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CENSUS OF 1911.

PRELIMINARY REPORT
TO
THE RIGHT HONOURABLE JOHN BURNS, M.P.,

PRESIDENT OF THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT BOARD, ETC.

Census Office, London, S.W.,
10th June, 1911.

SIR,

WE have the honour to present our Preliminary Report on the twelfth Census of the population of England and Wales which was taken on 3rd April, 1911. This Census gives the means of ascertaining the number of persons returned as living at midnight on Sunday, the 2nd of April, and of measuring the growth of the population not only since the Census of 1901, but also during the 110 years since the first English Census was taken in March, 1801.

Owing to demands for an extension of the subjects of inquiry, to the numerous inter- censal changes in the areas into which the country is divided, and to the growth of population, each successive enumeration tends to become a more complex operation than its predecessor. The recent Census was no exception to this rule, the following additions having been made to the subjects of inquiry:-(a) the duration of existing marriages, (b) the number of children born to such marriages, (c) the industries or services with which workers are connected, as distinct from the occupations in which they are per- sonally engaged, (d) in the case of persons born outside England and Wales whether they are residents or visitors in this country, (e) the number of rooms in all dwellings, instead of as at the two-previous Censuses in dwellings of less than five rooms only.

The interest shown by the public in the present Census, which it is hoped may have been productive of fuller and more accurate Returns than on previous occasions,, must in large measure be attributed to the invaluable aid rendered by the Press, to the cordial co-operation of the Parliamentary Committee of the Trades Union Congress, and to the efforts of the teachers in the public elementary schools, who under the instructions of the Local Education Authorities throughout the country gave special Census lessons to the children under their charge.

The present Report, as its name implies, is merely a preliminary one; and it will perhaps be well to explain in a few words in what respects it differs from the more detailed account which it will be our duty to submit at a future date. This Report is based not on a tabulation direct from the Schedules at the Central Office, but on the population summaries furnished by the local Registrars and Superintendent Registrars who are severally responsible for the enumeration of the people in their respective areas. It deals simply with the numbers and sexes of the people, and the numbers of families or separate occupiers-: that is to say. it gives an account of the number of inhabitants in the whole country, and in the more important of its sub-divisions, namely, Counties, Urban Districts, Rural Districts, Parliamentary Areas and Registration Districts and Sub-districts.

After the revision of the contents of the schedules we shall present amended population statistics which will be given in greater detail than those published in_ this Report: we shall also present in due course Reports embodying the social statistics obtainable from the Census. The proposed scheme of publication is indicated in the final paragraphs of this Report.

Some reference may be made to the methods both of enumeration and of tabulation, though, as will be seen from the foregoing remarks, it is the first of these questions only which properly belongs to the Preliminary Report. The enumeration was carried out by the same machinery of Household Schedules as has been in use from the year 1841, the enumerators working under the direction of the 2,009 local Registrars, and these again under the direction of the 635 Superintendent Registrars, With the co-operation, of the Ordnance Survey Department, special attention was given on this occasion, daring the period preceding the Census, to a careful study of the various areas into which the country is divided and to the planning and mapping of the enumeration districts, a process which is already known to have greatly facilitated the accurate taking of the Census, and which, by eliminating small enumeration districts, especially in urban areas, resulted in a considerable reduction of their total number. The 2,009 Registration Sub-districts were sub-divided into 35,000 enumeration districts for each of which an enumerator was appointed. This number compares with 38,000 appointed for the Census of 1901, when the population enumerated was less by some three and a half millions.

Persons in public institutions and in large establishments were enumerated by the chief resident officers, and the enumeration of "homeless persons" was undertaken by the Police. The enumeration of Soldiers in large military establishments, and of Sailors on board H.M. Ships, was undertaken by military and naval Officers respectively; Officers of H.M. Customs enumerated persons on board mercantile vessels, and the Corporation of Trinity House enumerated the persons in Lighthouses and on Lightships.

The most important change in the enumeration arrangements and one which also has a bearing on tabulation, was the discontinuance of the use of enumeration books. At previous Censuses the contents of the schedules were copied into books from which the results of the Census were tabulated-a laborious task very, generally complained of by the enumerators. At this Census it was decided, following the practice adopted in Ireland, to relieve the enumerators of this lengthy and monotonous work, thus avoiding the risk of errors heretofore made by the copyists in the course of transcription.

In place of this process, the information contained in the schedules will be transferred in the Census Office by punching-machines to cards, one for each person enumerated, and these cards will subsequently be mechanically sorted and counted. It will thus be easier to analyse and combine the results of the Census than by the methods formerly employed. Further comment on this considerable change of practice, which rather belongs to the subject of tabulation, must be deferred until the publication of the subsequent Reports.

Area. -For the purposes of this Report, Area is defined as "land together with inland water," tidal water and foreshore being excluded. According to Returns furnished by the Director General of Ordnance Surveys the area of England and Wales consists of 37,337,630 acres of land and inland water.

Population and Rates of Increase. -The total number of persons returned as living in England and Wales at midnight on Sunday, April 2nd, 1911, was 36,075,269. This total shows an increase of 3,547,426, or 10.9 per cent, upon the number returned at the previous enumeration of April, 1901.

The increase now recorded is numerically greater than in any previous decennium, but the progression per cent. is lower than in any previous decennium, as the following Table shows:—

TABLE A.

Census
Year.
Families
or
Separate
Occupiers.
Population. Increase of Population since last Census. Decennial Increase per cent. of Population.* Number of Females to 1000 Males.?
Persons. Males. Females.
1801 1,896,723 8,892,536 4,254,735 4,637,801 1,057
1811 2,142,147 10,164,256 4,873,605 5,290,651 1,271,720 14.00 1,054
1821 2,493,423 12,000,236 5,850,319 6,149,917 1,835,980 18.06 1,036
1831 2,911,874 13,896,797 6,771,196 7,125,601 1,896,561 15.80 1,040
1841 Not returned 15,914,148 7,777,586 8,136,562 2,017,351 14.27 1,046
1851 3,712,290 17,927,609 8,781,225 9,146,384 2,013,461 12.65 1,042
1861 4,491,524 20,066,224 9,776,259 10,289,965 2,138,615 11.90 1,053
1871 5,049,016 22,712,266 11,058,934 11,653,332 2,646,042 13.21 1,054
1881 5,633,192 25,974,439 12,639,902 13,334,537 3,262,173 14.36 1,055
1891 6,131,001 29,002,525 14,052,901 14,949,624 3,028,086 11.65 1,064
1901 7,036,868 32,527,843 15,728,613 16,799,230 3,525,318 12.17 1,068
1911 8,018,857 36,075,269 17,448,476 18,626,793 3,547,426 10.90 1,068
* See note*, Table 1, page 1. ? See note ?, Table 1, page 1.

The rate of increase of Population depends on two factors, (1) the balance between births and deaths and (2) the balance between outward and inward passenger movement.

(1)The net gain of population by excess of births over deaths, which had been 15.09, 13.97, and 12.39 per cent, in the three preceding intercensal periods, rose in the period 1901-1911 to 12.44. This result was due to the counterbalancing of a great reduction of the birth-rate by a still greater reduction of the death-rate.

(2) The loss of population by balance of passenger movement, which may be stated (see Table B, page vi) as over 164,000 in 1871-81 and over 600,000 in 1881-91, fell to 68,000 in 1891-1901 and rose to nearly half, a million persons in the past inter-censal period.

The provisional official estimates of population of England and Wales as a whole which have been prepared from year to year since 1901 have been based on the assumption of an annual rate of increase equal to the mean rate in the period 1891 to 1901. This method showed in 1891 an excess of estimated over actual population of 701,843 or 2.42 per cent, and in 1901 a deficiency of 144,231 or .44 per cent. On the present occasion the estimate has again been in excess of the actual population in 1911 to the extent of 406,402 or 1.13 per cent., and it may therefore be inferred that the errors in the estimates for the years 1901 to 1910 rose more or less irregularly from zero to about 1 per cent. Rates of mortality and other figures showing proportions to the estimated population were, necessarily affected to a corresponding extent, but of course in the opposite direction; and the birth-rate and death-rate for the year 1910,. which were provisionally shown in the recently published Annual Summary of Births and Deaths as 24.8 and 13.4, are found on revision to be 25.1 and 13.5 respectively.

