabited
Houses to a
Population
of 100
Number
of
Persons
to each
Inhabited
House
Inhabited
Houses
Population Number
of
Inhabited
Houses to a
Population
of 100
Number
of
Persons
to each
Inhabited
House
Increase
per Cent
in
Number
of
Houses,
1831-41
Increase
or
Decrease
in the
Number
of
Inhabited
Houses to a
Population
of 100,
1831-41
ENGLAND AND WALES 2,481,544 13,897,187 17.8 5.6   2,943,939 15,911,757 18.5 5.4 18.6 Inc. 0.7
METROPOLIS 196,666 1,471,941 13.3 7.4 { 250,908a 1,873,676 13.3 7.4
222,383b 1,690,084 13.1 7.5 13.0 Dec. 0.2
LANCASHIRE 228,130 1,336,854 17 5.8   289,184 1,667,054 17.3 5.7 26.7 Inc. 0.3
YORKSHIRE 267,685 1,371,359 19.5 5.1   316,096 1,591,480 19.8 5 18 Inc. 0.3
MIDDLESEX 180,493 1,358,330 13.2 7.5   207,629 1,576,636 13.1 7.5 15 Dec. 0.1
MANCHESTER c 30,897 187,022 16.5 6   42,059 242,983 17.3 5.7 36.1 Inc. 0.8
LIVERPOOL d> 25,732 165,175 15.5 6.4   32,079 223,003 14.3 6.9 24.6 Dec. 1.2
LEEDS 25,456 123,393 20.6 4.8   31,626 152,054 20.7 4.8 24.2 Inc. 0.1
a Metropolis within the extended limits b Metropolis, according to the limits returned in 1831. c Parliamentary Borough d Parish only.

Table II. Showing the Proportion of Persons to each Inhabited House in England and Wales, 1801-1841.

1801. 1811. 1821. 1831. 1841.
Inhabited
Houses
Persons Number
of
Persons
to each
In-
habited
House
Inhabited
Houses
Persons Number
of
Persons
to each
In-
habited
House
Inhabited
Houses
Persons Number
of
Persons
to each
In-
habited
House
Inhabited
Houses
Persons Number
of
Persons
to each
In-
habited
House
Inhabited
Houses
Persons Number
of
Persons
to each
In-
habited
House
1,575,923 8,872,980 5.6 1,797,504 10,150,615 5.6 2,088,156 11,978,875 5.7 2,481,544 13,897,187 5.6 2,943,939 15,911,757 5.4

NOTE.—The first two periods exclude, while the three last include the Returns for the Islands in the British Seas.

2 It appears that in the records of the Emigration Board there are no means of distinguishing males from females, or adults from children, nor of giving the Returns of emigrants for an earlier period than 1825. The Return furnished to us was therefore in the following form:—

    "The number of Emigrants from the ports of England and Wales were—

In the 7 years from 1825 to 1831 103,218
In the 10 years from 1832 to 1841 429,775."

We have assumed, with respect to the first three years of the first decennial period, that the number of emigrants was as great in each year as in each of the seven following years for which we have Returns. As the numbers appear to have progressively increased, we shall, by such a mode of calculation, not have underrated the total number of emigrants in the first decennial period.

3 By the Reports of the Registrar-General it appears that the excess of births over deaths in the year ending at the time the Census was taken

In 1841, was 148,921
In the similar period ending 1840, 151,488
In the similar period ending 1839, 149,533;

whereas the actual increase from that cause, taken merely at 1 per cent. on the total population, at each of those periods, should have been—

In 1841 156,978
  1840 154,864
  1839 152,786

If the account had been added of the year before, it would have fallen still more short of an increase of 1 per cent., but in that, the first year of the operation of the General Registry Act, it is notorious that the registry of births was much less complete than the registry of deaths, which may now be considered perfect. In the three latter years, however, the proportion of registered births to deaths, although it probably approximates to the truth, cannot be taken as a safe basis of calculation.

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