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Services in 2001 for District/Unitary Authority
'Services' cover a very wide range of activities, obviously including shops, hotels
and catering, but also financial services and most government activity,
including health care and defence.
In 2001, two-thirds of all workers were in this sector.
We tend to think of the service sector as a 20th century creation, but even in 1841 almost as
many workers were employed in services as in manufacturing,
and both were substantially larger than agriculture.
This may seem surprising, especially when you realise that many people who worked in shops
but also made what they sold are classified as 'manufacturing'.
However, it reflects the enormous number of domestic servants, mainly women, working not
just in the houses of the rich but also in most middle class households and even
for the best paid skilled manual workers.
This is reflected in the geography of services in 1841. Some districts were as dominated by this sector as the textile towns of Lancashire and Yorkshire were by manufacturing. Within London, 58% of Westminster's workers were in services, and 56% of Kensington and Chelsea, and Hammersmith and Fulham. Outside London, services employed 54% of Cheltenham's workers and 51% of Brighton's. Concentrations of military personnel explain why 53% of Medway's workers were in the sector, 52% of Greenwich's and 51% of Gosport's. Meanwhile, factory towns like Blackburn and Oldham had under 15% of their workers in services, with obvious consequences for their quality of life.
Over time, the sector grew in size but its basic geography has altered little. People sometimes speak as if services cannot provide an economic base for a locality, unlike manufacturing or agriculture, but this is clearly untrue of many areas of modern Britain. Firstly, even services which rely on face-to-face contact with customers form the main economic basis for tourist areas, such as seaside resorts. Other areas benefit from concentrations of government spending, and both the armed forces and the Civil Service are concentrated around London. Perhaps most important of all, London's financial sector sells its services to the world, explaining why financial services are a substantially larger sector of Britain's economy than in other European countries.
The "Statistical atlas" lets you view our British statistical data rates by theme in their entirety as maps for both modern local authorities and historical units.
Please note that although there are some statistics within the system relating to places outside Great Britain, particularly Ireland, the majority of our statistics are British and this is reflected in the presentation of data within the Statistical atlas.
The Statistical atlas presents national views of rates. This differs from the specific numeric data for individual administrative units presented in the "Units & Statistics" part of the place pages accessed via typing in a place-name on the homepage.
Select a theme by clicking on a theme title. You must then decide whether you wish to view data for modern local authorities or historical units. At the top of the theme page are the links to rate maps for modern units. Select one to enter the atlas. Alternatively, at the bottom of the theme page are links to maps of rates only available in their historical units.
After selecting a rate we are presented with the map page showing the selected rate. On the left hand side is the map legend and some generic subject information about the theme. Below the text is a link to the "Rate definition" which takes you out of the statistical atlas and into the description of the nCube for that theme within the data documentation system.
Beneath this are various "Options" for altering the mapped rate. With the exception of the "Political Life" theme, drop down menus exist to change the mapped rate or to select an alternative unit type. All themes have the option to select alternative dates. Selecting a different date will change the map to display re-districted data i.e. statistics which are estimates for the same (modern) geographical area going back over time. More information on how this was achieved is available here.
The map window on the right can be zoomed and panned. Using the drop down menu at the top left of the map window you can select and add a "base layer" map image beneath the transparent statistical map to help you understand the geography of the rates. The window itself can be expanded to see a bigger map using the "Bigger map" option at the top right of the map window. If this function is enabled, the information given on the left will automatically move to below the map.
The statistics come from national overviews, including Censuses, Surveys and other collated tables. You should be aware that the same information was not always collected, the questions change over time to suit contemporary conditions. For example, in the 2011 Census English households were asked about their car ownership, but this would have been of little relevance in 1921 when very few people owned their own vehicle. Conversely, the 1951 question about whether your household had shared access or no access to piped water has disappeared because it is now assumed that all, or virtually all, households will have exclusive use of a piped hot water supply. This is why not all themes have data in all years, the dates available vary according to the questions asked.
We should also point out that we have not digitised all possible historical statistics. Although we have gone a significant way to capturing and integrating suitable tables useful for our themes, this is a labour intensive and time-consuming process. We have tried to focus on particular tables to produce runs of data and in this sense the "Population" theme is the fullest. We continue to work on improving the data, both in its consistency and its accuracy as well as its extent.