That such discrepancies would inevitably appear when the results of the Census became known was of course anticipated, but, as the figures above quoted show, the errors arising from the traditional method of estimating the population are not of a very serious character as regards England and Wales taken as a whole. It is in its effect on the calculation of mortality and other rates in certain local areas,1 where the variations between estimate and Census result are much greater, that the defect of any method based on a general assumption is most apparent; and here unfortunately it is more difficult to devise a remedy. But even as regards the total figures of population the existing method is open to objection. The alternative method of calculating the population, not on any arbitrary hypothesis, but by means of such data of the movements of the population from year to year as might be available, would obviously be more satisfactory, but has not hitherto been found to be practicable. If it were possible to add to the population enumerated at a Census the number of births and the number of persons who have entered the country up to a given date, and to subtract the number of deaths and the number of persons who have left the country, the population at that date could be accurately ascertained. But although the addition and subtraction on account of births and deaths is provided for by the statistics prepared in the General Register Office, there are at present no returns which show even approximately how many persons enter and how many leave England and Wales year by year. In other words, the natural increase of population is known, but the balance of inward and outward passenger movement (often referred to as the balance of migration) is not known. Returns of passenger movement are collected by the Board of Trade, and statistical tables based on those returns which have been furnished by the Board for publication in this Report, will be found on pages 117-119. But those tables relate to the United Kingdom as a whole, and provide no means for allotting the arrivals and departures to the several portions of the Kingdom. Moreover, the returns on which those tables are based were not complete during the years 1901-1907, though the degree, and even the direction, in which this incompleteness has affected the totals cannot be determined. The following general statement for the United Kingdom in the period between the Censuses of 1901 and 1911 will be of interest as showing the degree of accuracy which can be reached by this method even with returns incomplete for certain years when applied to the whole Kingdom with the assistance of the present figures:—

Population of the United Kingdom enumerated in 1901 41,458,721
Add natural increase (by excess of births over deaths) from April, 1901, to March, 1911 4,845,868
  46,304,589
Subtract excess of outward over inward passenger movement recorded from January, 1901, to December, 1910? 1,351,812
Population of the United Kingdom in 1911 as estimated by recorded natural increase and balance of passenger movement 44,952,777
Population of the United Kingdom enumerated in 1911 45,216,665
Difference, being the defect in the estimate as above 263,888

? The figures for the exact intercensal period are not available.

It will be seen that the error of this estimate amounts to less than .6 per cent. of the population, or only about half as much proportionally as the error of the estimate made for England and Wales only by the old method. Part of the error is no doubt attributable to movements which did not come within the scope of the Returns to the Board of Trade-such as the return of soldiers from South Africa in the earlier years of the period. It may be hoped that in the near future some modifications will be introduced into the Returns collected by the Board, which will enable them so to classify the persons entering and leaving the United Kingdom, as to show with approximate accuracy the effect on the number of the population in England and Wales, in Scotland, and in Ireland separately. In the absence of such information for past years, the effect of migration in England and Wales in the intercensal periods already completed can only be indirectly inferred by means of the enumerated populations and the natural increase. This is done in the following Table:—

TABLE B.

Census
Year.
Enumerated Population
of England and Wales.
Actual Intercensal
Increase.
Natural Increase. Difference between
Natural Increase and
Actual Increase—to
be accounted for as
loss by Balance of
Passenger Movement.
1871 22,712,266        
    } 3,262,173 3,426,480 164,307
1881 25,974,439        
    } 3,028,086 3,629,475 601,389
1891 29,002,525        
    } 3,525,318 3,593,648 68,330
1901 32,527,843        
    } 3,547,426 4,044,922 497,496
1911 36,075,269        

The figures in the last column show that the balance of migration varies greatly from one period to another. Undoubtedly the annual variations must be considerable, and as a result the growth of the population from year to year must proceed by irregular steps. Were statistics of passenger movement available, classified according to the places of residence of the passengers, it would become possible to frame current estimates of the population of England and Wales which would, at least approximately, represent the actual population from year to year.

It may be added that the result of applying the method now used for England and Wales to each Division of the United Kingdom would have been an over-estimate for the whole of the Kingdom of 1.0 per cent.

Population and rates of increase or decrease in county areas. —By the Local Government Act of 1888, 61 Administrative Counties were created, for each of which a separate County Council was established. In addition, 61 Boroughs which on the 1st June, 1888, either had populations of not less than 50,000 or were counties of themselves, were created separate Administrative Counties, and termed County Boroughs. Since the passing of the Act, the Isle of Wight has been created a separate Administrative County. The County Boroughs now number 75, including the County Borough of Stoke on Trent, which includes the former County Borough of Hanley.

Table C on page vii shows how the rate of increase of the population, which in the whole of England and Wales in the ten years 1901-1911 was equal to 10.9 per cent., was distributed over the whole country; and how, while there were a few counties in which the population declined, the rates of increase in the remainder were very unequal.

The areas selected for comparison are the Administrative Counties together with the County Boroughs geographically within or adjacent to them. In the cases of Cambridge- shire, Hampshire, Lincolnshire, Northamptonshire, Suffolk and Sussex, however, the populations of the separate Administrative Counties into which each of them is divided have been stated collectively in the Table, the figures for the separate Administrative Counties being shown in a footnote. The figures for 1891 and 1901 relate to the Counties as constituted in 1911.

It will be seen that some of the highest increases occurred in the counties surround- ing the Metropolis, viz.: Middlesex, Surrey, Essex and Hertfordshire, in each of which the increase was more than 20 per cent. The county of Kent, however, shows an increase of only 8.8 per cent. Other counties showing increases of more than 20 per cent. Were Monmouthshire (32.8) and Glamorganshire (30.4). Three English counties (including London) and five Welsh Counties showed decreases ranging from 0.3 in London, to 6.7 in Merionethshire. Of the counties showing decreases between 1901 and 1911 four (Westmorland, Cardiganshire, Montgomeryshire, and. Merionethshire) had also declined between 1891 and 1901.

TABLE C.

Administrative Counties together with
associated County Boroughs.
Population. Increase (+) or
Decrease (-) per cent. in
intercensal period.
1891. 1901. 1911. 1891-1901. 1901-1911.
(1) COUNTIES IN WHICH AN INCREASE
WAS RECORDED IN THE INTER-
CENSAL PERIOD (1901-11 ):—
         
Middlesex 543,223 792,496 1,126,694 +45.9 +42.2
Monmouthshire 258,133 298,076 395,778 +15.5 +32.8
Glamorganshire 687,218 859,931 1,121,062 +25.1 +30.4
Surrey 521,844 653,661 845,544 +25.3 +29.4
Essex 783,374 1,083,998 1,351,102 +38.4 +24.6
Hertfordshire 226,587 258,423 311,321 +14.1 +20.5
Hampshire* 692,055 799,582 950,678 +15.5 +18.9
Carmarthshire 130,566 135,328 160,430 +3.6 +18.5
Nottinghamshire 445,622 514,459 604,077 +15.4 +17.4
Worcestershire 385,212 452,759 526,143 +17.5 16.2
Northumberland 506,030 603,119 697,014 +19.2 +15.6
Durham 1,016,562 1,187,474 1,370,011 +16.8 +15.4
Cheshire 750,109 835,941 954,919 +11.4 +14.2
Derbyshire 515,159 599,694 683,562 +16.4 +14.0
Flintshire 77,041 81,485 92,720 +5.8 +13.8
Bedfordshire 161,378 171,707 194,625 +6.4 +13.3
Lincolnshire* 474,041 500,022 564,013 +5.5 +12.8
Buckinghamshire 186,680 197,046 219,583 +5.6 +11.4
Yorkshire, East Riding (York C.B.) 409,401 462,921 515,101 +13.1 +11.3
Yorkshire, North Riding 359,547 377,338 419,601 +4.9 +11.2
Warwickshire 838,837 940,879 1,040,628 +12.2 +10.6
Dorsetshire 193,542 202,063 223,274 +4.4 +10.5
Yorkshire, West Riding 2,449,492 2,761,321 3,045,749 +12.7 +10.3
Sussex* 571,631 602,255 663,416 +10.0 +10.2
Denbighshire 118,979 131,582 144,796 +10.6 +10.0
Brecknockshire 51,393 54,213 59,298 +5.5 +9.4
Staffordshire 1,086,240 1,236,919 1,348,422 13.9 +9.0
Lancashire 3,900,430 4,378,293 4,768,474 +12.3 +8.9
Leicestershire 376,263 437,490 476,603 +16.3 +8.9
Kent 830,390 961,139 1,045,661 +15.7 +8.8
Berkshire 236,173 252,571 271,028 +6.9 +7.3
Cambridgeshire* 183,985 184,759 198,084 +0.4 +7.2
Oxfordshire 189,495 186,460 199,277 -1.6 +6.9
Devonshire 632,782 662,196 699,739 +4.6 +5.7
Wiltshire 262,551 271,394 286,876 +3.4 +5.7
Suffolk* 362,188 373,353 394,080 3.1 +5.6
Somersetshire 430,010 434,950 458,074 +1.1 +5.3
Norfolk 468,605 476,553 499,049 +1.7 +4.7
Gloucestershire 654,563 708,439 736,125 +8.2 +3.9
Northamptonshire* 299,542 34835,628 348,552 +12.0 +3.9
Rutlandshire* 20,659 19,709 20.347 -4.6 +3.2
Shropshire 236,827 239,783 246,306 +1.2 +2.7
Huntingdonshire 55,015 54,125 55,583 -1.6 +2.7
Pembrokeshire 88,296 87,894 89,956 -0.5 +2.3
Cornwall 322,571 322,334 328,131 -0.1 +1.8
Anglesey 50,098 50,606 50,943 +1.0 +0.7
Herefordshire 115,762 114,125 114,269 -1.4 +0.1
(2) COUNTIES IN WHICH A DECREASE
WAS RECORDED IN THE INTER-
CENSAL PERIOD (1901-11):—
 
London 4,227,954 4,536,267 4,522,961 +7.3 -0.3
Cumberland 266,549 266,933 265,780 +0.1 -0.4
Carnarvonshire 117,586 125,649 125,049 +6.9 -0.5
Westmorland 66,215 64,409 63,575 -2.7 -1.3
Cardiganshire 63,467 61,078 59,877 -3.8 -2.0
Radnorshire 21,791 23,281 22,589 +6.8 -3.0
Montgomeryshire 58,003 54,901 53,147 -5.3 -3.2
Merionethshire 48,859 48,852 45,573 -0.0 -6.7
* The following are the figures for the separate Administrative Counties grouped in the above table:—
Hampshire:— Southampton 613,383 717,164 862,485 +16.9 +20.3
  Isle of Wight 78,672 82,418 88,193 +4.8 +7.0
Lincolnshire:— Holland 76,204 77,610 82,860 +1.8 +6.8
  Kesteven 105,361 103,962 11,332 -1.3 +7.1
  Lindsey 292,476 318,450 369,821 +8.9 +16.1
Sussex:— East 406,949 450,979 487,093 +10.8 +8.0
  West 140,682 151,276 176,323 +7.5 +16.6
Cambridgeshire:— Cambridgeshire 120,645 120,264 128,325 -0.3 +6.7
  Isle of Ely 63,340 64,495 69,759 +1.8 +8.2
Suffolk:— East 240,838 255,800 277,166 +6.2 +8.4
  West 121,350 117,553 116,914 -3.1 -0.5
Northamptonshire:— Northamptonshire 264,293 294,506 303,830 +11.4 +3.2
  Soke of Peterborough 35,249 41,122 44,722 +16.7 +8.8

Comparing the increases in the two decennia 1891-1901 and 1901-1911 it is found that of the Home Counties, Surrey (25.3 and 29.4) and Hertfordshire (14.1 and 20.5) have accelerated rates of increase while Kent (15.7 and 8.8), Middlesex (45.9 and 42.2) and Essex (38.4 and 24.6) show reduced rates. Of the counties in which mining is the principal industry, Monmouthshire (15.5 and 32.8) and Glamorganshire (25.1 and 30.4) show accelerated rates while Northumberland (19.2 and 15.6) and Durham (16.8 and 15.4) show reduced rates of increase. Nottinghamshire, partly mining and partly industrial, increased its rate from 15.4 to 17.4. In the industrial Counties, the increases, while still substantial, are less than in the previous ten years. Lancashire, for instance, reduced its rate of increase from 12.3 to 8.9, Staffordshire from 13.9 to 9.0, and the West Riding of Yorkshire from 12.7 to 10.3. Among the Counties, such as Lincolnshire, Buckinghamshire, Dorsetshire and Oxfordshire, in which agriculture was returned as the occupation of more than one-fifth of the male population over ten years of age at the Census, of 1901, the rates of increase for 1901-1911 compare favourably in nearly all cases with those recorded in the earlier period.

Referring to Table II, page 2 (Administrative Counties excluding the County Boroughs) the following counties show increases of over 20 per cent.:-Middlesex (42.2), Glamorganshire (39.7), Monmouthshire (35.2), Surrey (30.1), (Essex 30.0), Nottinghamshire (25.3), Northumberland (21.9), Durham (21.0), and Hertfordshire (20.5). It thus appears that by excluding County Boroughs the three coal mining counties of Durham, Northumberland and Nottinghamshire are added to the list of counties with increases over 20 per cent., and the rates of increase in all the counties already in that list (except Middlesex and Hertfordshire which contain no County Borough) are raised.

Urban and Rural Districts. —Reference to Table IV. 011 pages 5 to 25 will show the populations of the 1,1372 Urban districts, including County Boroughs and Municipal Boroughs. Their aggregate population at the date of the Census was 28,168,970 persons, while the population of the Rural Districts (which number 657) was only 7,906,299; so that, broadly speaking, the proportion in 1911 of persons in England and Wales living under urban conditions was 78 per cent., and under rural conditions 22 per cent.

The following Table shows the population in 1901 and 1911 of the areas- which were constituted as Urban and Rural Districts at the latter date.

TABLE D.

  POPULATION. Increase per cent.
between 1901 and 1911.
1901. 1911.
England and Wales 32,527,843 36,075,269 10.9
Total of 1,1372 Urban Districts as constituted in 1911. 25,350,898 28,168,970 11.1
Total of 657 Rural Districts as constituted in 1911. 7,176,945 7,906,299 10.2

In the preceding intercensal period the rates of increase in the Urban and Rural Districts (as constituted in 1901) had been 15.2 and 2.9 per cent. respectively Thus while the rate of increase in Urban Districts has declined from 15.2 to 11.1 per cent., the rate of increase in Rural Districts has risen from 2.9 to 10.2 per cent. It should be pointed out, however, that the rates in the last decennium represent an actual increase of 2,818,072 persons in the Urban, and of only 729,354 persons in the Rural Districts.

In order to make a comparison of the population in rural areas back to 1801, it will be convenient to select, as a sample of such areas, the 105 Registration Districts which at the recent Census contained no portion of an Urban District. Their aggregate population at each Census was, approximately, as follows:—

TABLE E.

CENSUS
YEAR.
POPULATION. Increase (+) or
Decrease (-)
per cent. in
intercensal period.
CENSUS
YEAR.
POPULATION. Increase (+) or
Decrease (-)
per cent. in
intercensal period.
1801 852,313 1861 1,207,580 -0.41
1811 913,713 +7.20 1871 1,202,499 -0.42
1821 1,044,331 +14.30 1881 1,187,124 -1.28
1831 1,115,641 +6.83 1891 1,174,958 -1.02
1841 1,181,758 +5.93 1901 1,189,713 +1.26
1851 1,212,548 +2.61 1911 1,306,565 +9.82

During the first half of the past century the population of these distinctly rural areas in the aggregate increased in each decennium, but at a gradually diminishing rate except in the ten years 1811-21. In the second half of the century there is a want of regularity in the series, but the general tendency has been for the decrease of population which first manifested itself in the ten years 1851-61 to continue at an accelerated rate until the last two decennia, when there was a notable change.

Table F shows the increasing predominance of the- Urban as compared with the Rural element. Taking the Urban and Rural Districts as constituted at each of the four past Censuses, it will be observed that in 1881 68 per cent. of the population were dwellers in towns; the proportion rose to 72 per cent, in 1891, to 77 per cent, in 1901, and to 78 per cent, in 1911.

TABLE F.

POPULATION. Proportion per cent.
of Population
of England and Wales.
1881. 1891.* 1901. 1911. 1881. 1891.* 1901. 1911.
Urban Population at each Census 17,636,646 20,895,504 25,058,355 28,168,970 67.9 72.0 77.0 78.1
Rural Population at each Census 8,337,793 8,107,021 7,469,488 7,906,299 32.1 28.0 23.0 21.9
England and Wales 25,974,439 29,002,525 32,527,843 36,075,269 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

* The figures for 1891 relate to the Urban and Rural Districts as constituted at the date when the General Report on that Census was published towards the end of 1893.

Urban Districts Classified by Population. — At the date of the issue of the Report on the Census of 1891 there were 1,011 Urban Districts; at the Census of 1901 the number had increased to 1,122, and in 1911 to 1,137: these 1,137 districts may be grouped by the numbers of their populations as shown in the following Table, which gives the populations of the areas as constituted in 1911.

TABLE G.

Population of Urban Districts. Number of
Districts.
Aggregate
Population, 1911.
Aggregate
Population of the
same areas,
1901.
Mean percentage of
Increase (+)
or Decrease (-)
of Population
1901-1911.
Over 1,000,000 1? 4,522,961 4,536,267 -0.3
500,000 and under 1,000,000 3 1,986,953 1,872,186 +6.1
250,000 and under 500,000 8 2,639,524 2,451,230 +7.7
150,000 and under 250,000 10 1,915,291 1,677,242 +14.2
100,000 and under 150,000 22 2,631,880 2,304,257 +14.2
75,000 and under 100,000 17 1,434,820 1,235,745 +16.1
50,000 and under 75,000 37 2,172,383 1,846,351 +17.7
40,000 and under 50,000 25 1,101,414 975,664 +12.9
30,000 and under 40,000 50 1,717,053 1,392,061 +23.3
20,000 and under 30,000 72 1,754,667 1,528,700 +14.8
15,000 and under 20,000 84 1,434,178 1,230,183 +16.6
10,000 and under 15,000 147 1,822,269 1,557,663 +17.0
5,000 and under 10,000 255 1,832,594 1,627,777 +12.6
4,000 and under 5,000 107 478,626 434,462 +10.2
3,000 and under 4,000 97 337,209 313,265 +7.6
2,000 and 3,000 100 250,182 235,568 +6.2
Under 2,000 102 136,966 132,277 +3.5
Total 1,137 28,168,970 25,350,898 +11.1

? Administrative County of London here reckoned as one district.

London and the Great Towns .—Among the 1,137 Urban Districts are 98 (including London as one district), each of which had in 1911 a population exceeding 50,000.

In the following Table these towns are arranged in the order of their populations in 1911. All the population figures relate to the towns as constituted in 1911.

TABLE H.

NAMES OF TOWNS. POPULATION. Increase (+) or
Decrease (-) per cent. in
Intercensal Period.
1891. 1901. 1911. Between
1891-1901.
Between
1901-1911.
Total of 98* Towns 13,809,901 15,923,278 17,303,812 +15.3 +8.7
London (Administrative County) 4,227,954 4,536,267 4,522,961 +7.3 +8.7
Liverpool C.B. 644,243 704,134 746,566 +9.3 +6.0
Manchester C.B. 575,741 644,873 714,427 +12.0 +10.8
Birmingham C.B. 478,922 523,179 525,960 +9.2 +0.5
Sheffield C.B. 339,170 409,070 454,653 +20.6 +11.1
Leeds C.B. 367,505 428,968 445,568 +16.7 +3.9
Bristol C.B. 296,356 339,042 357,059 +14.4 +5.3
West Ham C.B. 204,903 2267,358 289,102 +30.5 +8.1
Bradford C.B. 265,728 279,767 288,505 +5.3 +3.1
Kingston upon Hull C.B. 200,472 240,259 278,024 +19.8 +15.7
Newcastle upon Tyne C.B. 208,194 247,023 266,671 +18.7 +8.0
Nottingham C.B. 213,877 239,743 259,942 +12.1 +8.4
Stoke on Trent C.B. 183,977 214,712 234,553 +16.7 +9.2
Salford C.B. 198,1939 220,957 231,380 +11.5 +4.7
Portsmouth C.B. 159,981 188,928 231,165 +18.1 +22.4
Leicester C.B. 174,624 211,579 227,242 +21.2 +7.4
Cardiff C.B. 128,915 164,333 182,280 +27.5 +10.9
Bolton C.B. 146,487 168,215 180,885 +14.8 +7.5
Croydon C.B. 102,695 133,895 169,559 +30.4 +26.6
Willesden U.D. 61,265 114,811 154,267 +87.4 +34.4
Rhondda U.D. 88,351 113,735 152,798 +28.7 +34.3
Sunderland C.B. 131,686 146,077 151,162 +10.9 +3.5
Oldham C.B. 131,463 137,246 147,495 +4.4 +7.5
Tottenham U.D. 71,672 102,703 137,457 +43.3 +33.8
East Ham M.B. 32,703 96,008 133,504 +193.6 +39.1
Blackburn C.B. 121,318 129,216 133,064 +6.5 +3.0
Brighton C.B. 115,873 123,478 131,250 +6.6 +6.3
Birkenhead C.B. 99,857 110,915 130,832 +11.1 +18.0
Leyton U.D. 63,106 98,912 124,736 +56.7 +26.1
Walthamstow U.D. 46,346 95,131 124,597 +105.3 31.0
Derby C.B. 98,602 114,848 123,433 +16.5 +7.5
Norwich C.B. 63,106 113,922 121,498 +10.7 +6.6
Southampton C.B. 46,346 104,824 119,039 +27.6 +13.6
Preston C.B. 98,602 112,989 117,113 +5.0 +3.6
Gateshead C.B. 85,692 109,888 116,928 +28.2 +6.4
Swansea C.B. 91,034 94,537 114,673 +3.8 +21.3
Plymouth C.B. 88,931 107,636 112,042 +21.0 +4.1
Stockport C.B. 80,778 92,832 108,693 +14.9 +17.1
South Shields C.B. 81,809 100,858 108,649 +23.3 +7.7
Huddersfield C.B. 95,420 95,047 107,825 -0.4 +13.4
Coventry C.B. 58,503 69,978 106,377 +19.6 +52.0
Burnley C.B. 87,016 97,043 106,337 +11.5 +9.6
Middlesbrough C.B. 75,532 91,302 104,787 +20.9 +14.8
Halifax C.B. 97,715 104,944 101,556 +7.4 -3.2
St. Helens C.B. 72,413 84,410 96,566 +16.6 +14.4
Wolverhampton C.B. 82,662 94,187 95,333 +13.9 +1.2
Walsall C.B. 71,789 86,430 92,130 +20.4 +6.6
Rochdale C.B. 76,161 83,114 91,437 +9.1 +10.0
Northampton C.B. 75,075 87,021 90,076 +15.9 3.5
Wigan C.B. 73,413 82,428 89,171 +12.3 +8.2
Hornsey M.B. 44,523 72,056 84,602 +61.8 +17.4
Newport (Monmouth) C.B. 54,707 67,270 83,700 +23.0 +24.4
York C.B. 67,841 77,914 82,297 +14.8 +5.6
Devonport C.B. 55,986 70,437 81,694 +25.8 +16.0
Kings Norton and Northfield U.D. 28,300 57,122 81,163 +101.8 +42.1
Merthyr Tydfil C.B. 59,004 69,228 80,999 +17.3 +17.0
Bournemouth C.B. 45,268 59,762 78,677 +32.0 +31.7
Wallasey M.B. 33,229 53,579 78,514 +61.2 +46.5
Ilford U.D. 10,922 41,244 78,205 +277.6 +89.6
Reading C.B. 60,054 72,217 75,214 +20.3 +4.1
Aston Manor M.B. 68,639 77,326 75,042 +12.7 -3.0
Grimsby C.B. 51,934 63,138 74,663 +21.6 +18.3
Ipswich C.B. 57,433 66,630 73,939 +16.0 +11.0
Warrington C.B. 55,288 64,242 72,178 +16.2 +12.4
Smethwick C.B. 36,106 54,539 70,681 +51.1 +29.6
Bootle C.B. 49,888 60,235 69,881 +20.7 +16.0
Handsworth U.D. 32,756 52,921 68,618 +61.6 +29.7
West Bromwich C.B. 59,538 65,175 68,345 +9.5 +4.9
Edmonton U.D. 25,381 46,899 64,820 +84.8 +38.2
West Hartlepool C.B. 42,815 62,627 63,932 +46.3 +2.1
Barrow in Furness C.B. 51,712 57,586 63,775 +11.4 +10.7
Southend on Sea M.B. 13,242 28,857 62,723 +117.9 +117.4
Rotherham C.B. 42,061 54,349 62,507 +29.2 +15.0
Ealing M.B. 23,979 33,031 61,235 +37.7 +85.4
Hastings C.B. 63,072 65,528 61,146 +3.9 -6.7
Tynemouth C.B. 46,588 51,366 58,822 +10.3 +14.5
Bury C.B. 57,212 58,029 58,649 +1.4 +1.1
Blackpool C.B. 23,846 47,348 58,376 +98.6 +23.3
Acton U.D. 24,206 37,744 57,523 +55.9 +52.4
Lincoln C.B. 41,491 48,784 57,294 +17.6 +17.4
Enfield U.D. 31,536 42,738 56,344 +35.5 +31.8
Great Yarmouth C.B. 49,334 51,316 55,808 +4.0 +8.8
Darlington M.B. 38,060 44,511 55,633 +16.9 +25.0
Wimbledon M.B. 25,777 41,652 54,876 +61.6 +31.7
Dewsbury M.B. 51,852 51,246 53,358 -1.2 +4.1
Oxford C.B. 45,742 49,336 53,049 +7.9 +7.5
Eastbourne C.B. 35,062 43,574 52,544 +24.3 +20.6
Gillingham M.B. 28,040 42,745 52,252 +52.4 +22.2
Stockton on Tees M.B. 49,708 51,478 52,158 +3.6 +1.3
Southport C.B. 41,415 48,083 51,650 +16.1 +7.4
Wakefield M.B. 43,914 48,256 51,516 +9.9 +6.8
Dudley C.B. 45,724 48,733 51,092 +6.6 +4.8
Aberdare U.D. 38,431 43,365 50,844 +12.8 +17.2
Swindon M.B. 33,001 45,006 50,771 +36.4 +12.8
Bath C.B. 51,844 49,839 50,729 -3.9 +1.8
Barnsley M.B. 35,427 41,086 50,623 +16.0 +23.2
Gloucester C.B. 41,303 47,955 50,029 +16.1 +4.3
Luton M.B. 30,053 36,404 50,000 +21.1 +37.3
*The list of 98 Towns includes all the County Boroughs except the following:—
Exeter 45,766 47,185 48,660 +3.1 +3.1
Burton on Trent 46,047 50,386 48,275 +9.4 -4.2
Worcester 42,908 46,624 47,987 +8.7 +2.9
Chester 37,105 38,309 39,038 -3.2 -1.9
Canterbury 23,062 24,899 24,628 +8.0 -1.1

Of these 98 towns 53 showed increases in excess of 10 per cent., the largest increases being in Southend on Sea (117.4), Ilford (89.6), Ealing (85.4), Acton (52.4), Coventry (52.0), Wallasey (46.5), and Kings Norton and Northfield (42.1). A number of the towns showing the largest increases really constitute portions of "Greater London" (see the analysis of the Population of the "Outer Ring" on page xv.). The same remark holds good of Southend on Sea, which may almost be regarded as one of London's eastern suburbs. In 41 towns the rate of increase was less than 10 per cent.: these include some of the largest towns, such as West Ham (8.1), Liverpool (6.0), Bristol (5.3), Leeds (3.9), and Birmingham (0.5). The remaining four towns actually declined in population, viz.: London (0.3), Aston Manor (3.0), Halifax (3.2), and Hastings (6.7 per cent.).

A remarkable feature of the Table is the decline in the rate of growth as compared with that in the ten years from 1891 to 1901. The population of the 98 towns in the aggregate increased in the period 1901-1911 by 8.7 per cent, as compared with 15.3 per cent, in the preceding period. In the case of 19 towns only was the rate of increase higher in the second period; of these Coventry and Swansea are striking examples. On the other hand, West Hartlepool, Plymouth, Reading, East Ham, Walthamstow and Ilford are instances in the opposite direction.

It is obvious that a falling off in the-rate of increase, or even an actual diminution of the population resident within the limits of a town, does not necessarily imply any corresponding decline in its prosperity. Unless the boundaries of the town are periodically adjusted, the relation between its area and its population must constantly alter as the latter increases. Thus, as the population resident within the boundaries of the town approaches more and more nearly that density which under the local circumstances may be regarded as the point of saturation, the tendency is for further increase to slacken within, and probably to accelerate without, the town limits, simply because there is less and less room left within for new buildings. This tendency has been markedly accentuated in the past decennium by the provision of improved means of transportation, enabling the city worker to enjoy the advantages of residence outside the city limits. If at the same time overcrowded slum areas are rebuilt with more generous provision of light and air, and if residences are, owing to increasing site value, replaced by railways, warehouses and business premises in the central portion of the town, it may well be that even an actual decrease in population represents not decrease, but increase of the town's prosperity. The growth of large urban communities can only be measured by considering jointly the population of the central area and of all its suburbs, whether the latter do or do not happen to be under the same local government as the central area.

The cases of Birmingham, Liverpool and Manchester illustrate this. The population of the City of Birmingham, as constituted at the date of the Census of 1911, was 525,960, an increase of 0.5 per cent., on the numbers returned at the Census of 1901. Since the taking of the Census, the Provisional Order for the extension of the City has been con- firmed by Parliament and the population of the whole of the area to be included within the new City amounts to 840,372; at the Census of 1901, 759,059 persons were enumerated within the same area. The rate of increase within the limits of the City as extended is therefore 10.7 per cent.

The population of the City of Liverpool, as constituted at the date of the Census of 1911, was 746,566, an increase of 6.0 percent, on the numbers returned at the enumeration of 1901. Within an area comprising the City of Liverpool, the County Boroughs of Bootle and Birkenhead, the Municipal Borough of Wallasey, the Urban Districts of Litherland, Waterloo with Seaforth, Great Crosby, Little Crosby, Higher Bebington, and Lower Bebington, and the Civil Parish of West Derby Rural, no fewer than 1,095,558 persons were enumerated, showing an increase of 112,826 in the decennium, or 11.5 per cent.: nearly double the rate recorded for the City alone.

During the past intercensal period, the City of Manchester had been extended by the addition of the Urban Districts of Moss Side, Withington, Gorton, and Levenshulme, and part of Prestwich. The population of the City as constituted in 1911 was 714,427; this total shows an increase of 69,554, or 10.8 per cent, on the numbers returned at the preceding Census. If, however, we take the City boundaries as constituted in 1901, the increase of population in the past intercensal period amounted to only 24,785 persons, or 4.6 per cent.

Difference between estimated and enumerated population. — Reference has been made on page v. to the method by which the provisional estimates of population for England and Wales as a whole are framed for publication year by year in the Registrar-General's Reports. It was shown that this method would have overstated the population at the time of the recent Census by 1.13 per cent.; and reasons were given for hoping that it may in future be possible to abandon the assumption of a constant rate of increase, and to frame more accurate estimates by the help of current statistics of births, deaths, and inward and outward passenger movement.

As regards local areas, provisional estimates have hitherto been based on the last intercensal increase in the several areas, and adjusted so that the total of the local estimates shall correspond with the estimate for the whole country. As on previous occasions, the Census results have shown many of the estimates for towns to be seriously in error; it is obvious that the more the rate of change of a population in the decennium 1901-1911 has differed from the rate in the preceding decennium, the greater must be the error of the estimate. Notable instances of this among 77 great towns are afforded by Huddersfield, Swansea, and Coventry which increased more rapidly in 1901-1911 than in 1891-1901, with the result that their populations in 1911 were under-estimated by 12.5, 13.8, and 22.9 per cent, respectively; and by Walthamstow, Hornsey, East Ham, and West Hartlepool, which increased less rapidly in 1901-1911 than in 1891-1901, with the result that their populations in 1911 were over-estimated by 17.2, 19.5, 21.2 and 31.3 per cent. respectively.

The over-estimation of the West Hartlepool population led to its death-rate for the 13 weeks ended 1st April, 1911, being stated as 11.4 instead of 15.0, and its birth-rate as 22.5 instead of 29.5. Conversely, owing to the under-estimation of the population of Coventry its true death-rate of 16.0 was stated as 20.7 and its birth-rate of 27.2.as 35.3.

The following is a general summary of the results relating to these 77 towns:—

Number of Towns. Aggregate Population
of Towns.
      Error of Estimate for 1911.
15 2,356,857   Under 2 per cent.
18 2,658,817   2 per cent. and under 5 per cent.
20* 8,028,133   5 per cent. and under 10 per cent.
15 2,068,368   10 per cent. and under 15 per cent.
6 740,207   15 per cent. and under 20 per cent.
3 305,693   Over 20 per cent.

* Including London.

The method of estimating by births, deaths and migration is not practicable in the case of portions of the country, since no records are made of internal migration. Other methods of more or less complexity based on local data hare been suggested, and will be considered with a view to the possibility of their adoption. Of the local data which might be used, the best on the whole would appear to be the rate book records if these were kept with a view to showing the number of inhabited tenements in a form more suitable for the purpose.

In the case of the Metropolitan Boroughs, estimates based on data of this kind have been framed for many years for the purpose of the London (Equalization of Rates) Act, 1894, and there is reason to believe that in the course of those years the accuracy of the data has been much increased. These estimates for the year 1910 are on the whole much more nearly consistent with the results of the Census of 1911 than are the estimates prepared by the old method. The total error in the population of London is only about half that by the old method; and in a majority of the Boroughs the separate errors do not reach 5 per cent. of the population. In a few cases, however, the method fails, presumably on account of changes in the housing conditions since the Census of 1901. One of the most noticeable failures is in the case of Wandsworth Borough, the population of which is over-estimated nearly 10 per cent, by a calculation based on inhabited houses and dwellings, while it is almost accurately given by the old method. Other cases of failure are those of the City of Westminster, and the boroughs of Finsbury, Woolwich, Lewisham and Greenwich, in all but the last named of which better results are obtained by the old method. These instances serve to show that the best devised methods for estimating populations of local areas cannot be considered trustworthy in the later years of a decennium, even under the most favourable circumstances. They therefore emphasise the importance of more frequent Census enumerations, not only in the interest of vital statistics and sanitary progress, but also for the purpose of ensuring the proper distribution of public funds when this is to be determined by the number of the population.

London. —Reference to Table IX, page 114, will show that the population of the area now covered by the Administrative County of London had increased in the 100 years 1801-1901 from 959,310 to 4,536,267. The population enumerated at the Census of 1911 numbered 4,522,961, showing for the first time an actual decrease.

In the decennium 1871-1881 the rate of increase had been 17.4 per cent., in the decennium 1881-1891 it fell to 10.4 per cent., in the decennium 1891-1901 it further fell to 7.3 per cent., and in the last intercensal period an actual decrease of 0.3 per cent. took place.

Table J on the next page shows the population enumerated at the three past Censuses in the Administrative County of London, in each Metropolitan Borough and in the City of London: and also the rates of increase and decrease in the two intercensal periods. The figures for 1891 and 1901 relate to the Boroughs as constituted in 1911.

London furnishes the most remarkable instance of decline of population in the central portions of large Cities. Attention has been drawn in previous Census Reports to the gradual decentralisation of its population: it was pointed out that in the centre of London was a group of districts in which the population had long been decreasing, owing to the substitution of business premises, warehouses, &c., for dwelling-houses, that around this central area was a circle of districts the population of which was increasing, the increase, generally speaking, being more marked in the districts furthest removed from the centre, and that outside the County of London, was a zone of suburban districts in which the population was increasing with extraordinary rapidity.

The process of decentralisation, which at first affected the inner districts of London only, has gradually affected a much wider area until in 1901-1911 only nine of the 28 Metropolitan Boroughs showed an increase of population. These Boroughs, which it will be seen are mainly those farthest removed from the centre, are Hampstead, Hackney, Fulham, Hammersmith, Wandsworth, Camberwell, Greenwich, Lewisham, and Woolwich.

TABLE J.

Boroughs arranged in order of their
Increase or Decrease, 1901-1911.
POPULATION. Increase (+) or
Decrease (-) per cent. in
Intercensal Period.
1891. 1901. 1911. Between
1891-1901.
Between
1901-1911.
Administrative County of London 4,227,954 4,536,267 4,522,961 +7.3 -0.3
           
Wandsworth 155,490 231,922 311,402 +49.2 +34.3
Lewisham 88,933 127,495 160,843 +43.4 +26.2
Fulham 91,790 137,289 153,325 +49.6 +11.7
Hammersmith 97,283 112,239 121,603 +15.4 +8.3
Hampstead 68,126 81,942 85,510 +20.3 +4.4
Woolwich 98,994 117,178 121,403 +18.4 +3.6
Hackney 199,277 219,110 222,587 +10.0 +1.6
Camberwell 233,706 259,339 261,357 +11.0 +0.8
Greenwich 78,493 95,770 95,977 +22.0 +0.2
Battersea 150,166 168,907 167,793 +12.5 -0.7
Deptford 101,770 110,398 109,498 +8.5 -0.8
Paddington 135,955 143,976 142,576 +5.9 -0.1
Stoke Newington 47,988 51,247 50,683 +6.8 -1.1
Bethnal Green 129,123 129,680 128,282 +0.4 -1.1
Lambeth 278,393 301,895 298,126 +8.4 -1.2
Islington 319,155 334,991 327,423 +5.0 -2.3
Kensington 170,071 176,628 172,402 +3.9 -2.4
Bermondsey 136,014 130,760 125,960 -3.9 -3.7
Poplar 166,880 168,822 162,449 +1.2 -3.8
Shoreditch 124,533 118,637 111,463 -4.7 -6.0
Stepney 285,116 298,600 280,024 +4.7 -6.2
Southwark 202,479 206,180 191,951 +1.8 -6.9
St. Pancras 235,345 235,317 218,453 -0.0 -7.2
Chelsea 72,954 73,842 66,404 +1.2 -10.1
St. Marylebone 143,487 133,301 118,221 -7.1 -11.3
Westminister, City of 201,969 183,011 160,277 -9.4 -12.4
Finsbury 109,981 101,463 87,976 -7.7 -13.3
Holborn 66,781 59,405 49,336 -11.0 -16.9
City of London 37,702 26,923 19,657 -28.6 -27.0

Greater London and the Outer Ring. —Outside the Administrative County of London is a wide belt of suburban Towns and Districts conveniently designated the "Outer Ring"; this Outer Ring together with the County of London constitutes "Greater London." It will be seen from the subjoined Table that the inhabitants of Greater London now exceed seven and a quarter millions, and although the growth in the decennium 1901-1911 was less than in the preceding decennia, it amounted to more than 670,000 persons or 10.2 per cent.

In the Outer King, the increase of population had been about 50 per cent, in each of the three intercensal periods between 1861 and 1891, and 45 per cent, in the period 1891-1901. In the last intercensal period it fell to 33 per cent.: this, however, represents a numerical addition of 684,867 persons, an addition greater than that in any previous intercensal period, and considerably more than the entire population of the Outer Ring fifty years ago.

TABLE K.

POPULATION. Rates of Increase or Decrease per cent.
1861. 1871. 1881. 1891. 1901. 1911. 1861
to
1871.
1871
to
1881.
1881
to
1891.
1891
to
1901.
1901
to
1911.
1861
to
1911.
Administrative County of London 2,808,494 3,261,396 3,830,297 4,227,954 4,536,267 4,522,961 16.1 17.4 10.4 7.3 -0.3 61.0
Outer Ring 414,226 624,245 936,364 1,405,852 2,045,135 2,730,002 50.7 50.0 50.1 45.5 33.5 559.1
Greater London* 3,222,720 3,885,641 4,766,661 5,633,806 6,581,402 7,252,963 20.6 22.7 18.2 16.8 10.2 125.1

* Corresponding with the City of London and Metropolitan Police Districts and with the Greater London of the Registrar General's Returns.

TABLE L.

Population. Increase per cent. in
Intercensal Period
1891. 1901. 1911. 1891-1901. 1901-1911.
In SURREY:          
Urban Districts with population exceeding 20,000:—          
Croydon C.B. 102,695 133,895 169,559 30.4 26.6
Wimbledon M.B. 25,777 41,652 54,876 61.6 31.7
Kingston upon Thames M.B. 27,059 34,375 37,977 27.0 10.5
Richmond M.B. 26,875 31,672 33,223 17.8 4.9
Barnes U.D. 14,673 17,821 30,379 21.5 70.5
Sutton U.D. 13,977 17,223 21,275 23.2 23.5
Other Urban Districts 46,951 57,981 91,426 23.5 57.7
Rural Parishes 37,786 50,024 87,592 32.4 75.1
TOTAL 295,793 384,643 526,307 30.0 36.8
           
In KENT:          
Urban Districts with population exceeding 20,000:—          
Bromley M.B. 21,684 27,397 33,649 26.3 22.8
Beckenham U.D. 20,707 26,288 31,693 27.0 20.6
Erith U.D. 13,414 25,296 27,755 88.6 9.7
Penge U.D. 20,375 22,465 22,331 10.3 -0.6
Other Urban Districts 21,952 27,825 33,057 26.8 18.8
Rural Parishes 18,989 21,795 23,855 14.8 9.5
TOTAL 117,121 151,066 172,340 29.0 14.1
           
In MIDDLESEX:          
Urban Districts with population exceeding 20,000:—          
Willesden U.D. 61,265 114,811 154,267 87.4 34.4
Tottenham U.D. 71,672 102,703 137,457 43.3 33.8
Hornsey M.B. 44,523 72,056 84,602 61.8 17.4
Edmonton U.D. 25,381 46,899 64,820 84.8 38.2
Ealing M.B. 23,979 33,031 61,235 37.7 85.4
Acton U.D. 24,206 37,744 57,523 55.9 52.4
Enfield U.D. 31,536 42,738 56,344 35.5 31.8
Wood Green U.D. 25,831 34,233 49,372 32.5 44.2
Heston and Isleworth U.D. 26,004 30,863 43,316 18.7 40.3
Finchley U.D. 16,647 22,126 39,425 32.9 78.2
Hendon U.D. 15,843 22,450 38,806 41.7 72.9
Chiswick U.D. 21,963 29,809 38,705 35.7 29.8
Southgate U.D. 10,970 14,993 33,613 36.7 124.2
Twickenham U.D. 16,027 20,991 29,374 31.0 39.9
Southall Norwood U.D. 7,896 13,200 26,327 67.2 99.4
Other Urban Districts 88,827 116,571 163,370 31.2 40.1
Rural Parishes 30,653 37,258 48,138 21.5 29.2
TOTAL 543,223 792,476 1,126,694 45.9 42.2
           
In HERTFORDSHIRE:          
Urban Districts 29,895 37,431 45,390 25.2 21.3
Rural Districts 6,141 7,305 9,519 19.0 30.3
TOTAL 36,036 44,736 54,909 24.1 22.7
           
In ESSEX:          
Urban Districts with population exceeding 20,000:—          
West Ham C.B. 204,903 267,358 289,102 30.5 8.1
East Ham M.B. 32,703 96,008 133,504 193.6 39.1
Leyton U.D. 63,106 98,912 124,736 56.7 26.1
Walthamstow U.D. 46,346 95,131 124,597 105.3 31.0
Ilford U.D. 10,922 41,244 78,205 277.6 89.6
Barking Town U.D. 14,301 21,547 31,302 50.7 45.3
Other Urban Districts 34,880 43,415 57,630 24.5 32.7
Rural Parishes 6,518 8,599 10,676 31.9 24.2
TOTAL 413,679 672,214 849,752 62.5 26.4
           
Total Urban Districts in Outer Ring 1,305,765 1,920,154 2,550,222 47.1 32.8
Total Rural Parishes in Outer Ring 100,087 124,981 179,780 24.9 43.8
TOTAL OUTER RING 1,405,852 2,045,135 2,730,002 45.5 33.5

Table L on the previous page shows the constitution of the "Outer Ring" by Urban and Rural Districts at each of the last three Censuses, showing separately those Urban Districts with populations in excess of 20,000 in 1911. The figures relate to the areas as constituted at the date of the Census of 1911.

Analysis of the Population Returns for the "Outer Ring" shows that while the population in the towns increased from 1,920,154 in 1901 to 2,550,222 in 1911, the population in the rural portion of the "Outer Ring" increased from 124,981 to 179,780; of this increase of 54,799 no less than 14,591 occurred in the rural parish of Mitcham.

Parliamentary Areas. —The number of members of the House of Commons for the- 468 Parliamentary areas in England and Wales, not including the Universities, being 490, and the enumerated population in England and Wales being 36,075,269, an equal numerical distribution would give one member to 73,623 persons. How far the actual representation departs in either direction from this average is shown in the following Table:—

TABLE M.

Constituencies having the following Population
per Representative.
Total
Population.
Number of Electors,
including Ownership
Electors, Occupation
Voters, Lodgers,
Freemen, and Free-
holders, but exclusive
of those for the
Universities.*
Number
of
Con-
stituencies.
Number
of
Repre-
sentatives.
100,000 and upwards 11,275,644 1,901,703 83 86
90,000 and under 100,000 3,119,909 542,727 33 33
80,000 and under 90,000 4,060,866 676,600 46 48
70,000 and under 80,000 3,952,368 695,037 50 53
60,000 and under 70,000 4,729,832 843,859 70 73
50,000 and under 60,000 4,828,431 918,794 85 88
40,000 and under 50,000 2,739,796 531,274 57 60
30,000 and under 40,000 824,607 151,350 20 23
20,000 and under 30,000 398,674 73,133 16 17
10,000 and under 20,000 125,485 22,251 7 7
Under 10,000 (City of London) 19,657 30,988 1 2
  36,075,269 6,387,716 468 490

* Furnished by Home Office.

NOTE.— Where an undivided constituency is represented by two members, each member is reckoned in the above Table as representing half the population of the entire constituency, which is classified acordingly.

Of the total population in England and Wales in 1911, 54.4 per cent were resident in Parliamentary counties and 45.6 per cent, in Parliamentary boroughs, while the proportions of electors in these Counties and Boroughs were respectively 58.7 and 41.3 per cent.

There are eight constituencies in which the population per member is under 20,000, viz.:—

The Parliamentary Boroughs of— Population, 1911.
Durham 15,956
Bury St. Edmunds 16,785
Montgomery (District of Boroughs) 16,814
Penryn and Falmouth 17,624
Whitehaven 18,575
New Windsor 19,840
Salisbury 19,891
   
City of London (two members) 19,657

On the other hand, there are no fewer than 83 constituencies in which the number of inhabitants per member is 100,000 or more; extreme examples of such are shown in Table N on the next page.

TABLE N.

Boroughs and Divisions of Boroughs. Population, 1911. Divisions of Counties. Population, 1911.
Wandsworth 253,797 Southern or Romford Division
  of Essex
312,864
    Harrow Division of Middlesex 247,877
South Division of West Ham 187,285 Southern Western or Walthamstow
  Division of Essex
246,807
    Tottenham Division of Middlesex 186,661
Cardiff, District of Boroughs 185,881 Enfield Division of Middlesex 180,100
    Bootle Division of Lancashire 167,528
Croydon 169,559 Eastern Division of Glamorgan-
  shire
164,816
Lewisham 160,972 North Eastern or Wimbledon
  Division of Surrey
160,203
    Handsworth Division of Stafford-
  shire
159,794
Fulham 153,360 Ealing Division of Middlesex 159,727

It may be noted that in 1891 there were only seven constituencies with populations exceeding 100,000; in 1901 the number had risen to 41; and in 1911 it further rose to 83.

Numbers of Families. —The numbers of families or separate occupiers given throughout these Tables are equivalent to the numbers of Schedules collected. For Census purposes, a family may consist of a private household, occupying the whole or part of a house or flat, a lodger or lodgers (not boarding with a family), the inmates collectively of a boarding-house, hotel, club, large business establishment, barrack, institution, ship, &c.

The number of Schedules collected in 1911 was 8,018,857, as compared with 7,036,868 in 1901, an increase of 981,989, or 14.0 per cent. In 1901, the increase from the previous Census was 14.8 per cent., which was considerably greater than that of the population, namely 12.2 per cent.

Sexes. —Of the 36,075,269 persons enumerated in England and Wales in 1911, 17,448,476 were males and 18,626,793 were females. This gives an excess of 1,178,317 females over males, which would, however, be considerably reduced if the English and Welsh members of the Army and Navy and of the Merchant Service abroad were included in the reckoning.

The proportion of females to males in the population of England and Wales was 1,057 to 1,000 in 1801; it then declined Census after Census, though with some irregularity, down to 1851, when it stood at 1,042 to 1,000. But after that a change in the opposite direction set in, and up to 1901 there was a slight but continuous, increase in the proportion of females to males.

The proportion of females to males was the same in 1911 as in 1901, viz., 1,068 to 1,000, but when due allowance is made for the number of males absent on military service in South Africa in the last-named year there is no doubt that the true proportion of females to males was somewhat lower in 1901 than in 1911.

The sex distribution of the population differs very greatly in different parts of the country. The following are the ten Registration Counties in which the proportion of females was lowest and the ten in which it was highest:—

PROPORTION OF FEMALES TO 1,000 MALES.

Lowest. Highest.
Monmouthshire 912 Sussex 1,218
Glamorganshire 924 Cardiganshire 1,211
Flintshire 967 Cornwall 1,162
Rutlandshire 973 Gloucestershire 1,157
Durham 985 Somersetshire 1,145
Carmarthenshire 987 Middlesex 1,140
Radnorshire 990 Surrey 1,136
Brecknockshire 991 Carnarvonshire 1,128
Denbighshire 1,003 London 1,126
Wiltshire 1,005 Worcestershire 1,117

The United Kingdom. —So far we have dealt with the population in England and Wales, that is to say, that portion of the United Kingdom in which the enumeration was carried out under our superintendence. It will, however, be convenient if we give here a summary of the enumeration as carried out in the United Kingdom as a whole. We are enabled to do this by the courtesy of the Registrars-General for Scotland and Ireland, who furnished us in advance with the provisional figures for those parts of the United Kingdom.

The first complete Census of the United Kingdom was taken in 1821, and the following Tables shows that there has been considerable variation in the intercensal growth of population during the past 90 years.

TABLE O.

Census
Year.
POPULATION.* Increase (+) or Decrease (-) per cent.
in each Intercensal Period.
United
King-
dom
England Wales? Scotland Ireland Uni-
ted
King-
dom
Eng-
land
Wales Scot-
land
Ire-
land
1821 20,893,584 11,281,957 718,279 2,091,521 6,801,827
1831 24,028,584 13,090,615 806,182 2,364,386 7,767,401 +15.0 +16.0 +12.2 +13.0 +14.2
1841 26,730,929 15,002,250? 911,898? 2,620,184 8,196,597 +11.2 +14.6 +13.1 +10.8 +5.5
1851 27,390,629 16,921,972 1,005,637 2,888,742 6,574,278 +2.5 +12.8 +10.3 +10.2 -19.8
1861 28,927,485 18,954,534 1,111,690 3,062,294 5,798,967 +5.6 +12.0 +10.5 +6.0 -11.8
1871 31,484,661 21,495,219 1,217,047 3,360,018 5,412,377 +8.8 +13.4 +9.5 +9.7 -6.7
1881 34,884,848 24,614,001 1,360,438 3,735,573 5,174,836 +10.8 +14.5 +11.8 +11.2 -4.4
1891 37,732,922 27,483,551 1,518,974 4,025,647 4,704,750 +8.2 +11.7 +11.7 +7.8 -9.1
1901 41,458,721 30,807,310 1,720,533 4,472,103 4,458,775 +9.9 +12.1 +13.3 +11.1 -5.2
1911 45,216,665 34,043,076 2,032,193 4,759,445 4,381,951 +9.1 +10.5 +18.1 +6.4 -1.7

* The figures for 1821 and 1831 are exclusive of the Army, Navy, and Merchant Service at home. This has not been taken into account in computing the rate of increase 1831-1841.

? For the purpose of this Table the boundaries of the Principality of Wales are taken as defined in the reign of Henry VIII.

? These figures have been proportionately adjusted to include 5,016 persons who were travelling on Railways and Canals on the night of the Census of 1841, but who were not apportioned to Counties in the Census Volume for that year.

As will be seen from the preceding Table the total number of persons returned as living in the United Kingdom at midnight on Sunday, April 2nd, 1911, was 45,216,665. This total shows an increase of 3,757,944 or 9.1 per cent. upon the number returned at the previous enumeration of April, 1901. It will be observed that the rate of increase of population in the United Kingdom in 1901-11 was 0.8 per cent. below that in the previous decennium, due to the fact that neither in England nor in Scotland was the rate of increase so high as in 1891-1901. On the other hand, the growth of population in Wales was greater, and in Ireland the decrease of population was less, than in any of the previous six decennia.

While the populations of England, Wales, and Scotland have shown continuous increases during the past 90 years, that of Ireland, which had risen to over eight millions in 1841, has since that date shown a continuous decrease. The marked variations in the rate of increase of the population of the United Kingdom are largely due to the decrease of population in Ireland. The remarkable fall in the rate of increase in the population of the United Kingdom, viz.: from 11.2 per cent, in 1831-1841 to 2.5 per cent, in 1841-1851 was almost entirely accounted for by the loss in the latter decennium of over one and a half millions of the population of Ireland. The gradual rise in the rate of increase in the population of the United Kingdom in the successive Censuses 1861-1881 was to a large extent due to the fact that the decrease in the population of Ireland, which in 1841-1851 was at the rate of 19.8 per cent., had become less and less in each succeeding decennium, until it fell to 4.4 per cent, in 1871-1881. In the next decennium, however, the proportionate decrease in the population of Ireland rose to 9.1 per cent.: it fell again in 1891-1901 to 5.2 per cent., and further fell to 1.7 per cent, in the last intercensal period, a rate of decrease less than any recorded since 1851.

The following Table shows the proportion per cent. of the population of the United Kingdom in its different divisions at each Census, 1821-1911:-

TABLE P.

1821. 1831. 1841. 1851. 1861. 1871. 1881. 1891. 1901. 1911.
England 54.0 54.5 56.1 61.8 65.6 68.2 70.6 72.8 74.3 75.3
Wales 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.5
Scotland 10.0 9.8 9.8 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.7 10.7 10.8 10.5
Ireland 32.6 32.3 30.7 24.0 20.0 17.2 14.8 12.5 10.8 9.7

England now contains over 75 per cent. of the population of the United Kingdom, Scotland rather more and Ireland rather less than 10 per cent., while Wales contains the remaining 4 per cent. In the early part of last century Ireland contained nearly a third of the population of the United Kingdom, but the proportion has steadily declined until at the recent Census it was only 9.7 per cent.

Islands in the British Seas. —The Census in these Islands was taken on the same day as in England and Wales, Scotland and Ireland, and related to all persons alive at midnight on 2nd April, 1911. The Schedules and other necessary documents, after approval by the Secretary of State for the Home Department, were supplied from the English Census Office, while the conduct of the Census was undertaken by the Authorities of the several Islands.

TABLE Q.

Census
Year.
ENUMERATED POPULATION. Increase + or Decrease - per cent. in each
Intercensal Period
Islands
in the
British Seas.
Isle of Man. Jersey. Guernsey
and adjacent
Islands.
Islands
in the
British Seas.
Isle of Man. Jersey. Guernsey
and adjacent
Islands.
1821 89,508 40,081 28,600 20,827
1831 103,710 41,000 36,582 26,128 +15.9 +2.3 +27.9 +25.5
1841 124,040 47,975 47,544 28,521 +19.6 +17.0 +30.0 +9.2
1851 143,126 52,387 57,020 33,719 +15.4 +9.2 +19.9 +18.2
1861 143,447 52,469 55,613 35,365 +0.2 +0.2 -2.5 +4.9
1871 144,638 54,042 56,627 33,969 +0.8 +3.0 +1.8 -3.9
1881 141,260 53,558 52,445 35,257 -2.3 -0.9 -7.4 +3.8
1891 147,842 55,608 54,518 37,716 +4.7 +3.8 +4.0 +7.0
1901 150,370 54,752 52,576 43,042 +1.7 -1.5 -3.6 +14.1
1911 148,934 52,034 51,093 44,997 -1.0 -5.0 -1.3 +4.5

The aggregate population of the Islands in the British Seas (i.e. Isle of Man and Channel Islands) at the recent Census amounted to 148,934, which was less by 1,436 than the number enumerated in 1901; the decrease in the ten years was only 1 per cent.

Isle of Man. —The population enumerated in the Isle of Man which had been 55,608 in 1891 declined to 54,752 in 1901, and further declined to 52,034 at the recent Census, showing a decrease in the past intercensal period of 5.0 per cent.

Channel Islands. —In Jersey the population decreased from 54,518 in 1891 to 52,576 in 1901, and further decreased to 51,903 in 1911, showing a decrease in the past intercensal period of 1.3 per cent. In Guernsey (including the adjacent islands of Alderney, Sark, Herm, and Jethou) the population which has shown an increase at each succeeding Census since 1871, rose from 43,042 in 1901 to 44,997 in 1911, an increase of 4.5 per cent.

Form of Presentation of Census Results. —Two different methods have been adopted for publishing the results of the more recent Censuses.

These are (1), the issue of volumes each dealing with the whole country, and containing information upon certain subjects only, and (2), the issue of volumes each dealing with a section of the country only, but containing all the information tabulated with regard to that section. Both methods were kept in view in reporting upon the Censuses of 1891 and 1901, but whereas the first method was principally employed in 1891, the second was adopted in 1901. The results of the Census of that year were issued in the form of county volumes, each dealing completely with the returns from a separate county, but with the addition of a volume of Summary Tables presenting a certain amount of the most important information only for the country, as a whole, and of a Report commenting generally upon the results of the Census.

Both methods of publication present very definite advantages, to secure which it appears desirable that each should in large measure be employed. After carefully weighing the advantages of each method as the primary (and principal) form of publication, we have decided to revert to the practice of issuing in the first place volumes relating to the whole country, but dealing with particular subjects only. At a somewhat later date, volumes will be issued which, to meet the convenience of those interested in particular localities only, will relate to separate counties or groups of counties, and will collate the information regarding these from the various subject volumes.

The subject volumes will be divided into two groups, the volumes of the first group dealing severally with the populations of various classes of area, as administrative, poor law and registration, parliamentary and ecclesiastical areas. Each of the volumes of the second group will deal with a separate branch or branches of social statistics, such as age and civil condition, occupation, birth-place, infirmities, housing, and fertility. These statistics will be classified mainly by administrative areas.

Census of the British Empire. —Our final task will be to present a Report on the Census taken this year throughout the British Empire, somewhat on the lines of the Report of the Census of 1901 (Cd. 2660, 1906) which for the first time afforded authoritative statistics for the Empire as a whole. With the object of securing more complete and uniform information than was available on that occasion, we entered into communication with, the Colonial Office more than two years ago; and great care has been taken to impress upon the Governments of the various Dominions, Colonies and Protectorates the desirability of a Census of some kind being taken, as far as possible simultaneously, in every part of the Empire, to direct attention to the subjects which are of importance in an imperial comparison, and to supply suggestions and instructions applicable to special conditions. We hope that the effect of these measures will be both to facilitate the preparation of the Report and to increase its usefulness and interest.

We have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your most obedient Servants,

BERNARD MALLET, Registrar-General.
A.C. WATERS.
T. H. C. STEVENSON.

ARCHER BELLINGHAM, Secretary.

T. A. SAUNDERS,
J. W. READING, Assistant Secretaries.


1 See also pages xii and xiii.

2 Including the Administrative County of London, which for the purpose of this section is reckoned as one district.

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